The Papar were, according to early Icelandic sagas, Irish monks who took eremitic residence in parts of what is now Iceland before that island's habitation by the Norsemen of Scandinavia, as evidenced by the sagas and recent archaeological findings. The first Norsemen began settling in Iceland in AD 874; the oldest Scandinavian source mentioning the existence of the Papar, the Íslendingabók by Icelandic chronicler Ari Þorgilsson, was written between 1122 and 1133, some time after the event. Þorgilsson writes of "Christian men", titled the'Papar' by the Norsemen, who departed the isle because of their dislike of the'heathen' Norse, pointing to the possibility of the Papar having arrived before the Norse. An earlier source that could refer to the Papar is the work of Dicuil, an early 9th-century Irish monk and geographer, which included mention of the wandering of "holy men" to the lands of the north. However, it is not known whether Dicuil is speaking about Iceland, as Gaelic-Irish hermits settled in other islands of the north such as Orkney and Shetland.

Several Icelandic toponyms have been linked to the Papar, including the island of Papey and the Vestmannaeyjar, but no archaeological evidence in these places has yet confirmed the link. Another theory is that the two sources were conflated and that Þorgilsson based his history on the writings of Dicuil; the Landnámabók dating from the 11th century in its original form states on page one that Irish monks had been living on Iceland before the arrival of Norse settlers. According to this account, the basis behind this knowledge was monks' leaving behind numerous reminders of their stay, including Irish books and crosiers, helping the Norse to identify their predecessors. According to the Landnámabók, the Irish monks left the island either when the Norse arrived or were no longer living there when the Norse arrived. There are several toponyms relating to the Papar in the Faroe Islands. Among these are Paparøkur near Vestmanna, Papurshílsur near Saksun. Vestmanna, in fact, is short for Vestmannahøvn, meaning the "harbour of the Westmen".

A churchyard on the island of Skúgvoy has tombstones which display a possible Gaelic origin or influence. Some of the sagas suggest that Grímr, a Norse explorer, may have been responsible for driving them out, despite being a Norse–Gael himself: According to the Faereyinga Saga... the first settler in the Faroe Islands was a man named Grímur Kamban – Hann bygdi fyrstr Færeyar, it may have been the land taking of Grímur and his followers that caused the anchorites to leave... the nickname Kamban is Gaelic and one interpretation is that the word refers to some physical handicap, another that it may point to his prowess as a sportsman. He came as a young man to the Faroe Islands by way of Viking Ireland, local tradition he settled at Funningur in Eysturoy; the 16th century Historia Norwegiæ speculatively identifies the native Picts and Papar as those that the Norse discovered when they invaded Orkney in the early ninth century. Those islands were inhabited by Pents and Papes. Of these races, the Pents, only a little taller than pygmies, accomplished miraculous achievements by building towns morning and evenings but at midday every ounce of strength deserted them and they hid for fear in underground chambers.

The Papes were so called on account of the vestments in which they clothed themselves like priests, for this reason all priests are known as papen in the German tongue. However, as the appearance and letter forms of the books that they left behind them testifys that they were from Africa and clove to the Jewish faith. Historian Joseph Anderson noted in his Introduction to Orkneyinga Saga several Island toponyms deriving from'Papar', suggesting their influence upon the region: The two Papeys, the great and the little, now Papa Westray and Papa Stronsay... John of Fordun in his enumeration of the islands, has a'Papeay tertia', not now known. There are three islands in Shetland called Papey, both in Orkney and in Shetland The Outer Hebrides have numerous Papar-influenced toponyms, but with the crucial difference that the Norse language died out early in this area and it is arguable whether Scottish Gaelic died out at all. There are at least three islands named Papey and renamed "Pabbay" in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland: Pabbay, Barra Isles Pabbay, Harris Pabay, the Inner Hebrides near Skye Pabaigh, Loch Baghasdail, South Uist Culdees in the North Atlantic Gaelic Ireland Great Ireland Christianization of Scandinavia Papa, Scotland Axel Kristinsson, Is there any tangible proof that there were Irish monks in Iceland before the time of the Viking settlements?

Sandnes, Berit "Linguistic patterns in the place-names of Norway and the Northern Isles" Northern Lights, Northern Words. Selected Papers from the FRLSU Conference, Kirkwall 2009, edited by Robert McColl Millar


Mugamoodi is a 2012 Indian Tamil-language superhero film written and directed by Mysskin that features Jiiva, Pooja Hegde and Narain in lead roles, while Girish Karnad and Selva play supporting roles. It is the first Tamil superhero movie; the film is about a man who cannot tolerate injustice and corruption and hence turns into a vigilante to fight against it for a better society. This film was dedicated to Bruce Lee. With mixed critical response the film was released on 31 August 2012, along with its dubbed Telugu version titled Mask, it has been dubbed in Hindi as Mahabali Ek Super Hero. Anandan alias Bruce Lee is a college graduate. Instead, he studies martial arts with a group of jobless friends. Attempting to recruit new students who can pay tuition and save their school, he gets involved in a brawl and meets Shakthi, the daughter of Police Deputy Commissioner Gaurav. Lee falls in love but Shakthi pepper-sprays him on both of their initial meetings; when his grandfather advises him to make the girl see him as a hero, Lee borrows a superhero costume and goes to see Shakthi, looking after her elder sister's children.

