Panteón Nacional Román Baldorioty de Castro
The Panteón Nacional Román Baldorioty de Castro is a tract of land in Barrio Segundo of the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico designed as the city's cemetery, but converted into what has come to be a famous burial place. Established in 1842, it is Puerto Rico's first national pantheon, it is the only cemetery dedicated as a museum in the Caribbean. Prior to being dedicated as a Panteon Nacional, it was known as Cementerio Viejo or as Cementerio Antiguo de Ponce, is listed under that name on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places; the Pantheon is named after Román Baldorioty de Castro, a prolific Puerto Rican politician, firm believer of Puerto Rican autonomy and independence. His remains are located here; the Pantheon houses a small museum about the history of autonomism in the Island, it is used both as a park and a venue for the expression of culture and the arts. It is called the Museo del Autonomismo Puertorriqueño. Prior to being turned into a National Pantheon in 1991, it was known as Antiguo Cementerio de Ponce, to differentiate it from the newer Cementerio Civil de Ponce.
Built in 1842, the cemetery was enlarged in 1864. It closed in 1918. On February 13, 1838, the secretary of the Municipality of Ponce met with civic leaders of the "Villa of Ponce" to discuss plans for building a new cemetery; the existing cemetery was in deplorable and bad condition, it posed a danger to public health. Because the "Villa of Ponce" did not have the money to build the cemetery, a voluntary proportional contribution was established in which all neighbors were to contribute. A commission was named composed of one member of the Municipal Council and four neighbors of influence to open up a voluntary subscription, name a depository and to proceed with the construction of the cemetery until its completion; the project was to be carried out in a lot adjacent to the existing cemetery extending one hundred square "varas". Named by vote to form the commission were the "Sor Sindico"' and the neighbor leaders Don Geronimo Ortiz, Don Tomas Souffront, Don Luis Font, Don Mateo Maenamaxe. On February 26, 1838, the project was approved by the mayor of Ponce.
However, it was not until 1842 that the project was started out with the contributions of the neighbors of the "Villa". In 1843, the cemetery was inaugurated under the auspices of the mayor of Ponce, Don Juan Rondon Martinez the first person to be buried there. In 1864 the cemetery was repaired; the new work consisted of repairs and construction of the enclosing walls and pathways, construction of new niches and construction of a chapel and mortuary. In 1915 the cemetery was closed down; the cemetery consisted of well-designed small mausoleums that were lined up following a central pathway followed by lateral ones, starting from the entrance of the cemetery to a chapel located at the end. Most structures were designed and constructed following the neoclassical style that prevailed at that time; this style consisted of the use of columns and pilasters following the Doric, Ionic or Corinthian order, barrel vaults, Greek pediments, Roman arches and other details characteristic of said style. The thick walls and piers were built using brick, "argamasa".
The enclosing walls were built of brick and mortar, the part of the walls built in 1864 were built using stone and mortar. It was built in 1842 and enlarged in 1864. Various illustrious Puerto Ricans of transcendental importance are buried here; the most important person buried in the cemetery is Don Román Baldorioty de Castro, distinguished patriot, educator, writer and abolitionist. In 1870, he was elected delegate to the Courts of Cadiz, where he opposed the slavery system of the time He was responsible for most of the liberty amendments. On March 23, 1873, the abolition of slavery was proclaimed by Baldorioty de Castro. Buried there are Don Juan Seix, founder of the Ponce Fire Department, Don Juan Rondon Martinez, mayor of Ponce. Another prominent mayor buried. Other people buried in the cemetery include Juan Morel Campos and Manuel G. Tavarez, distinguished composers and musicians, most famous for their danzas compositions, tenor of kings Antonio Paoli, it houses the remains of nationalist hero Casimiro Berenguer, members of the prominent Seralles family, founders of the Destileria Serralles, after whom the Castillo Serralles took its name.
