A bustle is a padded undergarment used to add fullness, or support the drapery, at the back of women's dresses in the mid-to-late 19th century. Bustles were worn under the skirt in the back, just below the waist, to keep the skirt from dragging. Heavy fabric tended to flatten it. Thus, a woman's petticoated or crinolined skirt would lose its shape during everyday wear; the word "bustle" has become synonymous with a protruding rear profile, for example a "bustleback" car. As the fashion for crinolines wore on, their shape changed. Instead of the large bell-like silhouette in vogue, they began to flatten out at the front and sides, creating more fullness at the back of the skirts. One type of crinoline, the crinolette, created a shape similar to the one produced by a bustle; the excess skirt fabric created by this alteration in shape was looped around to the back, again creating increased fullness The bustle developed into a feature of fashion on its own after the overskirt of the late 1860s was draped up toward the back and some kind of support was needed for the new draped shape.
Fullness of some sort was still considered necessary to make the waist look smaller and the bustle replaced the crinoline completely. The bustle was worn in different shapes for most of the 1870s and 1880s, with a short period of non-bustled, flat-backed dresses from 1878 to 1882. In the early stages of the fashion for the bustle, the fullness to the back of the skirts was carried quite low and fanned out to create a train; the transition from the voluminous crinoline enhanced skirts of the 1850s and 1860s can be seen in the loops and gathers of fabric and trimmings worn during this period. The bustle evolved into a much more pronounced humped shape on the back of the skirt below the waist, with the fabric of the skirts falling quite to the floor, changing the shape of the silhouette; the bustle reappeared in late 1881, was exaggerated to become a major fashion feature in the mid and late 1880s, in 1885 reaching preposterous proportions to modern eyes, as used in the play Arms and the Man by George Bernard Shaw.
The fashion for large bustles ended in 1889. The bustle survived into the 1890s and early 20th century as a skirt support was still needed and the stylish shape dictated a curve in the back of the skirt to balance the curve of the bust in front; the bustle had disappeared by 1905, as the long corset of the early 20th century was now successful in shaping the body to protrude behind. Bustles and bustle gowns are worn in contemporary society. Notable exceptions occur in the realm of bridal fashion and Lolita Fashion. A dress in the bustle style may be worn as a costume. For example, in 1993 Eiko Ishioka won an Academy Award for her costume designs from Bram Stoker's Dracula; the film features several extravagant bustle gowns created for female leads Winona Ryder and Sadie Frost.'Bustle' was the term used for an additional external space at the rear a tank's turret used for storing extra equipment, a notable usage being the added box at the rear of the turret on the Sherman Firefly variant. Its positioning on the vehicle resembling the similar placement of the bustle as used on the dress item.
In sailboat design, a'bustle' stern refers to any kind of stern that has a large "bustle" or blister at the waterline below the stern to prevent the stern from "squatting" when getting underway, or to a similar shape produced by the IOR measuring system in the late'70,'80 and early'90s. 1870s in fashion 1880s in fashion Corset Crinoline Victorian fashion Media related to Bustle dresses at Wikimedia Commons
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom, having financed the European coalition that defeated France during the Napoleonic Wars, developed a large Royal Navy that enabled the British Empire to become the foremost world power for the next century; the Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were small operations in a peaceful century. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century; the Great Irish Famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland and increased calls for Irish land reform. The 19th century was an era of rapid economic modernisation and growth of industry and finance, in which Britain dominated the world economy. Outward migration was heavy to the United States; the empire was expanded into much of South Asia. The Colonial Office and India Office ruled through a small number of administrators who managed the units of the empire locally, while democratic institutions began to develop.
British India, by far the most important overseas possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In overseas policy, the central policy was free trade, which enabled British and Irish financiers and merchants to operate in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. London formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, moved closer to the United States. Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland remained part of the Union, the state was renamed to the current "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" in 1927; the modern-day United Kingdom is the same country as the one from this period—a direct continuation of what remained after the secession—not an new successor state. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which occurred during the British war with revolutionary France.
