Papenburg is a city in the district of Emsland in Lower Saxony, situated at the river Ems. It is known for the Meyer-Werft, which specializes in building cruise liners. Papenburg is subdivided into 6 urban districts, Papenburg-Untenende, Papenburg-Obenende, Tunxdorf-Nenndorf and Bokel. In the Chronicle of the Frisians, written in the 16th century by the East-Frisian council Eggerik Benninga, the Papenburg is mentioned for the first time. In 1458, Hayo von Haren, called "von der Papenburch", confessed to be leaned with the Papenburg; the contract, made because of this is the earliest verifiably documented mention of Papenburg. On 2 December 1630, the district administrator Dietrich von Velen purchased the manor for 1500 Reichsthaler from Friedrich von Schwarzenberg in order to found a settlement in the fen-surrounded region. On 4 April 1631, Bishop Ferdinand von Münster leased the castle and manor Papenburg to Dietrich von Velen; this is considered to be the foundation of the city of Papenburg.
Matthias von Velen and his wife Margartha Anna, born von Galen, endowed the oldest church in Papenburg on 7 December 1680, dedicated to Anthony the Great, making him its patron saint. From 1933 to 1945 a series of 15 moorland labor, punitive and POWs-camps were active in the districts of Emsland and Bentheim; the central administration was set in Papenburg where now a memorial of these camps, the Dokumentations- und Informationszentrum Emslandlager, is located. 1998 - 33,671 1999 - 33,731 2000 - 34,096 2001 - 34,266 2002 - 34,403 2003 - 34,245 2004 - 34,440 2005 - 34,905 2006 - 34,797 2007 - 35,431 2012 - 37,532 Official website Short introduction to Papenburg
Stavern is a small water-side town in Larvik municipality in Vestfold County. It is south of the city of Larvik. There are around 3,000 inhabitants in Stavern, it is a small town. During summer, the population increases to around 30,000-40,000 people, due to camping sites and cottages around the town centre as well as boats visiting the harbour. Stavern experiences 200 days of sunshine per year. Consequentially, Stavern’s population more than doubles during summers. From the mid 1750s until 1864, Stavern was home to the nation’s main naval base located in a shipyard in Fredriksvern. A gunpowder tower and commandant's house remain on a current refuge for artists; the town is home of Hall of Remembrance, a monument dedicated to seamen killed during World Wars I and II. Stavern has been a harbour since ancient times; the name is found in written sources from the 11th century and the 12th century where it is referred to as a good fishing harbour. Stavern in the 17th and 18th century was an important port for civil ship traffic from Norway to Denmark and Sweden.
The port and naval base of Staverns Fortress was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. Though it was an important port it was first given its status as a town 1 July 1942; the small town and municipality of Stavern was merged with the larger town of Larvik 1 January 1988. Its former and current name is Stavern, but from 1799 to 1930 the civilian part of the town was titled Fredriksværn as its only function was as the site of that naval base. From 1942 the town was Norway's smallest until it merged with Larvik in 1988 and lost its town status. In 1996 Stavern was again elevated to town status. During the 20th century, Stavern became a popular site for craftsmen; the poet Herman Wildenvey, the writer Jonas Lie as well as the painters Hans Gude and Christian Krohg all lived in Stavern at some point in their lives. Today, the town is well known in southern Norway for art galleries. Stavern is the site of Minnehallen, the national memorial to fallen sailors of World War I and World War II and a statue of the 18th century naval hero Peder Tordenskjold.