Ex-governor Roberto Sanchez Vilella's tomb is buried there and the late mayor of Ponce, Rafael Cordero Santiago, has a mausoleum there. The cemetery plan is shaped as a rectangle measuring 157.71 meters in length by 84.31 meters wide. It is attached to a rectangular-shaped lot at the north-east corner measuring about 32.80 meters in length by 25.03 meters wide, a small rectangular lot where the mortuary used to be located, at the center of the south side of cemetery measuring about 14.13 meters wide by 8.97 meters in length. A small mortuary structure building used to stand at the entrance of the cemetery. Following this structure, small mausoleums and niches were lined up on a central pathway that led to a small chapel located at the center of the cemetery; the cemetery was enclosed by high walls that still remain. Most mausoleums and crypts were constructed following the neo-classical style trend that prevailed at the time. Thick
National Pantheon of the Heroes
The National Pantheon of the Heroes is a building and landmark of Asunción, a national monument of Paraguay. The National Pantheon of Heroes and oratory of the Virgin Our Lady Saint Mary of the Asuncion, located between Palma and Chile streets in the downtown of the capital of Paraguay, is a must for all tourists and foreign delegations arriving visit to Paraguay and Asuncion, it is, at the same time, an architectural jewel of great artistic and heritage. In October 1863, the president Francisco Solano López ordered the construction of the chapel of the Virgin of the Asuncion, designed by Italian architect Alejandro Ravizza, in collaboration with the builder Giacomo Colombino, but as a result of the War of the Triple Alliance, the building remained unfinished and scaffolding for over 70 years. Only after the Chaco War in 1936 was able to finish and was inaugurated on October 12 of that year, to become by presidential decree in National Pantheon of Heroes; the National Pantheon is the mausoleum of the country, where lie the remains of the great heroes of Paraguayan history such as Don Carlos Antonio López, Mariscal Francisco Solano López, Mariscal José Félix Estigarribia and his wife.
In addition, the Children Martyrs two Unknown Soldiers, among others. Within the enclosure of the pantheon have set countless illustrious honorary plaques sent by foreign rulers and princes. Congratulations and verses of appreciation to the Paraguayan Navy, Air Force among others. Many wonder what the significance of the inscription in Latin, in the front of the pantheon, "Fides et Patria" means, "My faith and my country." It is customary in Asuncion that when something historic happens people flock with their flags to the street in front of it and celebrate the event. The ceremonial changing of the guard is held several times a day
The Parthenon is a former temple on the Athenian Acropolis, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Construction began in 447 BC, it was completed in 438 BC, although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece considered the zenith of the Doric order, its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy and Western civilization, one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. To the Athenians who built it, the Parthenon and other Periclean monuments of the Acropolis were seen fundamentally as a celebration of Hellenic victory over the Persian invaders and as a thanksgiving to the gods for that victory; as of 2007 the Greek Ministry of Culture was carrying out a programme of selective restoration and reconstruction to ensure the stability of the ruined structure. The Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC.
The temple is archaeoastronomically aligned to the Hyades. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon served a practical purpose as the city treasury. For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian League, which became the Athenian Empire. In the final decade of the sixth century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. After the Ottoman conquest, it was turned into a mosque in the early 1460s. On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment; the resulting explosion damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. From 1800 to 1803, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures with the alleged permission of the Turks of the Ottoman Empire; these sculptures, now known as the Elgin Marbles or the Parthenon Marbles, were sold in 1816 to the British Museum in London, where they are now displayed. Since 1983, the Greek government has been committed to the return of the sculptures to Greece.
The origin of the Parthenon's name is from the Greek word παρθενών, which referred to the "unmarried women's apartments" in a house and in the Parthenon's case seems to have been used at first only for a particular room of the temple. The Liddell–Scott–Jones Greek–English Lexicon states that this room was the western cella of the Parthenon, as does J. B. Bury. Jamauri D. Green holds that the parthenon was the room in which the peplos presented to Athena at the Panathenaic Festival was woven by the arrephoroi, a group of four young girls chosen to serve Athena each year. Christopher Pelling asserts that Athena Parthenos may have constituted a discrete cult of Athena, intimately connected with, but not identical to, that of Athena Polias. According to this theory, the name of the Parthenon means the "temple of the virgin goddess" and refers to the cult of Athena Parthenos, associated with the temple; the epithet parthénos meant "maiden, girl", but "virgin, unmarried woman" and was used for Artemis, the goddess of wild animals, the hunt, vegetation, for Athena, the goddess of strategy and tactics and practical reason.