The British government's fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801; the Irish had been led to believe by the British that their loss of legislative independence would be compensated with Catholic emancipation, that is, by the removal of civil disabilities placed upon Roman Catholics in both Great Britain and Ireland. However, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his government's attempts to introduce it. During the War of the Second Coalition, Britain occupied most of the French and Dutch overseas possessions, the Netherlands having become a satellite state of France in 1796, but tropical diseases claimed the lives of over 40,000 troops; when the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized. The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the city of Hanover, capital of the Electorate, a German-speaking duchy, in a personal union with the United Kingdom.
In May 1803, war was declared again. Napoleon's plans to invade Great Britain failed, chiefly due to the inferiority of his navy, in 1805 a Royal Navy fleet led by Nelson decisively defeated the French and Spanish at Trafalgar, the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System; this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. The British Army remained a minimal threat to France. Although the Royal Navy disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—it could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, but it was smaller in terms of industry, mercantile marine and naval strength.
Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. On the contrary Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in the world, its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions and the United States; the Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington pushed the French out of Spain, in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France. After Napoleon's surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. Napoleon reappeared in 1815; the Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blücher defeated Napoleon once and for all at Waterloo. To defeat France, Britain put heavy pressure on the Americans
An underwire bra is a brassiere that utilizes a thin, semi-circular strip of rigid material fitted inside the brassiere fabric. The wire may be made of plastic, or resin, it is sewn into the bra fabric and under each cup, from the center gore to under the wearer's armpit. The wire helps to lift, separate and support a woman's breasts. Many different brassiere designs incorporate an underwire, including shelf bras, demi bras, nursing bras, bras built into other articles of clothing, such as tank tops and swimsuits; the concept of an underwire can be traced to an 1893 patent that describes a breast supporting device using a rigid plate under the breasts for stability. The modern underwire bra was designed in the 1930s, gained widespread popularity by the 1950s; as of 2005, underwire bras were the fastest growing segment of the bra market. A bra without an underwire is a softcup bra. Underwire bras are linked to health conditions including breast pain and metal allergies. Women wearing an underwire bra have in a few rare instances been subjected to extra scrutiny when their bra set off metal detectors at security checkpoints in airports or prisons.
There have been a few recorded incidents where the underwire deflected a bullet or other weapon that struck the woman's chest. The precursor to the underwire bra can be traced back to at least 1893, when New Yorker Marie Tucek was granted a patent for a "breast supporter"; the breast supporter was described as a modification of the corset, was similar to a modern push-up bra designed to support the breasts. It consisted of a plate made of metal, cardboard, or other stiff material, shaped to fit against the torso under the breasts, following the contour of the breasts, it was covered with silk, canvas, or other cloth, which extended above the plate to form a pocket for each breast. The plate curved around the torso and ended near the armpits, held in place and adjusted to a snug fit by shoulder straps that crossed the back, forming an X-shape, it was secured with hook-and-eye closures. The underwire bra design took hold in the United States starting in the 1930s. Helene Pons received a patent in 1931 for a brassiere design that incorporated an "open-ended wire loop" that lay flat against the chest, encircling the bottom and sides of each breast.
A 1932 patent describes a U-shaped piece of wire used between the cups to keep the breasts separated. A patent issued in 1938 to Pauline Boris describes a "breast support" which used pieces of wire to encircle each breast. In 1940, Walter Emmett Williams was issued a patent which described a wire framework, shaped like a spiderweb, that encircles and covers each breast to provide support. Although development of the underwire bra started in the 1930s, it did not gain widespread popularity until the 1950s, when the end of World War II freed metal for domestic use. In the 1940s, Howard Hughes had an underwire push-up bra designed for Jane Russell to emphasize her breasts in The Outlaw. According to Russell, the "ridiculous" contraption was painful and she secretly wore her own bra during the movie; the brassiere is now in a Hollywood museum. With the popularity and widespread use of the underwire bra that started during the 1950s, the underwire was incorporated into many bra designs, underwire bras were built into other articles of clothing.