The Old Norse form of the name was Staferni. The first element is stafr'staff, stick', the last element is the suffix -erni. What the word stafr is referring to here is unknown. Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen, Norwegian-American author, was born at Fredriksvern. Short history of Stavern
Sögel is a municipality in the Emsland district, in Lower Saxony, Germany. Sögel is most known for the Clemenswerth Palace, a hunting lodge built 1737-1749 by Johann Conrad Schlaun for Elector Clemens August. Wilhelm Röpke, surgeon in Wuppertal, president of the German Society of Surgery Bernhard Rakers, Nazi war criminal Katharina Sibylla Schücking, poet Johann Heermann, politician, MdL Much of the centre of Sögel was deliberately destroyed by the Canadian Army after the town was captured in April 1945
Rhede, Lower Saxony
Rhede is a municipality in the Emsland district, Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated near the border with the Netherlands, approx. 10 km west of Papenburg, 20 km southeast of Winschoten
Haren is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany in the district of Emsland. Haren was first mentioned in the Middle Ages in a registry of the Corvey Abbey. Around 1150 the settlement of Neuharen was founded, while the nearby Altharen formed around a local castle, belonging to the bishop of Munster, who bought it around 1252 from Duchess Jutta von Ravensberg. At the end of the Thirty Years War Haren was completely destroyed, but soon recovered and became a notable trading port at the Ems River; the inhabitants of Haren were in large part tradesmen and sailors, transporting grain and other commodities down the Ems River. During the Napoleonic epoch in 1803 the town was given to the Duke of Arenberg as a compensation for the lands on the other side of the river; however in 1810 the town was directly incorporated into the French Empire. At the Congress of Vienna Haren, together with the entire Duchy of Arenberg-Meppen, was assigned to the Kingdom of Hanover, which in turn in 1866 became part of the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire.
Following the Franco-Prussian War a large prisoner of war camp was set up in the vicinity. The French prisoners built, among other facilities, the Haren-Rütenbrock canal, thanks to which turf started to be produced in the area. Despite all the changes, until 1913 both settlements were directly administered by the church. Only did the German government take over the administrative area of Meppen, to which Haren belonged. By 1935 there were 205 ships of various sizes registered in Haren. While some of them were mobilised and lost at sea during World War II, Haren remains a notable port of registry for German ships. Altharen and Neuharen were united in October 1956 and in December 1965 Haren received city rights. At the end of World War II there were over 3 million Polish citizens in Germany, most of them displaced persons who got there either as slave labourers, prisoners of German concentration camps or prisoners of war; as the political situation in Communist-controlled Poland was uncertain, the Allied authorities decided to create a Polish enclave in Germany that would serve both as a resettlement camp, local cultural centre and a station from which the DPs could further be dispatched to Poland or various western states.
As Haren lay in the occupation zone administered by the Polish I Corps, it was chosen as the most appropriate centre of a Polish enclave in Germany. On 19 May 1945, the Polish 1st Armoured Division, a unit attached to the British Army moved all of the thousand families of Haren out to surrounding communities. Over 4000 Poles from Labor camps and prisoner-of-war camps in Northern Germany moved into the town. Many of them had been members of the Polish Home Army and women, who had fought in the Warsaw Uprising of 1944; the new Polish enclave was named Lwów, after the city in South-Eastern Poland by occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union. However, under Soviet pressure the name was changed to Maczków, in honour of General Stanislaw Maczek, the commanding officer of the Armoured Division and the local Allied occupation forces; the streets in the town were renamed to Polish, either honouring various military units or named after streets in Warsaw. During the next months, a Polish town with a Polish mayor, a Polish school, a folk high school, a Polish fire brigade and a Polish rectory were established.
The latter registered 101 funerals. 479 Poles have birth certificates showing Maczków as place of birth. As there were hundreds of thousands of Poles in the area administered by the 1st Armoured Division, "Maczków" served as a cultural centre: newspapers were being published there on a daily basis, a theatre was opened and concert halls were active. Among the most notable events held in the Polish enclave was a 1947 concert by Benjamin Britten and Lord Yehudi Menuhin. In the Autumn of 1946 the Polish forces stationed in North-Western Germany started to be demobilised and ferried back to the United Kingdom; the civilian inhabitants started to return to Poland or move to other European states. By the end of 1948 the town was returned to the original inhabitants. Haren is twinned with: Międzyrzecz, Poland Official website history of the Polish enclave in Emsland Poland in the Emsland
Esterwegen is a municipality in the Emsland district, in Lower Saxony, Germany. Esterwegen lies in northwest Germany, less than 30 kilometres from the Dutch border and about 40 kilometres from the sea. In 2015 the population was 5,280; the mayor is Hermann Willenborg. In 1933 a concentration camp was established in Esterwegen. In 1936 the camp was dissolved and used till 1945 as a prisoner camp, for political prisoners and for prisoners of the decree Nacht und Nebel. Julius Leber, politician Carl von Ossietzky and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Georg Diederichs Minister-President of Lower Saxony Karl Germer, Outer Head of the Order of Ordo Templi Orientis memorial of Camp Esterwegen and the other 14 Emsland camps de:KZ Esterwegen homepage of the memorial United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - Concentration Camps, 1933-1939
Twist is a municipality in the Emsland district, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated directly on the Dutch border. Situation of the local parts in the municipality of Twist: The settlement in the area of today's municipality Twist began quite late around the year 1784; the prince-bishop of Münster Max Franz satisfied the wishes of some "Heuerleute", a kind of farmer, from the nearby village of Hesepe to settle down in the bog "Twist". This was the starting point of the settlement in Twist; the ground was at that time quite infertile because of the its composition and did just allow a meager livelihood and so the people did not live in any comfort. The construction of the canal "Nord-Süd-Kanal" about 100 years brought significant improvements in the quality of life of the people, because the canal allowed a systematic drainage and removal of the peat. In the 1950s the economic revival arrived on the one hand by finding larger oil deposits and on the other hand by commissioning of the production site of the Dutch plastics company Wavin.
