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Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acid called vitamin B5, is a water-soluble vitamin. Pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient. Animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme-A, as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins and fats; the anion is called pantothenate. Pantothenic acid is the amide between pantoic β-alanine, its name derives from the Greek pantothen, meaning "from everywhere", small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food, with high amounts in fortified whole-grain cereals, egg yolks and dried mushrooms. It is found as its alcohol analog, the provitamin panthenol, as calcium pantothenate. Pantothenic acid was discovered by Roger J. Williams in 1933. Only the dextrorotatory isomer of pantothenic acid possesses biologic activity; the levorotatory form may antagonize the effects of the dextrorotatory isomer. Pantothenic acid is used in the synthesis of coenzyme A. Coenzyme A may act as an acyl group carrier to form acetyl-CoA and other related compounds. CoA is important in energy metabolism for pyruvate to enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle as acetyl-CoA, for α-ketoglutarate to be transformed to succinyl-CoA in the cycle.

CoA is important in the biosynthesis of many important compounds such as fatty acids and acetylcholine. CoA is incidentally required in the formation of ACP, required for fatty acid synthesis in addition to CoA. Pantothenic acid in the form of CoA is required for acylation and acetylation, for example, are involved in signal transduction, various enzyme functions. Due to its numerous biological roles, dietary deficiency of pantothenic acid, although rare and occurring with other nutrient deficiencies, has diverse negative effects. Content of pantothenic acid varies among manufactured and natural foods fortified ready-to-eat cereals, infant formulas, energy bars and dried foods. Major food sources of pantothenic acid are dried shiitake mushrooms, kidney, egg yolks and sunflower seeds. Whole grains are another source of the vitamin, but milling removes much of the pantothenic acid, as it is found in the outer layers of whole grains. In animal feeds, the most important sources are alfalfa, fish meal, peanut meal, mushrooms, wheat bran, yeasts.

The derivative of pantothenic acid, pantothenol, is a more stable form of the vitamin and is used as a source of the vitamin in multivitamin supplements. Another common supplemental form of the vitamin is calcium pantothenate. Calcium pantothenate is used in dietary supplements because, as a salt, it is more stable than pantothenic acid; the U. S. Institute of Medicine updated Estimated Average Requirements and Recommended Dietary Allowances for B vitamins in 1998. At that time there was not sufficient information to establish RDAs for pantothenic acid. In instances such as this, the Board sets Adequate Intakes, with the understanding that at some date, AIs will be replaced by more exact information; the current AI for teens and adults ages 14 and up is 5 mg/day. AI for pregnancy is 6 mg/day. AI for lactation is 7 mg/day. For infants up to 12 months the AI is 1.8 mg/day. For children ages 1–13 years the AI increases with age from 2 to 4 mg/day; as for safety, the IOM sets Tolerable upper intake levels for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient.

In the case of pantothenic acid there is no UL, as there is no human data for adverse effects from high doses. Collectively the EARs, RDAs, AIs and ULs are referred to as Dietary Reference Intakes; the European Food Safety Authority refers to the collective set of information as Dietary Reference Values, with Population Reference Intake instead of RDA, Average Requirement instead of EAR. AI and UL are defined the same as in the U. S. For women and men over age 11 the Adequate Intake is set at 5 mg/day. AI for pregnancy is 5 mg/day, for lactation 7 mg/day. For children ages 1–10 years the AI is 4 mg/day; these AIs are similar to the U. S. AIs; the EFSA reviewed the safety question and reached the same conclusion as in United States - that there was not sufficient evidence to set a UL for pantothenic acid. For U. S. food and dietary supplement labeling purposes the amount in a serving is expressed as a percent of Daily Value. For pantothenic acid labeling purposes 100% of the Daily Value was 10 mg, but as of 27 May 2016 it was revised to 5 mg to bring it into agreement with the AI.

A table of the old and new adult Daily Values is provided at Reference Daily Intake. Food and supplement companies have until 1 January 2020 to comply with the change; when found in foods, most pantothenic acid is in the form of CoA or bound to acyl carrier protein. For the intestinal cells to absorb this vitamin, it must be converted into free pantothenic acid. Within the lumen of the intestine, CoA and ACP are hydrolyzed into 4'-phosphopantetheine; the 4'-phosphopantetheine is dephosphorylated into pantetheine. Pantetheinase, an intestinal enzyme hydrolyzes pantetheine into free pantothenic acid. Free pantothenic acid is absorbed into intestinal cells via a saturable, sodium-dependent active transport system. At high levels of intake, when this mechanism is saturated, some pantothenic acid may be absorbed via passive diffusion; as intake increases 10-fold, absorption rate decreases to 10%. Pantothenic acid deficiency is exceptionally rare and has not been studied. In the few cases where deficiency has been seen, nearly all symptoms can be reversed with the return of pantothenic acid.