By 1990, Norma Kamali had incorporated underwire bras into both one- and two-piece swimsuits. Scott Lucretia was granted a patent for a camisole with an integrated underwire bra in 1989. Underwire bras accounted for 60% of the United Kingdom bra market in 2000 and 70% in 2005. In 2001, 500 million bras were sold in the United States, of which 70% were underwire bras; as of 2005, underwire bras were the fastest growing segment of the market. Underwire bras are built with a semi-circular "underwire", "bra wire", or "wire" embedded in the wire channel that circles the bottom and sides of each cup. One end, or head element, of the underwire is close to the front and center of the bra, the other close to the armhole; the underwire can be made of metal or molded plastic. Plastic underwire has a small share of the market because it does not provide the same support and rigidity offered by metal underwire. A metallic underwire is a thin strip of metal with a nylon coating at both ends. Metals used include a shape memory alloy.
According to underwire manufacturer S & S Industries of New York, which supplies underwire for bra makers such as Bali, Vanity Fair, Victoria's Secret, Warner's, other bra labels, about 70 percent of women who wear bras wear steel underwire bras. When the underwire breaks through the bra fabric, it can cause tremendous discomfort. Celebrity chef, television personality, businesswoman Clarissa Dickson Wright only wears a bra on special occasions. At her 50th birthday party, she was dancing when she felt a "terrifying pain in my chest." She thought she was having a heart attack. "The pain got more intense. I staggered off and discovered I'd broken my underwired bra."Because underwire can tear through cloth, most women hand-wash underwire bras or machine-wash them on a delicate cycle. Bra wash bags zippered mesh pouches, can be used to protect bras and prevent the underwire from separating from the bra during machine washing. In 2002, S & S Industries obtained a patent for an underwire design that includes a spring-loaded plastic cushion tip on one or both ends.
The spring is designed to keep the wire from poking through the bra. In 2008, Scott Dutton of Wales invented the "Bra Angel", a simple device to repair a bra when the underwire pops out of
A crinoline is a stiffened or structured petticoat designed to hold out a woman's skirt, popular at various times since the mid-19th century. Crinoline described a stiff fabric made of horsehair and cotton or linen, used to make underskirts and as a dress lining. By the 1850s the term crinoline was more applied to the fashionable silhouette provided by horsehair petticoats, to the hoop skirts that replaced them in the mid-1850s. In form and function these hoop skirts were similar to the 16th- and 17th-century farthingale and to 18th-century panniers, in that they too enabled skirts to spread wider and more fully; the steel-hooped cage crinoline, first patented in April 1856 by R. C. Milliet in Paris, by their agent in Britain a few months became popular. Steel cage crinolines were mass-produced in huge quantity, with factories across the Western world producing tens of thousands in a year. Alternative materials, such as whalebone, gutta-percha and inflatable caoutchouc were all used for hoops, although steel was the most popular.
At its widest point, the crinoline could reach a circumference of up to six yards, although by the late 1860s, crinolines were beginning to reduce in size. By the early 1870s, the smaller crinolette and the bustle had replaced the crinoline. Crinolines were worn by women of every social standing and class across the Western world, from royalty to factory workers; this led to widespread media scrutiny and criticism in satirical magazines such as Punch. They were hazardous if worn without due care. Thousands of women died in the mid-19th century. Alongside fire, other hazards included the hoops being caught in machinery, carriage wheels, gusts of wind, or other obstacles; the crinoline silhouette was revived several times in the 20th century in the late 1940s as a result of Christian Dior's "New Look" of 1947. The flounced nylon and net petticoats worn in the 1950s and 1960s to poof out skirts became known as crinolines when there were no hoops in their construction. In the mid-1980s Vivienne Westwood designed the mini-crini, a mini-length crinoline, influential on 1980s fashion.
