Artabanus V of Parthia
Artabanus IV known as Ardavan IV, incorrectly known in older scholarship as Artabanus V, was the last ruler of Parthian Empire from c. 213 to 224. He was the younger son of Vologases V, who died in 208. In c. 208, Vologases VI succeeded his father Vologases V as king of the Parthian Empire. His rule was unquestioned for a few years; the dynastic struggle between the two brothers most started in c. 213. Artabanus conquered much of the empire, including Media and Susa. Vologases VI seems to have only managed to keep Seleucia; the Roman emperor Caracalla sought to take advantage of the conflict between the two brothers. He tried to find a pretext to invade the Parthian Empire by requesting Vologases to send two refugees—a philosopher named Antiochus and a certain Tiridates, either an Armenian prince or a uncle of Vologases; the to the surprise of the Romans, Vologases had the two men sent to Caracalla in 215, thus denying him his pretext. Caracalla's choice of contacting Vologases instead of Artabanus shows that the Romans still saw him as the dominant king.
Caracalla thus chose to preoccupy himself with a invasion of Armenia. He appointed a freedman named Theocritus as the leader of the invasion, which ended in a disaster. Caracalla once again sought to start a war with the Parthians. In another attempt to gain a pretext, he requested Artabanus to marry his daughter, which he declined, it is disputed. Caracalla's choice to contact Artabanus shows that the latter was now considered the dominant king over Vologases, who would rule a small principality centered around Seleucia until 221/2. Artabanus soon clashed with Caracalla, whose forces he managed to contain at Nisibis in 217. Peace was made between the two empires the following year, with the Arsacids keeping most of Mesopotamia. However, Artabanus V still had to deal with his brother Vologases, who continued to mint coins and challenge him; the Sasanian family had meanwhile risen to prominence in their native Pars, had now under prince Ardashir I begun to conquer the neighboring regions and more far territories, such as Kirman.
At first, Ardashir I's activities did not alarm Artabanus, until when the Arsacid king chose to confront him. According to al-Tabari, whose work was based off Sasanian sources, Ardashir I and Artabanus agreed to meet in Hormozdgan at the end of the month of Mihr. Nonetheless, Ardashir I went to the place before due time to occupy a advantageous spot on the plain. There he dug out a ditch to defend his forces, he took over a spring at the place. Ardashir I's forces numbered 10,000 cavalry, with some of them wearing flexible chain armor akin to that of the Romans. Artabanus led a greater number of soldiers, however, were less disposed, due to wearing the inconvenient lamellar armor. Ardashir I's son and heir, Shapur I, as portrayed in the Sasanian rock reliefs took part in the battle; the battle was fought on 28 April 224, with Artabanus being defeated and killed, marking the end of the Arsacid era and the start of 427-years of Sasanian rule. The chief secretary of Artabanus, Dad-windad, was afterwards executed by Ardashir I.
Thenceforth, Ardashir I assumed the title of shahanshah and started the conquest of an area which would be called Iranshahr. He celebrated his victory in a relief sculptured at his previous capital, Ardashir-Khwarrah in his homeland, Pars. On the relief, Ardashir I is portrayed as riding on a horse whilst ousting Artabanus, mounted. Ardashir I's son Shapur I on horseback, is portrayed as impaling Dad-windad with his lance. Vologases was driven out of Mesopotamia by Ardashir I's forces soon after 228. Al-Tabari, Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir. Ehsan Yar-Shater, ed; the History of Al-Ṭabarī. 40 vols. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Chaumont, M. L.. "Balāš VI". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 6. Pp. 574–580. Daryaee, Touraj. Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. I. B. Tauris. Pp. 1–240. ISBN 0857716662. Rajabzadeh, Hashem. "Dabīr". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VI, Fasc. 5. Pp. 534–539. Schippmann, K.. "Artabanus". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 6. Pp. 647–650. Schippmann, K.. "Arsacids ii.