These two factors were over some decades the driving forces for the economical rise of Twist. In 1986 Twist celebrated its 200th anniversary; the anniversary festivities ended with a pageant which had respect to the history and current circumstances in Twist. For instance one of the numerous parade floats showed a detailed replica of the church St. Georg. In the 1990s the two main columns of Twist's economy, oil production and the plastic production declined more and more. With the finishing of the autobahn 31 at the end of the 1990s this negative development was stopped by siting new companies in the industrial area close to the autobahn. In August/September 2011 Twist celebrated its 225th anniversary; the 10-day-long festival started with a "Twist-Schau". This show was performed like a play in Low German language and telling the history of Twist in a humorous way, with its good old times, but the hard living conditions of the first settlers, the loss of loved family members during WWII and the upcoming prosperity caused by the fast economic growth of the last 60 years that offers people of about 30 different nations a new home in Twist.
One of the following days of the festival was themed as "Tag der Vereine" presenting all sporting and welfare associations in Twist. It hobbies. Another motto of one of the festival days was "Twist macht Musik" where all choirs in Twist performed their songs and left the audience impressed. Part of the festival were concerts by Queen and Pink Floyd cover bands; the festival ended by presenting a pageant related to historical and present developments in Twist. The origin of the name of the municipality Twist has nothing to do with the dance style of the same title. Due to a long disagreement with the Dutch Kingdom about the way the border between both countries should take it was common language use to speak about "Twistrich" or "Twist Gebiet". In Low German "Twistrich" or "Twist Gebiet" has a meaning similar to "disputed border"; this language was the official language at that time and is still in usage. The name is mispronounced as locals pronounce it "Tweest". New research results from Jürgen Udolph, a known scientist in the fields of onomastics, shows that the name Twist has its origin in the words "twistel" in the meaning of "Zwiesel" or "Zweiung", that means something is at a bifurcation.
In this meaning words like "zwieträchtig", "twisten" and "in Zweispalt, Streit sein" belong to the explanation of the origin of the name Twist. The conclusion of Udolph is, that the name of Twist means something like "separated settlement, a place located at a bifurcation"; the parish church in the district Heblermeer houses two rococo busts of Ignatius of Loyola and Francisco de Xavier created by the sculptor Johann Heinrich König. In December 1928 the construction work on the church started; the architect Theo Burlage designed the church in the style of expressionism. One year after starting construction the first service in the church was celebrated on December 8, 1929. In August 1930 bishop Berning did consecrated the church; the altar crucifix was designed by Wolfdietrich Stein. With a height of 5 meters it fills the complete width of the sanctuary; the church spire has clock faces on three of its sides. Contrary to ordinary clock faces, these ones do not show numbers; the top figure is an Iron Cross with the date of 1914 and 1918.
The other 33 figures on the clock faces are name tags with the names of the soldiers killed in action from the villages Schönighsdorf and Provinzialmoor. An exceptional feature is the Protestant church in the district of Neuringe, because this church boasts one of the oldest and most valuable organs of the Protestant national church; the church itself was constructed in 1904. As in many villages at that time, there was no money for both construction of the church and the buying of inventory. Therefore, a used organ was bought. Sometimes, as in this case, the used ones have a higher value nowadays than organs that were built in the 1900s. In the center of the municipality of Twist numerous retailers are located, such as grocery stores, a travel agency, a bank and so on; the city hall and the police station is situated in the center of Twist. A special attraction in the center is the museum for crude oil and natural gas and the "Heimathaus Twist"; the H