Late 20th and early 21st century designers such as John Galliano and Alexander McQueen have become famous for their updated crinoline designs. Since the 1980s and well into the 21st century the crinoline has remained a popular option for formal evening dresses, wedding dresses, ball gowns; the name crinoline is described as a combination of the Latin word crinis and/or the French word crin. The crinoline was not the first garment designed to support the wearer's skirts in a fashionable shape. Whilst the bell-shaped skirts seen on statuettes from the ancient Minoan civilization are compared to crinolines under the assumption that hoops were required to retain their shape, there is no evidence to confirm this and the theory is dismissed; the crinoline's ancestors are more recognised as the Spanish verdugada known as the farthingale worn in Europe from the late 15th century to the early 17th century, the side-hoops and panniers worn throughout the 18th century. The horsehair fabric called crinoline was first noted by 1829, when it was offered for lining and dress-making.
That year, Rudolph Ackermann's Repository of Fashions described the new textile as a "fine clear stuff, not unlike in appearance to leno, but of a strong and durable description: it is made in different colours. By 1847, crinoline fabric was being used as a stiffening for skirt linings, although English women preferred separate crinoline fabric petticoats which were beginning to collapse under the increasing weight of the skirts. One alternative to horsehair crinoline was the quilted petticoat stuffed with down or feathers, such as that worn in 1842 by Lady Aylesbury. However, quilted skirts were not produced until the early 1850s. In about 1849, it was possible to buy stiffened and corded cotton fabric for making petticoats, marketed as'crinoline,' and designed as a substitute for the horsehair textile; the artificial crinoline with hoops did not emerge until the 1850s. The cage crinoline made out of spring steel wire was first introduced in the 1850s, with the earliest British patent for a metal crinoline granted in July 1856.
Alison Gernsheim suggests that the unidentified French inventor was R. C. Milliet of Besançon, as the July 1856 patent was filed by their British agent, C. Amet. Milliet had patented a'tournure de femme' in Paris on 24 April 1856, described as comprising'elastic extensible circles joined together by vertical bands.' Following its introduction, the women's rights advocate Amelia Bloomer felt that her concerns about the hampering nature of multiple petticoats had been resolved, dropped dress reform as an issue. Diana de Marly, in her biography of the couturier Charles Frederick Worth noted that by 1858 there existed steel factories catering to crinoline manufacturers, shops that sold nothing else but crinolines. One of the most significant manufacturers of crinolines was that of Thomson & Co. founded by an American with branches across Europe and the United States. At the height of
A bodice is an article of clothing for women and girls, covering the body from the neck to the waist. In modern usage it refers to a specific type of upper garment common in Europe during the 16th to the 18th century, or to the upper portion of a modern dress to distinguish it from the skirt and sleeves; the term comes from pair of bodies. In historical usage in Victorian and early 20th century fashion, a bodice indicates the upper part of a dress, constructed in two parts, but of matching or coordinating fabric with the intention of wearing the two parts as a unit. In dressmaking, the term waist was used. During wear, the parts might be connected by eyes; this construction was standard for fashionable garments from the 18th century until the late 19th century, had the advantages of allowing a voluminous skirt to be paired with a close-fitting bodice, of allowing two or more bodices to be worn with the same skirt. One-piece construction became more common after 1900 due to the trend for looser, more simply-constructed clothing with narrower skirts.
In modern usage, bodice refers to an upper garment that has removable sleeves or no sleeves low-cut, worn in Europe from the 16th century to the 18th century, either over a corset or in lieu of one. To achieve a fashionable shape and support the bust, the bodice was stiffened with bents, or whalebone; the bodice was different from the corset of the time because it was intended to be worn over the other garments. In earlier periods and corsets were laced in spiral fashion, with one continuous lace. In periods, both were laced like the modern tennis shoe, with eyelets facing one another; this was more convenient for women. One mid-19th-century style included the Agnes Sorel bodice, named after 15th-century royal mistress Agnes Sorel; this style was a day wear bodice, with a square cut neckline that had a high front and back and bishop sleeves. Bodice continues in use to refer to the upper portion of a one- or two-piece dress; the bodice of a dress was called the corsage in the 19th century. Bodices survive into modern times in the traditional or revived folk dress of many European countries.
