Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Germantown is an area in Northwest Philadelphia. Founded by German Quaker and Mennonite families in 1683 as an independent borough, it was absorbed into Philadelphia in 1854; the area, about six miles northwest from the city center, now consists of two neighborhoods:'Germantown' and'East Germantown'. Germantown has played a significant role in American history. Today the area remains rich in historic sites and buildings from the colonial era, some of which are open to the public. Germantown stretches for about two miles along Germantown Avenue northwest from Windrim and Roberts Avenues. Germantown has been bounded on the southwest by Wissahickon Avenue, on the southeast by Roberts Avenue, on the east by Wister Street and Stenton Avenue, but its northwest border has expanded and contracted over the years; when first incorporated as a borough in 1689, Germantown was separated from the rural Germantown Township by Washington Lane. Today, the western part of the former borough is the neighborhood known as'Germantown' and the eastern part is the neighborhood of'East Germantown'.
While the boundary between the two neighborhoods is not well-defined and has varied over time, these days'Germantown' refers to the part of the former borough that lies west of Germantown Avenue, up through West Johnson Street, and'East Germantown' to the part that lies east of Germantown Avenue, up through East Upsal Street. The neighborhood of Mount Airy lies to the northwest and West Oak Lane to the northeast, Logan to the east, Nicetown–Tioga to the south, East Falls to the southwest; the majority of Germantown is covered by the 19144 zip code, but the area north of Chew Avenue falls in the 19138 zip code. Germantown was founded on October 6, 1683, by German settlers: thirteen Quaker and Mennonite families from Krefeld. Today the founding day of Germantown is remembered as German-American Day, a holiday in the United States, observed annually on October 6. On August 12, 1689, William Penn at London signed a charter constituting some of the inhabitants a corporation by the name of "the bailiff and commonalty of Germantown, in the county of Philadelphia, in the province of Pennsylvania."
Francis Daniel Pastorius was the first bailiff. Jacob Telner, Derick Isacks op den Graeff and his brother Abraham Isacks op den Graeff, Reynier Tyson, Tennis Coender were burgesses, besides six committeemen, they had authority to hold "the general court of the corporation of Germantowne", to make laws for the government of the settlement, to hold a court of record. This court went into operation in 1690, continued its services for sixteen years. Sometimes, to distinguish Germantown from the upper portion of German township, outside the borough, the township portion was called Upper Germantown. In 1688, five years after its founding, Germantown became the birthplace of the anti-slavery movement in America. Pastorius, Gerret Hendericks, Derick Updegraeff and Abraham Updengraef gathered at Thones Kunders's house and wrote a two-page condemnation of slavery and sent it to the governing bodies of their Quaker church, the Society of Friends; the petition was based upon the Bible's Golden Rule, "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you."
Though the Quaker establishment took no immediate action, the 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery was a clear and forceful argument against slavery and initiated the process of banning slavery in the Society of Friends and Pennsylvania. In 1723, Germantown became the site of the first Church of the Brethren congregation in the New World; when Philadelphia was occupied by the British during the American Revolutionary War, British units were housed in Germantown. In the Battle of Germantown, on October 4, 1777, the Continental Army attacked this garrison. During the battle, a party of citizens fired on the British troops, as they marched up the avenue, mortally wounded British Brigadier General Agnew; the Americans withdrew after firing on one another in the confusion of the battle, leading to the determination that the battle resulted in a defeat of the Americans. However, the battle is sometimes considered a victory by Americans; the American loss was 673 and the British loss was 575, but along with the Army's success under Brigadier General Horatio Gates at Saratoga on October 17 when John Burgoyne surrendered, the battle led to the official recognition of the Americans by France, which formed an alliance with the Americans afterward.
During his presidency, George Washington and his family lodged at the Deshler-Morris House in Germantown to escape the city and the yellow fever epidemic of 1793. The first bank of the United States was located here during his administration. Germantown proper, the adjacent German Township, were incorporated into the City of Philadelphia in 1854 by the Act of Consolidation. Italians began settling Germantown in 1880, comprised an active and vibrant part of the community; the significant changes that occurred in Philadelphia's demographics at the start of the 20th century caused major shifts in Germantown's ethnic makeup as well. When the first wave of the Great Migration brought more than 140,000 African Americans to the city from the South, long-established Philadelphians started to move to the outskirts
William Rittenhouse is the first person recorded as having made paper in North America. He was born in a small village in the Ruhr region of Germany with the name Wilhelm Rettinghaus or Rittinghaus. During his stay in the Netherlands he changed his name to "Willm Rittenhuysen"; this name was found on a petition for naturalization of residents of Germantown, Pennsylvania dated 7 May 1691. As a young man, Rittenhouse was a papermaking apprentice in Germany. Two years he founded the first paper mill to be established in the colonies; this Rittenhouse Mill became the family business for the next century. Rittenhouse was naturalized as a citizen of Pennsylvania in 1691. Around 1690 the Germantown, Pennsylvania, Mennonite congregation elected William Rittenhouse as its first preacher, he died in Pennsylvania in 1708. His legacy continued to his descendant David Rittenhouse, who had the Rittenhouse name immortalized in Rittenhouse Square, Pennsylvania. "William Rittenhouse." Historic Germantown. Independence Hall Association.
