Tommaso Salvini was an Italian actor. Salvini was born in Milan, his father and mother were both actors. His father was involved in the Bon and Berlaffa Company and the actor, to play Pasquino fell ill. Instead of closing the theatre for the night his father asked the young Salvini to play the role. In his autobiography, he writes that "when I perceived that some of Pasquino's lines were amusing the audience, I took courage, like a little bird making his first flight, I arrived at the goal, was eager to try again … It is certain that from that time I began to feel that I was somebody."In 1847 Salvini joined the company of Adelaide Ristori, at the beginning of her career. It was with her as Elettra that he won his first success in tragedy, playing the title role in Alfieri's Oreste at the Teatro Valle in Rome. Salvini fought in the First Italian War of Independence in 1849, but otherwise devoted his life to acting. In 1853, however, he took a year off because "he felt adequately prepared for a role".
During this time, he prepared roles in great depth. Salvini's most famous role was Othello, which he played for the first time at Vicenza in June 1856, his other important roles included Conrad in Paolo Giacometti's La Morte civile, Egisto in Alfieri's Merope, Saul in Alfieri's Saul, Paolo in Silvio Pellico's Francesca da Rimini, Oedipus in Niccolini's play of that name and King Lear. The core of his acting method came from his studies. While visiting Gibraltar, for example, he spent time studying the Moors and found one particular man whom he based his Othello on. Instead of relying on a mustache, the traditional way of depicting a Moor, he tried to copy "gestures and carriage" to depict the character. Salvini acted in England, made five visits to the United States, his first in 1873 and his last in 1889. In 1886, he played Othello to the lago of Edwin Booth, he always delivered his lines in Italian. According to the New York World, "had he spoke Greek or Chocaw, it would have been much the same.
There was that about him, universal, had he remained mute and contented himself with acting alone his audience could scarcely have failed to understand, so faithful was his portraiture of human instincts and their action"Salvini's acting in Othello inspired the young Russian actor Constantin Stanislavski, who saw Salvini perform in Moscow in 1882 and who would, himself, go on to become one of the most important theatre practitioners in the history of theatre. Stanislavski wrote. Salvini retired from the stage in 1890, but in January 1902 took part in the celebration in Rome of Ristori's eightieth birthday. Salvini published a volume entitled aneddoti ed impressioni; some idea of his career may be gathered from Leaves from the Autobiography of Tommaso Salvini. He died, aged 86, in Florence. Salvini was so confident in his talents as an actor that he was once quoted as saying, "I can make an audience weep by reading them a menu." Salvini made at least one recording for Zonofono in 1902 of "Il sogno" from Saul.
Listed in a contemporary Zonofono celebrity catalogue found. His son Alessandro an actor, had several notable successes in America as d'Artagnan in The Three Guardsmen. Another son, Gustavo Salvini, was a stage actor. Gustavo's sons, Tommaso's grandsons, were Guido Salvini. Alessandro acted in movies dating back to silent pictures and Guido directed and wrote for films in the sound era; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Salvini, Tommaso". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. Benedetti, Jean. 1999. Stanislavski: His Life and Art. Revised edition. Original edition published in 1988. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-52520-1. Carlson, Marvin; the Italian Shakespearians. Washington: the Folger Shakespeare Library. 1985. Print. Cole and Helen Crich Chinoy. Actors on Acting. New York: Crown Publishers. 1949. Print. Stanislavski, Constantin. 1938. An Actor's Work: A Student’s Diary. Trans. and ed. Jean Benedetti. London: Routledge, 2008. ISBN 978-0-415-42223-9.
