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Papal household

The papal household or pontifical household, called until 1968 the Papal Court, consists of dignitaries who assist the pope in carrying out particular ceremonies of either a religious or a civil character. It is organised into two bodies: the Papal Chapel, which assists the pope in his functions as spiritual head of the church in religious ceremonies; the Papal Chapel consists of ecclesiastics who participate in religious ceremonies wearing their liturgical vestments or the dress proper to their rank and office. Chanted divine service was held daily in the papal palace, with the Pope in person celebrating or assisting at Pontifical Mass on certain days. After the return of the Popes from Avignon, these solemn public functions were held in the Sistine Chapel or, on days of special solemnity, in Saint Peter's Basilica; the liturgical celebration ceased to be daily in the course of the nineteenth century. The motu proprio Pontificalis Domus of 1968 abolished some of the titles borne by various groups that had membership in the Papal Chapel.

At present its membership consists of the members of the Papal Family or Household in the narrow sense and in addition: The College of Cardinals The patriarchs The archbishops who head departments of the Roman Curia The secretaries of the congregations of the Roman Curia The regent of the Apostolic Signatura The dean of the Tribunal of the Roman Rota The superiors of the pontifical councils and commissions The abbot of Montecassino and the abbots general of canons regular and monastic orders The superior general or, in his absence, the procurator general of the mendicant orders The auditors of the Tribunal of the Roman Rota The members of the chapters of the three papal basilicas of the Vatican, the Lateran, the Liberian The concistorial advocates The parish priests of Rome The clerics of the Papal Chapel Those in the personal service of the Pope The members of this body are subivided into two groups: ecclesiastic and lay. The ecclesiastics who have membership are: The Substitute of the Secretariat of State The Secretary for Relations with States The Almoner of His Holiness The President of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy The Theologian of the Pontifical Household The College of the Apostolic Protonotaries Participating The Supernumerary Apostolic Protonotaries The Papal Masters of Ceremonies The Honorary Prelates of His Holiness The Chaplains of His Holiness The Preacher of the Papal householdThe lay members are: Assistants at the Throne The General Counsellor of the State of Vatican City The Commandant of the Papal Swiss Guard The Counsellors of the State of Vatican City The President of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences The Gentlemen of His Holiness The Procurators of the Apostolic Palaces The Attachés of the Antechamber Those in the personal service of the Pope The Aide de chambre The Dean of the Hall of the Papal Antechamber In the Papal States, from medieval times, the Papal nobility formed a part of the Papal Court.

On March 28, 1968, Pope Paul VI reorganized the Papal Court with an apostolic letter motu proprio, renaming it the "Papal Household". In changing the name from what it had been for some centuries, Paul VI said he was returning an "original and noble" name. Moreover, many positions were altogether abolished. According to the motu proprio: "Many of the offices entrusted to members of the Papal Household were deprived of their function, continuing to exist as purely honorary positions, without much correspondence to concrete needs of the times."In the Papal Chapel, the following positions were altered or destroyed: Palatine Cardinals. Of these offices, the suppressed offices of Secret Chaplain and Secret Chaplain of Honor, Secret Cleric, Acolyte Ceroferari, Common Papal Chaplain, Porter-Masters of the Virga Rubea were consolidated under the general title of "Cleric of the Papal Chapel"; the Papal Family underwent more radical changes. Abolished and considered were the following titles: the Palatine prelates.

The Master of the Sacred Palace has been renamed Theologian of the Pontifical Household. The post is held by Fr. Wojciech Giertych, a Polish Dominican former student of and professor of theology at the Pontifical Universi

Gökhan Emreciksin

Gökhan Emreciksin is a Turkish professional footballer who plays as a winger. Emreciksin transferred from Turkish Super League side Ankaragücü, in which he scored seven goals in 39 appearances, moved to Fenerbahçe on January 3, 2009, signing a four-and-a-half-year contract, he was signed together with Abdülkadir Kayalı transferred from Ankaragücü. He played for Turkish teams Boluspor and Bandırmaspor before moving on to Ankaragücü, he was brought up through the youth ranks of Istanbul Sinopspor spending about two years in the Galatasaray youth team. Emreciksin was handed the number 20 shirt, last held by former Fenerbahçe captain Alex, who now is with Brazilian team Coritiba, he was sent to Kayserispor in exchange for Mehmet Topuz and €9 million, his first and only call up to the Turkish national football team was on March 26, 2008, a friendly against the Belarus national football team. Gökhan Emreciksin – FIFA competition record Gökhan Emreciksin at