It has been suggested that the name of the temple alludes to the maidens, whose supreme sacrifice guaranteed the safety of the city. Parthénos has been applied to the Virgin Mary, Parthénos Maria, the Parthenon had been converted to a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary in the final decade of the sixth century; the first instance in which Parthenon refers to the entire building is found in the writings of the 4th century BC orator Demosthenes. In 5th-century building accounts, the structure is called ho naos; the architects Iktinos and Callicrates are said to have called the building Hekatompedos in their lost treatise on Athenian architecture, and, in the 4th century and the building was referred to as the Hekatompedos or the Hekatompedon as well as the Parthenon. Because the Parthenon was dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, it has sometimes been referred to as the Temple of Minerva, the Roman name for Athena during the 19th century. Although the Parthenon is architecturally a temple and is called so, it is not one in the conventional sense of the word.
A small shrine has been excavated within the building, on the site of an older sanctuary dedicated to Athena as a way to get closer to the goddess, but the Parthenon never hosted the cult of Athena Polias, patron of Athens: the cult image, bathed in the sea and to, presented the peplos, was an olivewood xoanon, located at an older altar on the northern side of the Acropolis. The colossal statue of Athena by Phidias was not related to any cult and is not known to have inspired any religious fervour, it did not seem to have any priestess, cult name. According to Thucydides, Pericles once referred to the statue as a gold reserve, stressing that it "contained forty talents of pure gold and it was all removable"; the Athenian statesman thus implies that the metal, obtained from contemporary coinage, could be used again without any impiety. The Parthenon should be viewed as a grand setting for Phidias' votive statue rather than a cult site, it is said in many writings of the G
National Pantheon of the Dominican Republic
The National Pantheon was built from 1714-1746 by the Spaniard Geronimo Quezada y Garçon and was a Jesuit church. The structure was constructed in the neoclassic-renaissance style. Today, the structure stands as a national symbol of the Dominican Republic and serves as the final resting place of the Republic's most honored citizens. Jesuits held mass here until 1767. After 1767, it was used as a tobacco warehouse and as the first Dominican theater for purely artistic purposes by the society Amantes de las Letras in 1860 until 1878 when it became theater La Republicana which operated until 1917, it housed governmental offices until 1956. In 1956, Spanish architect Javier Borroso renovated the structure to serve its new purpose as a national mausoleum, by order of dictator Rafael Trujillo. Trujillo envisioned being interred at the National Pantheon, yet today it is the place where the country's most famous persons are honored, among others Trujillo's assassins. Other notables that are buried at the National Pantheon include Francisco Gregorio Billini, Gregorio Luperón, Eugenio María de Hostos and Jose Gabriel García
World's Finest Comics
World's Finest Comics was an American comic book series published by DC Comics from 1941 to 1986. The series was titled World's Best Comics for its first issue. Michael E. Uslan has speculated that this was because DC received a cease and desist letter from Better Publications, Inc., publishing a comic book entitled Best Comics since November 1939. Every issue featured DC's two leading superheroes and Batman, with the earliest issues featuring Batman's sidekick, Robin; the idea for World's Best #1 originated from the identically formatted 1940 New York World's Fair Comics featuring Superman and Robin with 96 pages and a cardboard cover. The year before there was a similar 1939 New York World's Fair Comics featuring Superman but without Batman and Robin because Bill Finger and Bob Kane had not yet created them; the series was a 96-page quarterly anthology, featuring various DC characters – always including Superman and Batman – in separate stories. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that "Pairing Superman and Batman made sense financially, since the two were DC's most popular heroes."
When superheroes fell out of vogue in the early 1950s, DC shortened the size of the publication to that of the rest of its output, leaving only enough space for one story. The title depicted Batman gaining superpowers as a way to avoid having him be overshadowed by Superman. Lex Luthor and the Joker first joined forces in issue #88. A new supervillain, the Composite Superman, was introduced in #142. Noted Batman artist Neal Adams first drew the character in an interior story in "The Superman-Batman Revenge Squads" in issue #175; the title featured Superman teaming with heroes other than Batman in the early 1970s beginning with issue #198. That issue featured the first part of a two-issue team-up with the Flash. Other characters to appear in the next two years included Robin, Green Lantern, Wonder Woman, the Teen Titans, Doctor Fate, Green Arrow, the Martian Manhunter, the Atom, the Vigilante. Nick Cardy was the cover artist for World's Finest Comics for issues #212–228. Metamorpho was the backup feature in issues #218–220 and #229 after the character had a brief run as the backup in Action Comics.
