Panyu, formerly romanized as Punyu, is a district of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province in southern China. It is the site of the oldest parts of Guangzhou, dating back to the Qin Empire, the present district covers an area of about 661.88 square kilometres. Panyu lies at the heart of the Pearl River Delta, its boundary straddles from latitudes 22.26 to 23.05, and sprawls from longitudes 113.14 to 113.42. The site of the Peoples government of Panyu is Shiqiao which is 17 kilometres from downtown Guangzhou and 38 and 42 nautical miles from the cities of Hong Kong and Macao respectively. The Chinese settlement at Panyu was established by the Qin armies under Zhao Tuo during their first failed invasion of the Baiyue in Guangdong in 214 BC, there are at least 11 separate theories on the etymology of the name. Upon the fall of the Qin, Zhao Tuo established Panyu as the capital of his kingdom of Nanyue in 204 BC. Archaeological evidence shows that it was a commercial center, among the present material object remnants, there are those of Southeast Asian, Indian. Yuexiu District, most of Baiyun and Huangpu Districts, and parts of parts of Liwan, Haizhu, on 20 May 1992, Panyu County was upgraded into a county-level city and, on 21 May 2000, Panyu was fully converted into a district of Guangzhou. By 28 April 2005, the part of Panyu was split off as the new Nansha District. On 30 September 2012, three towns of Panyu—Dongchong, Dagang, and Lanhe—were removed to Nanshas jurisdiction. Panyu district administers ten subdistricts and six towns, the district executive, legislature and judiciary are based in the Shiqiao, together with the CPC and PSB branches. The following towns have been abolished, some by absorption into the Development zone of the Nansha District, lianhuashan Xinken Tanzhouu Yuwotou Huangge Hengli Wanqingsha Dongchong Dagang Lanhe Under its various Subdistricts and Towns, Panyu has 305 administration villages - i. e.305 village governments. There are other villages which administratively count as being in one or another of the official villages. Guangzhou Metro Lines 2 and 3 serve parts of Panyu District, line 2 was extended into the district in Sept.2010. Guangzhou South Station, the main high-speed railway station serving Guangzhou, is situated within the boundaries of Panyu District, Panyu Public Transport operates buses in the district. Chan Panyu Travel Guide Red Diamond, on Panyus diamond processing industry, by Venkatesan Vembu, Daily News & Analysis,11 March 2007
A Chinese lacquerware box with the "Panyu" name on its surface, dating from the Qin Dynasty.