The Arsacid dynasty". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 5. Pp. 525–536. Shahbazi, A. Shapur. "Hormozdgān". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XII, Fasc. 5. Pp. 469–470. Shahbazi, A. Shapur. "SASANIAN DYNASTY". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Shahbazi, A. Shapur. "Šāpur I". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Shahbazi, A. Shapur. "BESṬĀM O BENDŌY". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. IV, Fasc. 2. Pp. 180–182. Retrieved 13 August 2013. Shahbazi, A. Shapur. "Bahrām VI Čōbīn". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 5. London et al. pp. 514–522. Wiesehöfer, Joseph. "Ardašīr I i. History". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 4. Pp. 371–376
Richard N. Frye
Richard Nelson Frye was an American scholar of Iranian and Central Asian Studies, Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Harvard University. His professional areas of interest were Iranian philology and the history of Iran and Central Asia before 1000 CE. Born in Birmingham, Alabama, to a family of immigrants from Sweden, "Freij" had four children, his second marriage being to an Iranian-Assyrian scholar, Eden Naby, from Urmia, Iran who teaches at Columbia University, he spoke fluent Russian, Arabic, Pashto, French and Turkish, had extensive knowledge of Avestan, Pahlavi and other Iranian languages and dialects, both extinct and current. Although Frye is known for his works about Iran, the Iranian peoples and Iranian Central Asia, the scope of his studies was much wider and includes Byzantine and Ottoman history, Eastern Turkistan and the Assyrian people and medieval Iranian art, Islamic art, Sufism and Japanese archeology, a variety of Iranian and non-Iranian languages including Avestan, Old Persian, Middle Persian, Sogdian and Bactrian, New Persian, Arabic and Chinese, beside research languages which include French, German and Russian.
Frye was born in Alabama. He first attended the University of Illinois, where he received a BA in history and philosophy in 1939, he received his MA from Harvard University in 1940 and his PhD from Harvard in 1946, in Asiatic history. Frye served with the Office of Strategic Services during World War II, he was stationed in Afghanistan and traveled extensively in the Middle East, Central Asia, South Asia. In 1948 he visited Sar Masshad, was the first European to find and report the existence of the Gur-e Dokhtar tomb (meaning "Tomb of the Maiden" in Persian, he returned to Harvard to teach. He was a member of the Harvard faculty from 1948 until 1990, he became a professor emeritus at Harvard. He served as faculty, guest lecturer, or visiting scholar at: Habibiya College in Kabul Frankfurt University Hamburg University Pahlavi University of Shiraz University of Tajikistan. Professor Frye helped found the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Harvard, the first Iranian studies program in America, he served as Director of the Asia Institute in Shiraz, was on the Board of Trustees of the Pahlavi University at Shiraz, Chairman, Committee on Inner Asian Studies, at Harvard, as Editor of the Bulletin of the Asia Institute.
Among Frye's students were Annemarie Schimmel, Oleg Grabar, Frank Huddle, John Limbert, Michael Crichton, whose Hollywood film The 13th Warrior is loosely based on Frye's translation of Ibn Fadlan's account of his travels up the river Volga. Frye was directly responsible for inviting Iranian scholars as distinguished visiting fellows to Harvard University, under a fellowship program initiated by Henry Kissinger. Examples of such guests include Mehdi Haeri Yazdi, Sadegh Choubak, Jalal al Ahmad, others. Frye felt that Persian civilization was under-appreciated by other Muslims, Arab Muslims in particular. Frye wrote: Arabs no longer understand the role of Iran and the Persian language in the formation of Islamic culture, they wish to forget the past, but in so doing they remove the bases of their own spiritual and cultural being...without the heritage of the past and a healthy respect for it...there is little chance for stability and proper growth. In August 1953, shortly before the fall of Mosaddegh, prominent Iranian linguist Ali Akbar Dehkhoda gave Frye the title: "Irandoost".
In addition, Frye was a long standing supporter of Assyrian continuity. A ceremony was held in Iran on June 27, 2004 to pay tribute to the six-decade endeavors of Professor Frye on his lifetime contribution to Iranian Studies, research work on the Persian language, the history and culture of Iran. In his will, Professor Frye expressed his wish to be buried next to the Zayandeh River in Isfahan; this request was approved by Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in September 2007. Two other American scholars of Iranian Studies, Arthur Pope and Phyllis Ackerman, are buried there. In 2010, a house in Isfahan was gifted by Iranian government to Professor Frye in recognition of his services to Iranian studies. On June 8, 2014, the family of Dr. Frye decided to cremate his remains after waiting more than 2 months for official Iranian permission to bury him in Isfahan, his death coincided with growing resentment by Iranian hard-liners over signs of reconciliation with the United States after decades of estrangement.