Iles, George, ed. 19th Century Actor Autobiographies – Tommaso Salvini. N.d. Web. 29 January 2013. James, Henry; the Scenic Art. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 1948. Print. Woods, Leigh. On Playing Shakespeare. New York: Greenwood Press. 1924. Print. Tommaso Salvini portrait gallery NY Public Library Billy Rose Collection Alexander Salvini photo gallery NY Public Library AlexanderSalivini Tommaso's son portrait Univ of Louisville Ricordi, aneddoti ed impressioni. Milano Fratelli Dumolard editori 1895 Internet Archive University of Toronto authorama.com findagrave.com
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Adelaide Ristori was a distinguished Italian tragedienne, referred to as the Marquise. She was born in Cividale del Friuli, the daughter of strolling players and appeared as a child on the stage. At fourteen she made her first success as Francesca da Rimini in Silvio Pellico's tragedy. At eighteen she was playing Mary Stuart in an Italian version of Friedrich Schiller's play of the same name, she had been a member of the Sardinian company and of the Ducal company at Parma for some years before her marriage to the marchese Giuliano Capranica del Grillo in 1846. After a short retirement from her career, she returned to the stage and played in Turin and the provinces, it was not until 1855 that she paid her first professional visit to Paris, where the part of Francesca was chosen for her début. In this she was rather coldly received, but she took Paris by storm in the title role of Alfieri's Myrrha. Furious partisanship was aroused by the appearance of a rival to the great Rachel. Paris was divided into two camps of opinion.
Humble playgoers fought at gallery doors over the merits of their respective favourites. The two famous women never met, but the French actress seems to have been convinced that Ristori had no ill feelings towards her, only admiration and respect. A tour in other countries was followed by a fresh visit to Paris, when Ristori appeared in Montanelli's Italian translation of Legouvé's Medea, she repeated her success in this in London. In 1857 she visited Madrid, playing in Spanish to enthusiastic audiences, in 1866 she paid the first of four visits to the United States, where she won much applause in Paolo Giacometti's Elisabeth, an Italian study of the English sovereign. In a letter to The Daily Alta California, humorist Mark Twain attributed Ristori's popularity in America in this phase of her career to "determined newspapers and shrewd managers". In 1875, after one of the United States visits, she toured to Australia, performing the roles of Medea Mary Stuart, the title role in Elizabeth, Queen of England, written for her by Paolo Giacometti.
Of her 1878 tour to Spain, she said, " was not a great pleasure to me, because I knew the country. She retired from professional life in 1885, died on the 9 October 1906 in Rome, she left the marchese Giorgio Capranica del Grillo. Her publication and Memoirs, provides a lively account of an interesting career, is valuable for the chapters devoted to the psychological explanation of the characters of Mary Stuart, Myrrha and Lady Macbeth, in her interpretation of which, Ristori combined high dramatic instinct with the keenest and most critical intellectual study. Madame Ristori's Etudes et Souvenirs is one of the most delightful books on the stage that has appeared since Lady Martin's charming volume on the Shakespearian heroines. Media related to Adelaide Ristori at Wikimedia Commons ""Adelaide Ristori": from the book Little Masters of Autobiography: Actors". Candida Martinelli's Italophile Site. Retrieved January 31, 2012. "Ristori, Adelaide". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. Findagrave
Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Ernesto Rossi (actor)
Ernesto Rossi was an Italian actor and playwright. Rossi was born in Livorno to a middle-class family and was intending to study at the university there when he substituted for an actor in the Calloud theatre company who had become ill. After his successful performance, he continued performing with the company until it was dissolved in 1848. In 1852 he became its leading actor, he toured Italy and Paris with Adelaide Ristori until personal differences led to the end of their theatrical partnership. Rossi went on to perform throughout Europe, including London, Vienna and Moscow, he was admired for his Shakespearean roles as Macbeth, King Lear and Hamlet. Rossi wrote several plays, the first of which, premiered with Adelaide Ristori in the title role. In May 1896 he was playing King Lear in Odessa when he fell ill and was brought back to Italy, where he died a few weeks in Pescara. Biography of Rossi from the Museo Biblioteca dell'Attore, Genoa. Portrait of Ernesto Rossi from the University of Frankfurt library.
Zakharov N. V. Gaydin B. N. Rossi Ernesto // An Electronic Encyclopaedia “The World of Shakespeare”