The series reverted to Superman and Batman team-ups after issue #214 with a unique twist, featuring the children they might one day have, Superman Jr. and Batman Jr. These characters, billed as the Super-Sons, were co-created by writer Bob Haney and artist Dick Dillin in issue #215. Super-Sons stories alternated with tales of the original Superman and Batman through issue #263, with issues #215–216, 221–222, 224, 228, 230, 231, 233, 238, 242, 263 featuring the sons. Haney disregarded continuity by scripting stories which contradicted DC's canon or by writing major heroes in an out-of-character fashion, he introduced Batman's older brother, Thomas Wayne Jr. in World's Finest Comics #223. This story was used as a basis for a plot detail in the "Court of Owls" story arc in 2012. Issues #223 to #228 of the series were in the 100 Page Super Spectacular format. With issue #244, World's Finest Comics became one of the first 80-page Dollar Comics, it featured the Batman team with back-up features. The number of pages was reduced from 80 to 64 starting with issue #252 and reduced to 48 pages with issue #266 which lasted until issue #282.
Issue #250 combined Superman and Batman with Green Arrow, the Black Canary, Wonder Woman into the World's Finest Team in a 56-page story. Writer Roy Thomas wrote a book-length story for issue #271 which pieced together all the "first meetings" of Superman and Batman; this issue did not have any backup features. The Hawkman story "Drive Me To The Moon!" in #272 featured Hawkgirl changing her title to Hawkwoman. As of issue #283, the series reverted to a standard format title again featuring only Superman and Batman team-ups, which continued until the series' cancellation with issue #323; the series reached issue #300 in February 1984. This double-sized anniversary issue was a "jam" featuring a story by writers David Anthony Kraft, Mike W. Barr, Marv Wolfman with art by Ross Andru, Mark Texeira, Sal Amendola, George Pérez. David Mazzucchelli, the artist of the "Batman: Year One" storyarc in 1987, first drew Batman in a backup story in World's Finest Comics #302. Issue #314 was the last pre-Crisis and first Crisis on Infinite Earths appearances of the Monitor and Harbinger.
The series ended with issue # 323 by artist José Delbo. A number of World's Finest titles have since appeared: A four-issue miniseries in 1990 by Dave Gibbons, Steve Rude and Karl Kesel. In the series and Batman battle their archenemies Lex Luthor and the Joker, for that, they temporary exchange their places in their home cities, Superman goes to Gotham City, Batman goes to Metropolis. A three-issue Legends of the World's Finest miniseries in 1994 by Walt Simonson and Dan Brereton. A two-issue Superboy/Robin: World's Finest Three miniseries in 1996. Elseworld's Finest – a two-issue miniseries that reimagines Superman and Batman in a 1920s style pulp adventure. World's Finest: Parts I-III and Batman/Superman Adventures: World's Finest, a 1997 three-part episode of Superman: The An
Church of Santa Engrácia
The Church of Santa Engrácia is a 17th-century monument in Lisbon, Portugal. A church, in the 20th century it was converted into the National Pantheon, in which important Portuguese personalities are buried, it is located in the Alfama neighborhood, close to another important Lisbon monument, the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora. The current building of the Church of Santa Engrácia substituted previous churches dedicated to a martyr of the city of Braga, Saint Engrácia; the first church dedicated to the Saint was sponsored by Infanta Maria of Portugal, Duchess of Viseu, daughter of King Manuel I, around 1568. In 1681, construction of the current church began; the design was the work of João Antunes, royal architect and one of the most important baroque architects of Portugal. Construction proceeded from 1682 through 1712. King John V lost interest in the project, concentrating his resources in the gigantic Convent of Mafra; the church was not completed until the 20th century, so that Obras de Santa Engrácia has become a Portuguese synonym for an endless construction project.