It is not clear. Frye was a popular public speaker at numerous Iran-related gatherings. In 2005, he spoke at UCLA, encouraging the Iranians present to cherish their identity. In 2004, he spoke at an architectural conference in Tehran, expressing his dismay at hasty modernization that ignores the beauties of traditional Iranian architectural styles; the Near East and the Great Powers, Harvard University Press, 1951 Iran, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1960 The Heritage of Persia: The pre-Islamic History of One of the World's Great Civilizations, World Publishing Company, New York, 1963. Reprinted by Mazda Publishers, 2004. Www.mazdapublishers.com Bukhara: The Medieval Achievement, University of Oklahoma Press, 1965. Reprinted by Mazda Publishers, 1997. Www.mazdapublishers.com The Histories of Nishapur, Harvard University Press, (Harvard Orien
The Sasanian Empire known as the Sassanian, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire, was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam. Named after the House of Sasan, it ruled from 224 to 651 AD; the Sasanian Empire succeeded the Parthian Empire and was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire for a period of more than 400 years. The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Eastern Arabia, the Levant, the Caucasus, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani; the Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important, influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam.
In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa and India, it played a prominent role in the formation of both Asian medieval art. Much of what became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world. Conflicting accounts shroud the details of the fall of the Parthian Empire and subsequent rise of the Sassanian Empire in mystery; the Sassanian Empire was established in Estakhr by Ardashir I. Papak was the ruler of a region called Khir. However, by the year 200 he had managed to overthrow Gochihr and appoint himself the new ruler of the Bazrangids, his mother, was the daughter of the provincial governor of Pars. Papak and his eldest son Shapur managed to expand their power over all of Pars; the subsequent events are due to the elusive nature of the sources.
It is certain, that following the death of Papak, who at the time was the governor of Darabgerd, became involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur. Sources reveal that Shapur, leaving for a meeting with his brother, was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him. By the year 208, over the protests of his other brothers who were put to death, Ardashir declared himself ruler of Pars. Once Ardashir was appointed shah, he moved his capital further to the south of Pars and founded Ardashir-Khwarrah; the city, well protected by high mountains and defensible due to the narrow passes that approached it, became the centre of Ardashir's efforts to gain more power. It was surrounded by a high, circular wall copied from that of Darabgird. Ardashir's palace was on the north side of the city. After establishing his rule over Pars, Ardashir extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, gaining control over the neighbouring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan and Mesene.
This expansion came to the attention of Artabanus V, the Parthian king, who ordered the governor of Khuzestan to wage war against Ardashir in 224, but Ardashir was victorious in the ensuing battles. In a second attempt to destroy Ardashir, Artabanus himself met Ardashir in battle at Hormozgan, where the former met his death. Following the death of the Parthian ruler, Ardashir went on to invade the western provinces of the now defunct Parthian Empire. At that time the Arsacid dynasty was divided between supporters of Artabanus V and Vologases VI, which allowed Ardashir to consolidate his authority in the south with little or no interference from the Parthians. Ardashir was aided by the geography of the province of Fars, separated from the rest of Iran. Crowned in 224 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia, Ardashir took the title shahanshah, or "King of Kings", bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end, beginning four centuries of Sassanid rule. In the next few years, local rebellions occurred throughout the empire.
Nonetheless, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Khorasan, Margiana and Chorasmia. He added Bahrain and Mosul to Sassanid's possessions. Sassanid inscriptions claim the submission of the Kings of Kushan and Mekran to Ardashir, although based on numismatic evidence it is more that these submitted to Ardashir's son, the future Shapur I. In the west, assaults against Hatra and Adiabene met with less success. In 230, Ardashir raided deep into Roman territory, a Roman counter-offensive two years ended inconclusively, although the Roman emperor, Alexander Severus, celebrated a triumph in Rome. Ardashir I's son Shapur I continued the expansion of the empire, conquering Bactria and the western portion of the Kushan Empire, while leading several campaigns against Rome. Invading Roman Mesopotamia, Shapur I captured Carrhae and Nisibis, but in 243 the Roman general Timesitheus defeated the Persians at Rhesaina and regained the lost territories.
The emperor Gordian III's subsequent advance down the Euphrates was defea
Shapur was a Persian prince, who ruled as one of the last Kings of Persis in Pars in ca. 222. He was succeeded by Ardashir V, who founded the Sasanian Empire as Ardashir I. Shapur was the eldest son of a local ruler of a district named Khir in southern Istakhr. Papak was a vassal of Gochihr, the overlord of Pars, himself the vassal of the Parthian king Artabanus V. According to Arabic-Persian sources, Shapur's brother, Ardashir I started an uprising when he was the commander of Fort Darabgerd in eastern Pars. According to the medieval historian, al-Tabari, Ardashir asked Papak to stand against Gochihr and start a rebellion. Papak rebelled against Gochihr and killed him. However, Daryaee believes that Papak dreamed of conquering Istakhr himself and was able to achieve it by the help of Shapur. Papak wrote a letter to Artabanus and requested permission to appoint Shapur instead of the "overthrown" Gochihr in power. Although Artabanus had defeated the Romans, he faced the problem of the defiance of Vologases VI, who had minted coins in his own name between 221 and 222.