They are commonly seen today at Society for Creative Anachronism events or a Renaissance Fair. Arnold, Janet: Patterns of Fashion: the cut and construction of clothes for men and women 1560-1620, Macmillan 1985. Steele, Valerie: "The Corset: A Cultural History" Yale University Press, 2001
A bandeau is a garment comprising, in appearance, a strip of cloth. Today, the term most refers to a garment that wraps around a woman's breasts, it is part of a bikini in sports or swimwear, but is now accepted as the top part of formal wear when worn with pants or a skirt. It is narrower, it is strapless and off the shoulder. Bandeaus are made from elastic material to stop it from slipping down, or is tied or pinned at the back or front. In the first half of the 20th century, a "bandeau" was a narrow band worn by women to bind the hair, or as part of a head-dress; the bandeau emerged as the top part of a two-piece swimsuit during the 1940s. In the 1950s the bandeau incorporated foundation so as to structure the contours of the body, while still retaining a simple circle or band shape, emphasizing the bare midriff. Another variation of bandeau is a one-piece bandeau swimsuit that covers the mid-section of the body, its popularity in swimwear declined during the string bikini era, but it reappeared in the 1980s with Spandex and other stretch fabric blends.
Side stays, v-wire in the center front, O-rings, the twisted top are popular design elements. In modern sports and swimwear, a bandeau is a strapless garment worn around a woman's breasts, it may be fastened in the front or back or be sufficiently elastic so as not to need a fastener at all. A bandeau may come for extra support. A strapless bandeau, or tube top, was worn as casual wear and sports wear starting in the 1970s, is sometimes worn as part of a sportswear ensemble. Actress Halle Berry wore a bandeau with matching pants to the MTV Video Music Award, fueling the trend of wearing a bandeau top as an out-of-home dress. Miley Cyrus wore a bandeau top with cropped high waisted pants at the 2014 VMA Awards and Jourdan Dunn wore a bandeau top with a long skirt; the outfits consisted of a high waisted bottom, covering the navel. Wearing a bandeau to support a woman's breasts may date back to ancient Greece, where they were called apodesmos stēthodesmē, mastodesmos and mastodeton, all meaning "breast-band".
It consisted of a band of wool or linen, wrapped across the breasts and tied or pinned at the back. As a silhouette the bandeau was worn in Roman times. Archaeologist James Mellaart described the earliest bandeau-like costume in Çatalhöyük, Anatolia in the Chalcolithic era, where a mother goddess is depicted astride two leopards wearing a costume somewhat like a modern bandeau-style bikini. In the Greco-Roman world, women athletes wearing two-piece garments were depicted on urns and paintings dating back to 1400 BC. In the floor of Coronation of the Winner hall of Villa Romana del Casale, a Roman villa in Sicily that dates from the Diocletian period, mosaics depict young women dressed in bandeau-like garments participating in weightlifting, discus throwing, running ball games, but not swimming; the mosaic features ten maidens who have been anachronistically dubbed the "Bikini Girls". Other Roman archaeological finds depict the goddess Venus in a similar garment. In Pompeii, depictions of Venus wearing a bikini were discovered in the Casa della Venere, in the tablinum of the House of Julia Felix, in an atrium garden of Via Dell'Abbondanza.
In the 1920s the term was applied to a shaped brassiere of a soft fabric and delicate trimmings providing little support or shaping. The design was patented in 1916 in the United States by Edgar Guggenheim and resembled the contours and wrapping effects of the scultetus binder used in hospitals, it was sometimes made from an elastic material to flatten or suppress the breasts in the style of the period. When the "boyish" silhouette went out of fashion, the word "brassiere" or "bra" became the term for more shapely support garments; the term bandeau refers to the thin headband traditionally worn—until recently—underneath and supporting the veil by the nuns of many Catholic religious institutes. Together with the wimple and the white coif to which it would be attached, it was the common headdress of a respectable woman in Medieval and Renaissance Europe. In pre-Islamic Balinese culture, women who in daily life would go topless would wear a bandeau, called a sabuk, when visiting temples or attending important ceremonies.
Media related to Bandeau at Wikimedia Commons Celui d'Evy - Ceinture Bandeau Turban