A dome was added, the church was reinaugurated in 1966. João Antunes prepared an ingenious design for Santa Engrácia; the church has a centralised floorplan, with a Greek cross shape. On each corner there is a square tower, the façades are undulated like in the baroque designs of Borromini; the main façade has three niches with statues. The entrance to the church is done through a beautiful baroque portal with the coat-of-arms of Portugal held by two angels; the Church has a high central dome, completed only in the 20th century. The harmonious interior of the church is dominated by the curved spaces of the central crossing and naves; the floor and walls are decorated with polychromed patterns of marble. The magnificent 18th-century baroque organ was brought from Lisbon Cathedral. In 1916, during the First Portuguese Republic, the Church of Santa Engrácia was converted into a National Pantheon, it was completed only during the government of the Dictator António de Oliveira Salazar. There was much speculation that it was completed for the eventual death of Salazar and other high ranking Estado Novo officials, but this was proven false when he died in 1970 and his wishes were revealed to be buried in his hometown of Vimieiro near Santa Comba Dão, carried out.
Besides Oscar Carmona, no other Estado Novo officials were entombed there. The personalities entombed here include the Presidents of the Republic Manuel de Arriaga, Teófilo Braga, Sidónio Pais and Óscar Carmona, Presidential candidate Humberto Delgado, writers João de Deus, Almeida Garrett, Guerra Junqueiro, Aquilino Ribeiro and Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen, fado singer Amália Rodrigues, footballer Eusébio. There are cenotaphs to Luís de Camões, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Afonso de Albuquerque, Nuno Álvares Pereira, Vasco da Gama and Henry the Navigator. José Fernandes Pereira. Arquitectura Barroca em Portugal. Instituto de Cultura e Língua Portuguesa. 1986. Portuguese Institute for Architectural Heritage General Bureau for National Buildings and Monuments Panteao Nacional: famous graves at Find a Grave The National Pantheon on Google Arts & Culture
The Pantheon is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus. It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and dedicated about 126 AD, its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening to the sky. Two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome; the height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are 43 metres. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda".
The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio; the Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. It became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, has been copied many times by architects; the name "Pantheon" is from the Ancient Greek "Pantheion" meaning "of, relating to, or common to all the gods":. Cassius Dio, a Roman senator who wrote in Greek, speculated that the name comes either from the statues of many gods placed around this building, or from the resemblance of the dome to the heavens, his uncertainty suggests that "Pantheon" was a nickname, not the formal name of the building. In fact, the concept of a pantheon dedicated to all the gods is questionable; the only definite pantheon recorded earlier than Agrippa's was at Antioch in Syria, though it is only mentioned by a sixth-century source.
Ziegler tried to collect evidence of panthea, but his list consists of simple dedications "to all the gods" or "to the Twelve Gods," which are not true panthea in the sense of a temple housing a cult that worships all the gods. Godfrey and Hemsoll point out that ancient authors never refer to Hadrian's Pantheon with the word aedes, as they do with other temples, the Severan inscription carved on the architrave uses "Pantheum," not "Aedes Panthei", it seems significant that Dio does not quote the simplest explanation for the name—that the Pantheon was dedicated to all the gods. In fact, Livy wrote that it had been decreed that temple buildings should only be dedicated to single divinities, so that it would be clear who would be offended if, for example, the building were struck by lightning, because it was only appropriate to offer sacrifice to a specific deity. Godfrey and Hemsoll maintain that the word Pantheon "need not denote a particular group of gods, or, indeed all the gods, since it could well have had other meanings….
The word pantheus or pantheos, could be applicable to individual deities…. Bearing in mind that the Greek word θεῖος need not mean "of a god" but could mean "superhuman," or "excellent."Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. In the aftermath of the Battle of Actium, Marcus Agrippa started an impressive building program: the Pantheon was a part of the complex created by him on his own property in the Campus Martius in 29–19 BC, which included three buildings aligned from south to north: the Baths of Agrippa, the Basilica of Neptune, the Pantheon, it seems that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae. This less solemn designation would help explain how the building could have so lost its original name and purpose in such a short period of time.
It had long been thought that the current building was built by Agrippa, with alterations undertaken, this was in part because of the Latin inscription on the front of the temple which reads: M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECITor in full, "M Agrippa L f cos tertium fecit," meaning "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made when consul for the third time." However, archaeological excavations have shown that the Pantheon of Agrippa had been destroyed except for the façade. Lise Hetland argues that the present construction began in 114, under Trajan, four years after it was destroyed by fire for the second time, she reexamined Herbert Bloch's 1959 paper, responsible for the maintained Hadrianic date, maintains that he should not have excluded all of the Trajanic-era bricks from his brick-stamp study. Her argument is interesting in light of Heilmeyer's argument that, based on stylistic evidence, Apollodoru