Symptoms

Avanangattilkalari Vishnumaya Temple

Avanangattilkalari Sree Vishnumaya Temple is a Hindu temple at peringottukara, Thrissur District, Kerala state, India. It is dedicated to the god Vishnumaya in Kerala; the god is known by the names Chathan. Avanangattilkalari vishnumaya temple is the head temple of all vishnumaya temples in Kerala Malabar; the temple avanangattilkalari call sree vishnumaya "moolasthanam". The god of the temple represents the god in his fierce form, facing East, featuring two hands with various attributes. One is riding on water buffalo; the temple deity well known for his magical power. The temple gain the name Avanangattilkalari because the temple surrounded Ricinus; the Ricinus plant is called in malayalam language "avanaku", forest means malayalam language "kadu", Avananku-kadu changed avanangattil kalari. Kalari means Kerala teaching location; the temple is accredited as the original form of Vishnumaya and his 389 brothers. When God born with his 399 other brothers, 10 brothers sacrificed their life war between Shiva boothas and demon name Briga Rakshas.

Ten brothers eat bramastra in the time of compact and help Shiva boothas to kill Rakshas Briga. The temple is called "vishnumaya chathan temple" by Tamil speakers; the name of chathan coming from sastha. The Temple was built in a remote past and its worship incorporates ancient Shakthyem customs which are observed in contemporary Kerala temples; the people of Kerala believe that this temple was, in the olden days, a small shrine and it was Kellunni Panicker who installed the murthi of Vishnumaya close to one of his kalari. The pujas are conducted, under direct instructions from the god himself. Near to temple there is a mango tree and small rock shire is there called "Valliyachan kottil" believed to be the main source of the powers of this deity; the priests are panickers and Ezhava families. Avanangattilkalari Sree Vishnumaya temple is allowed all other religious members to attend temple, his temple is much related to Sabarimala Ayyappa Temple and chathan is mixed each times. Other Sabarimala, temple allows all religious women also.

The temple reconstructed in the time of Sakthan Thampuran. Sakthan Thampuran provide one donation champers inside Thriprayar Temple still there in red color; as the old believe in the time of Arattupuzha Pooram festival, Deity travel to Avanangattilkalari Sree Vishumaya temple and meet Sree Vishnumaya, it is called "Pooram Purapad". Avanangattilkalari temple is administered by temple trust and not taking any aid from Thriprayar temple; the temple was constructed by Kellunni Panicker. The first Shaktheya Pooja in Avanangattilkalari temple was performed by Panicker families still follows. In ancient times, animal sacrifices were offered at the temple in the forms of birds, by devotees seeking protection and the fulfillment of their prayers. At present, only red-dyed silks are offered to the deity; the temple is situated in the middle of a plot of land about ten acres, surrounded by paddy field. The "manimandapam" or "sreekovil" is facing east. East side of the small bhagavathi shire, two Sarpakavu.

West side temple pond. East and west "padipura". North side "ananadhana mandapam" serve devotes everyday. During this ritual, oracle person called Vellichapad, addressed as the god and said to be possessed by him, sit in-front of the temple in a frenzied trance state called niyogam. Niyogam will perform everyday. Special pooja only perform new moon day only. All karma follows saktheya manner; the "vellattumaholsam" festival at the Avanangattilkalari Vishnumaya temple, is a month of festivities from the month of Kumbham, it is ten day festival. It falls between the months of February and March; the festival starts with a ritual called'Ezhunallathu', which forms an important feature of this temple. The members of the "Thira manar" are allowed to participate in this ritual, it is to appease her demons who take delight in the offerings. The kalampattu festival will perform four day before "karkidakam" and "vrichikam" malayalam months

Jonatan Benedetti

Jonatan Nahuel Benedetti is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward for Primera B Nacional side All Boys, on loan from Primera B Nacional side Aldosivi. Benedetti started his professional career in 2017 with hometown club Aldosivi, his debut came in the Argentine Primera División on 7 May, coming on as a substitute in a 0–3 defeat to Huracán. His first start came in the Copa Argentina on 12 June against Central Córdoba as he scored the winning goal to send Aldosivi into the next round. In January 2018, Benedetti completed a loan move to Primera B Metropolitana side San Telmo, he scored on his debut for the club in a 2–1 win over Deportivo Español on 28 January. He scored on his debut for the club in a 2–1 win over Deportivo Español on 28 January; as of 15 May 2018. Jonatan Benedetti at Soccerway