12 Dec 2007 Bender, Harold S.. White, Jean M. "The Descendants of Paulus and Gertrude Kusters of Kaldenkirchen and Germantown, Pennsylvania the first four generations". Europäische Wurzeln des ersten amerikanischen Papiermachers. München, 2012. William Rittenhouse in Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online
David Rittenhouse was an American astronomer, clockmaker, surveyor, scientific instrument craftsman, public official. Rittenhouse was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the first director of the United States Mint. David Rittenhouse was born on April 8, 1732 in Roxborough Township, Philadelphia County, near a small village within Philadelphia called Rittenhousetown; this village is located near Germantown, along the stream Paper Mill Run, a tiny tributary of the Wissahickon Creek. When his uncle, William Rittenhouse, David inherited his uncle's carpentry tools and instructional books. At a young age, David showed a high level of intelligence by creating a working scale model of his great-grandfather William Rittenhouse's paper mill, he built other scale models like a working waterwheel. David never attended elementary school—he was self-taught from his family's books, he showed great ability in science and mathematics; when David was 13 years of age, he had mastered Isaac Newton's laws of gravity.
At around the age of 17, David constructed a clock with wooden gears. At the age of 19, he started a scientific instrument shop at his father's farm in what is now Valley Forge Medical Center & Hospital, located in East Norriton Township, Pennsylvania, his skill with instruments clocks, led him to construct two orreries, the first for The College of New Jersey, the second for the College of Philadelphia. David was prevailed upon to construct the second orrery by his friend, the Reverend William Smith, the first provost of the College of Philadelphia, upset that David would deliver such a device to a college located in the rural area of New Jersey, rather than in Philadelphia, seeking to be one of the important centers of the 18th century enlightenment and for the study of "natural philosophy" such as astronomy. Both of these orreries still exist, with each being held by their original recipients: one in the library of the University of Pennsylvania and the other at Peyton Hall of Princeton University.
The last name "Rittenhouse" has German origins relating to his past. Astronomers, studying the planet Venus chose Rittenhouse to study the transit path of Venus in 1769 and its atmosphere. Rittenhouse was the perfect person to study the mysterious planet, as he had a personal observatory on his family farm. "His telescope, which he made himself, utilized grating intervals and spider threads on the focus of the telescope." His telescope is similar to some modern-day telescopes. Rittenhouse served on the American Astronomical Society, this was another factor in being chosen to study Venus. Throughout his life he had the honour to serve in committees. In 1768, Rittenhouse was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society, he served as librarian and after Benjamin Franklin's death in 1790, he became Vice president served as president of the society until 1796. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1782. Another one of his interests was the Royal Society of London.
It was rare for an American to be a member of this exclusive British society. In 1786, Rittenhouse built a new Georgian-style house on the corner of 4th and Arch streets in Philadelphia, next to an octagonal observatory he had built. At this house, he maintained a Wednesday evening salon meeting with Benjamin Franklin, Francis Hopkinson, Pierre Eugene du Simitiere and others. Thomas Jefferson wrote that he would rather attend one of these meetings "than spend a whole week in Paris." David Rittenhouse was married twice. He married Eleanor Coulston February 20, 1766, they had two daughters: Elizabeth and Ester. Eleanor died February 23, 1771, at age 35 from complications during the birth of their third baby, who died at birth. David married his second wife Hannah Jacobs in late 1772, they had an unnamed baby, who died at birth in late 1773. Hannah survived David by more than three years, dying in late 1799. David's grandson was named David Rittenhouse Waters. David Rittenhouse made many breakthroughs of importance to the United States.
During the first part of his career he was a surveyor for Great Britain, served in the Pennsylvania government. His 1763–1764 survey of the Delaware-Pennsylvania border was a 12-mile circle about the Court House in New Castle, Delaware, to define the northern border of Delaware. Rittenhouse's work was so precise and well-documented that it was incorporated without modification into Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon's survey of the Pennsylvania-Maryland border. Rittenhouse helped establish the boundaries of several other states and commonwealths both before and after the Independence, including the boundaries between New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania. In 1763 Mason and Dixon began a survey of the Pennsylvania-Maryland border, but this work was interrupted in 1767. In 1784 Rittenhouse and Andrew Ellicott completed this survey of the Mason-Dixon line to the southwest corner of Pennsylvania; when Rittenhouse's work as a surveyor ended, he resumed his scientific interests. In 1768, the same year that he became a member of the American Philosophical Society, Rittenhouse announced plans to observe a pending transit of Venus across the Sun from several locations.