During the time that Artabanus was dealing with a more important challenge, thus he could not pay much attention to the rise of a newcomer in Pars. After a while, Papak died in ca. 222 and Shapur ascended to the throne. According to sources, Shapur stopped at a ruin while assaulting Darabgerd and a stone separated from the ceiling and hit his head and Shapur succumbed immediately. After the incident, the brothers relinquished the Persian throne and crown to Ardashir, who became the Persian Shah thereafter. Ardashir and his followers could be considered the main suspects of Shapur's mysterious death, since they "benefitted from the accidental death". A nephew of Ardashir, whose name is mentioned in the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, was most the son of Shapur. B. A. Litvinsky, Ahmad Hasan Dani. History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A. D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. Pp. 1–569. ISBN 9789231032110. Al-Tabari, Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir. Ehsan Yar-Shater, ed; the History of Al-Ṭabarī.
40 vols. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Miri, Negin. Historical Geography of Fars during the Sasanian Period. Sasanika. University of Sydney. Pp. 1–65. Greatrex, Geoffrey. C.. The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-14687-9
Istakhr was an ancient city located in southern Iran, in Fars province, five kilometers north of Persepolis. It was a prosperous city under the Sasanian Empire and served as its capital from 224 to 226 CE. Istakhr first appears in history as an Achaemenid city, it gained its importance not only from its close association with Persepolis: it commanded the western end of an ancient caravan-route that ran from the Indus Valley via Kandahar and Drangiana to Persia. The city temporarily became the capital of the Sasanian Empire during the reign of Ardashir I before the capital was moved to Ctesiphon, in Mesopotamia. During the Sasanian period the royal treasury of the empire, known as ganj ī šāhīgān, is said to have been in Istakhr. In 915–916, al-Masudi himself saw in a house at Istakhr owned by a Persian noble, "the large and fine manuscript" of a work copied in 731 from original documents in the royal treasury; the city was conquered by Muslim Arabs in 649 CE. Two years in 651 CE, the residents of Istakhr revolted.
After the suppression of the revolt, 40,000 civilians were massacred in Istakhr by the victorious Arab forces as a reprisal for rebelling. In 659 CE, caliph Ali sent Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan to suppress a Persian rebellion in Istakhr. Ziyad stayed on as governor. For a while, Abdallah ibn Mu'awiya established himself at Istakhr from where he ruled for a few years over Fars and other parts of Persia, including Ahvaz, Jibal and Kerman from 744 to 748 until fleeing to Khurasan from the advancing Umayyad forces. During the last years of the reign of the Buyid ruler Abu Kalijar, the hatred of his vizier, Dhu'l-Sa'adat, towards the dehqan of Istakhr made him send a group of soldiers under the Qutlumish, who sacked Istakhr, turning the city into a small village with no more than a hundred settlers, thus bringing its history to an end. Hill, John E.. Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, First to Second Centuries CE. BookSurge. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. Bivar, A. D. H..
"EṢṬAḴR". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VIII, Fasc. 6. Pp. 643–646. Daryaee, Touraj; the Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Oxford University Press. Pp. 1–432. ISBN 0-19-987575-8. History & Archaeology of Istakhr
Touraj Daryaee is a contemporary Persian Iranologist and historian. He works as the Maseeh Chair in Persian Studies and Culture and the director of the Dr. Samuel M. Jordan Center for Persian Studies at the University of California, Irvine. Daryaee completed his elementary and secondary schooling in Tehran and Athens, Greece, he completed a Ph. D. in history at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1999. He has taught at UCLA, has been a senior research fellow at Oxford University and resident fellow at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, he specializes in the culture of Ancient Persia. He is he editor of the Name-ye Iran-e Bastan, The International Journal of Ancient Iranian Studies, DABIR: Digital Ar, as well as the director of Sasanika Project, a project on the history and culture of Sasanians, his most famous publications include Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire and Sasanian Iran: Portrait of a Late Antique Empire. Most he has written a book on Iranian history from the Pre-historic era to modern history.