David Pilbeam

David Pilbeam is the Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences at Harvard University and curator of paleoanthropology at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, he received his Ph. D. from Yale University. Pilbeam has produced numerous publications related to hominoid evolution since the mid-1960s, with some of his papers reprinted in books. In the 1970s, he was a co-discoverer, in the Potwar Plateau of Pakistan, of a nearly complete skull subsequently described as belonging to Sivapithecus indicus, an extinct Late Miocene great ape, on which he published several papers. In 2005, in honour of his 65th birthday, Pilbeams' students, colleagues and friends assembled a collection to honour his work. Pilbeam himself contributed to a paper honouring Ofer Bar-Yosef. In the summer of 2007, Pilbeam was appointed interim dean of Harvard College, he oversaw the continuing process of redesigning the undergraduate curriculum, as well as a large increase in financial aid to students and the planning of a housing renewal project.

Pilbeam's decision to end reimbursement of social events which provide alcohol was unpopular among students. Pilbeam describes himself as "interested in a wide range of topics involving human and primate evolution". Among his most recent activities has been working with Michel Brunet and colleagues on the description and analysis of the new hominin from Chad, Sahelanthropus tchadensis, he describes his long-term and continuing interests as including "the behavioral reconstruction and phylogenetic relationships of Miocene apes, which broadens to include more theoretical aspects of phylogenetics", "the analysis of faunal change and its relationship to environmental change" based on an extensive faunal record from the Neogene Siwalik Series of Pakistan. He describes himself as having become interested in evolutionary developmental biology, in the development and evolution of the anthropoid axial skeleton. International Prize, 1986 Docteur Honoris Causa, Université de Poitiers, 2002 Foreign Associate, National Academy of Sciences, 1992–1997 Member, National Academy of Sciences, 1997– Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Pseudexomilus fenestratus

Pseudexomilus fenestratus is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Horaiclavidae, the turrids. The length of the shell attains its diameter 5.4 mm. This marine species occurs off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa R. N. Kilburn, Turridae of southern Africa and Mozambique. Part 4. Subfamilies Drilliinae and Strictispirinae. Natal Mus. Vol. 29 Pages 167-320 Tucker, J. K. 2004 Catalog of recent and fossil turrids. Zootaxa 682:1-1295. "Pseudexomilus fenestratus". Retrieved 16 January 2019

Victoria Dillard

Victoria Dillard is an American television and film actress. She is best known for her co-starring roles as Janelle Cooper in the ABC sitcom Spin City, as one of the royal bathers in the 1988 Eddie Murphy romantic comedy Coming to America, as the wife of Denzel Washington's main character in the 1991 action thriller film Ricochet. Dillard was born in New York City, she began performing at the age of five with the Dance Theatre of Harlem. She worked with the company until she was eighteen, appearing in such productions Porgy and Bess at the Metropolitan Opera, she went on tour in A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum with Mickey Rooney. Dillard's most notable television role was as Janelle Cooper in the ABC sitcom Spin City, she stayed on the show for three seasons before leaving in 2000. Her other television credits include Star Trek: The Next Generation, Roc, L. A. Law, Chicago Hope, Moesha, Family Law, Law & Order, Law & Order: Criminal Intent and other series; some of her film credits are Coming to America, Deep Cover, The Glass Shield, Internal Affairs, Out-of-Sync with LL Cool J, Ricochet with Denzel Washington.

Dillard appeared as Betty Shabazz in the 2001 film Ali. Dillard was featured in the November 1998 Playboy issue in the article "Sex In Cinema 1988". Dillard lives in New York City, she writes screenplays and plays for the stage. Dillard was the long-time girlfriend of actor Laurence Fishburne beginning in 1992 when the two met on the set of the film Deep Cover, their relationship ended in 1995. In 2005, at the age of 36, Dillard was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, it is the same disease that afflicts actor Michael J. Fox, she has since become an advocate for Parkinson's disease research and treatments. Victoria Dillard on IMDb

Fort Mitchell, Nebraska

Fort Mitchell, Nebraska was an Army fort in service from 1864-1867, located in present-day Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. First constructed northwest of Mitchell Pass as Camp Shuman, Fort Mitchell was manned in the autumn of 1864 by Company "H" of the 11th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry under Captain J. S. Shuman, it was named in honor of General Robert B. Mitchell, who ordered the establishment of this post to protect traffic along the Great Platte River Road between Julesburg and South Pass and the nearby Scott's Bluff stage station. Fort Mitchell was abandoned after the Fort Laramie peace conference of 1867; the ground plan of Fort Mitchell consisted of a stockade with a sally port, firing loopholes, a sentinel tower. Today no trace of the sod structure remains at the site west of the North Platte River bend northwest of Scott's Bluff. Mitchell Pass and the city of Mitchell, derive their names from this military post. "FORT MITCHELL, 1864-1867" Waymark