Lee tries to impress them with his martial arts skills and accidentally ends up in the middle of a police chase. He helps the police capture one of the bandits; the gang of bandits, led by Anguchamy alias Dragon, come up with a plan to frame Lee for a series of robberies and murders. Soon, it is revealed in the climax that Dragon used to be Lee's teacher. Dragon was great martial artist. However, he lost his family due to some tragic event. From he turned into a thug by using his fighting skills, he thinks that the community did not help him, so he wants to take over it by using his strength. Dragon has lost his family the same day; as police officers begin dying, Lee tries to clear his name and win Shakthi's love. What happens next forms the rest of the story. In September 2008, UTV Motion Pictures agreed to produce Mysskin's script and subsequently signed on leading actor Suriya to play the role of the protagonist. Pre-production work for the film began in late 2008, with the film being referred to by the media as Agni Puthran.

The film was reported to be made at a cost of ₹ 450 million with A. R. Rahman as music composer and Suriya portraying a karate fighter in the film. However, in July 2009, Suriya opted out, unsuccessful discussions were held with Vishal to replace him, forcing Mysskin to stall the project; as the project remained dormant, Mysskin temporarily shelved the project and moved on to script a horror film. In October 2010, Arya signed on for the film with N. Linguswamy's Thirupathi Brothers production house replacing UTV as producers. However, within months, Arya had pulled out. In June 2011, a new Mumbai-based company had taken the production reins whilst Jiiva, after the commercial success of his political thriller Ko, had signed on to portray the lead role; that month, it was announced that Narain, who had worked with Mysskin in both Chithiram Pesuthadi and Anjathe, would portray the role of the lead antagonist with reports suggesting that the role would be reminiscent of The Joker / Scarecrow from English films, The Dark Knight and Batman Begins respectively.

Narain claimed that his villainy in the film would be brutal. His character in the movie has no shades and is negative. In early July 2011, sources reported that Amala Paul had been signed up to portray the lead female character in the film, which the actress dismissed, with Dhananjayan of UTV confirming that Amala was not approached for the role. Pooja Hegde, second runner-up of the 2011 Miss Universe India beauty pageant, was finalized as the female lead. K, who had scored for Mysskin's Yuddham Sei in 2010, was selected as the film composer over two other music directors, while Madhan Karky would pen the lyrics, associating for the first time with Mysskin. Veteran Telugu actor Akkineni Nageswara Rao was added to the cast in November 2011, which proved false, he was replaced by Girish Karnad, while Prakash Raj was reported to be playing an important role; the following month, Nassar was selected to portray a police officer. Pooja Hegde appeared as Jiiva's lover in the film. Reports further claimed that both Jiiva and Narain would undergo special training in martial arts with experts from the Shaolin Temple in China being flown in.

A large group of young aspiring artists were roped in to be part of the fight sequences which are touted be the highlight of the movie. The artists were trained for over 6 months at Mansuria Kung Fu YMCA, Chennai. In fact, a lot of the kung fu content of the film were handled by the Grand Master R. Shekhar. High-end gadgets to be used in the film were designed by the Indian Institutes of Technology, while teams from the National Institute of Fashion Technology were roped in to create the costumes and looks of the characters. Furthermore, a Los Angeles-based firm would handle special effects, while action sequences are planned to be choreographed by stuntmen from Hong Kong. Costumes are designed by Gabriella Wilkins, it is said that Jiiva's superhero outfit weighs more than 10 kg. Shooting of the film started on 12 December 2011 with the opening scene of kung fu as, so spoken about; the film is expected to be released during Summer 2012. The film was being canned in the nights in and around Triplicane in Chennai where the fight scene of Jiiva and Narain was shot in terrace.

Mysskin is planning a 20-day schedule to shoot the climax at Karaikal. The shoot concluded at Karaikal where daredevil stunts w

Markazul Uloom Senior Secondary English School

Markazul Uloom Senior Secondary English School is a CBSE affiliated senior secondary school established in 1983 and run by the Ansarul Islam Charitable Trust located at Kondotty, India. The trust, a non-profit charitable organisation, runs a number of educational institutions; the school has English as the medium of instruction. The school sections include Kindergarten, Lower Primary School, Upper Primary School, High School and Senior Secondary school. Computer Laboratory Smart Classroom Language Lab Physics Lab Chemistry Lab Zoology and Botany Lab Student library Digital library Conference Hall School ground Kondotty Malappuram