He is known for his unwavering support of Iran's former Prime Minister Dr. Mossadegh. Iranology Persian history Official Homepage Touraj Daryaee's articles in Iranian.com Profile: Touraj Daryaee University of California, Irvine Prof. Touraj Daryaee: Nowruz Serves as a Reminder of the Importance of Nature and Renewal Fars News Agency
The Parthian Empire known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran. Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast a satrapy under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. Mithridates I of Parthia expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia from the Seleucids. At its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran; the empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han dynasty of China, became a center of trade and commerce. The Parthians adopted the art, religious beliefs, royal insignia of their culturally heterogeneous empire, which encompassed Persian and regional cultures. For about the first half of its existence, the Arsacid court adopted elements of Greek culture, though it saw a gradual revival of Iranian traditions.
The Arsacid rulers were titled the "King of Kings", as a claim to be the heirs to the Achaemenid Empire. The court did appoint a small number of satraps outside Iran, but these satrapies were smaller and less powerful than the Achaemenid potentates. With the expansion of Arsacid power, the seat of central government shifted from Nisa to Ctesiphon along the Tigris, although several other sites served as capitals; the earliest enemies of the Parthians were the Scythians in the east. However, as Parthia expanded westward, they came into conflict with the Kingdom of Armenia, the late Roman Republic. Rome and Parthia competed with each other to establish the kings of Armenia as their subordinate clients; the Parthians soundly defeated Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC, in 40–39 BC, Parthian forces captured the whole of the Levant except Tyre from the Romans. However, Mark Antony led a counterattack against Parthia, although his successes were achieved in his absence, under the leadership of his lieutenant Ventidius.
Various Roman emperors or their appointed generals invaded Mesopotamia in the course of the ensuing Roman–Parthian Wars of the next few centuries. The Romans captured the cities of Seleucia and Ctesiphon on multiple occasions during these conflicts, but were never able to hold on to them. Frequent civil wars between Parthian contenders to the throne proved more dangerous to the Empire's stability than foreign invasion, Parthian power evaporated when Ardashir I, ruler of Istakhr in Persis, revolted against the Arsacids and killed their last ruler, Artabanus V, in 224 AD. Ardashir established the Sassanid Empire, which ruled Iran and much of the Near East until the Muslim conquests of the 7th century AD, although the Arsacid dynasty lived on through the Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia, the Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, the Arsacid Dynasty of Caucasian Albania. Native Parthian sources, written in Parthian and other languages, are scarce when compared to Sassanid and earlier Achaemenid sources. Aside from scattered cuneiform tablets, fragmentary ostraca, rock inscriptions, drachma coins, the chance survival of some parchment documents, much of Parthian history is only known through external sources.
These include Greek and Roman histories, but Chinese histories, prompted by the Han Chinese desire to form alliances against the Xiongnu. Parthian artwork is viewed by historians as a valid source for understanding aspects of society and culture that are otherwise absent in textual sources. Before Arsaces I of Parthia founded the Arsacid Dynasty, he was chieftain of the Parni, an ancient Central-Asian tribe of Iranian peoples and one of several nomadic tribes within the confederation of the Dahae; the Parni most spoke an eastern Iranian language, in contrast to the northwestern Iranian language spoken at the time in Parthia. The latter was a northeastern province, first under the Achaemenid, the Seleucid empires. After conquering the region, the Parni adopted Parthian as the official court language, speaking it alongside Middle Persian, Greek, Babylonian and other languages in the multilingual territories they would conquer. Why the Arsacid court retroactively chose 247 BC as the first year of the Arsacid era is uncertain.
A. D. H. Bivar concludes that this was the year the Seleucids lost control of Parthia to Andragoras, the appointed satrap who rebelled against them. Hence, Arsaces I "backdated his regnal years" to the moment when Seleucid control over Parthia ceased. However, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis asserts that this was the year Arsaces was made chief of the Parni tribe. Homa Katouzian and Gene Ralph Garthwaite claim it was the year Arsaces conquered Parthia and expelled the Seleucid authorities, yet Curtis and Maria Brosius state that Andragoras was not overthrown by the Arsacids until 238 BC, it is unclear who succeeded Arsaces I. Bivar and Katouzian affirm that it was his brother Tiridates I of Parthia, who in turn was succeeded by his son Arsaces II of Parthia in 211 BC, yet Curtis and Brosius state that Arsaces II was the immediate successor of Arsaces I, with Curtis claiming the succession took place in 211 BC, Brosius in 217 BC. Bivar insists that 138 BC, the last regnal year of Mithridates I, is "the first established regnal date of Parthian history."
Due to these and other discrepancies