The American Philosophical Society persuaded the legislature to grant £100 towards the purchase of new telescopes, members volunteered to man half of the 22 telescope stations when the event arrived. The transit of Venus occurred on 3 June 1769. Rittenhouse's great excitement at obse
Mount Airy, Philadelphia
Mount Airy is a neighborhood of Northwest Philadelphia in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. Mount Airy is bounded on the northwest by the Cresheim Valley, part of Fairmount Park. Beyond this lies Chestnut Hill. On the west side is the Wissahickon Gorge, part of Fairmount Park, beyond which lies Roxborough and Manayunk. Germantown borders the southeast of Mount Airy, Stenton Avenue marks the northeast border. Beyond Stenton Avenue is West Oak Lane; the USPS does not correlate neighborhood names to Philadelphia ZIP codes. However, the 19119 ZIP code is entirely coterminous with the cultural-consensus boundaries of Mount Airy. There is no official boundary between Mount Germantown; the most common consensus is. The question is moot, however, as the two neighborhoods blend together gradually; the entire area was part of the German Township. Many buildings in Mount Airy carry the identity and the name of Germantown in one way or another. For example, the Unitarian Society of Germantown, the Germantown Jewish Centre, the Germantown Christian Assembly, the Germantown Montessori School are all in Mount Airy, yet belong culturally to Germantown.
Parts of the Battle of Germantown in 1777 occurred throughout Mount Airy. The special relationship linking the two has its roots in the time before the Act of Consolidation, when Germantown was a borough separate from the City of Philadelphia, its rural environs were what is now Mount Airy. William Allen, a prominent Philadelphia merchant and Chief Justice of the Province of Pennsylvania, created his summer estate and mansion on Germantown Avenue at Allens Lane in 1750, the area took the building's name, Mount Airy, as its own. Before this, the area which makes up the modern neighborhood of Mount Airy was part of two sections of the original Germantown Township and Beggarstown; the village or Dorfshaft of Krisheim has its origins in the original land divisions of Germantown Township in 1689. It was a section of the township, allotted to a group of original Germantown settlers who acquired rights to land either directly or indirectly from William Penn, it covered the area from Stenton to Wissahickon Avenues and from Mermaid Lane to Sedgwick Street.
The name is derived from a town known today as Kriegsheim in the Palatine in Germany, the hometown of a few German Quaker families who had settled in Germantown in the 1680s. Throughout much of the 18th century, this area of Germantown Township was known in the land and tax records as Cresheim or Cresham, it was at the beginning of the 19th century. Beggarstown, an area centered along Germantown Avenue between Gorgas Lane and Cliveden Street, was formed out of the so-called "Sidelands" of Germantown; the Sidelands were a section of Germantown Township, set aside so that the owners of lots in the center of Germantown could have access to an equal share of land in the entire village of Germantown section of Germantown Township. The portion from which Beggarstown grew covered the area from Upsal Street to Sedgwick Street, Stenton Avenue, Wissahickon Avenue; as the Germantown village filled up, settlers began to move northwest along Germantown Avenue. By the 1730s and 1740s, the Sidelands area was subdivided into smaller house lots.
An account published in 1770 states that the area received its name as a result of its first resident's begging for money to build his house, which became the home of the Germantown Church of the Brethren. The name for this area disappeared by the late 19th century, it was sometimes called Pelham, Germantown, or Mount Airy. Much of modern Mount Airy was developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, spreading out from Germantown Avenue and two railroad lines. Large three-story, gray-stone Victorian, colonial revival, Norman and Cotswold-style houses and mansions, with stained glass windows and slate roofs, are situated on many of the area's tree-lined streets, they dominated districts like West Mount Airy's Pelham section, East Mount Airy's Gowen Avenue, Sedgwick Farms, Stenton areas. As of the 2010 Census, Mount Airy has 27,035 residents, 11,934 households, 6,636 families. 62.5% of residents are Black or African-American, 31.7% White/Caucasian, 5.8% are from other races or from 2 or more races.
There are 11,934 households out of which 22.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.1% are married couples living together, 18.3% have a female householder with no husband present, 44.4% are non-families. 37.3% of all households are made up of individuals and 27.7% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.21 and the average family size is 2.92. 20.1% of Mount Airy's residents are under the age of 18, 16.9% are 65 years and over. The median age is 42.7 years. 56.5% of residents are female. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 72.8 males. The median household income was $56,815, the median family income was $80,978 and the per capita income was $35,941; the area is recognized by many civil rights groups as one of the first integrated neighborhoods in America. Mount Airy residents organized to resist
Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of 2017, Philadelphia County was home to an estimated population of 1,580,863 residents; the county is the second smallest county in Pennsylvania by land area. Philadelphia County is one of the three original counties, along with Chester and Bucks counties, created by William Penn during November 1682. Since 1854, the county has been coterminous with the City of Philadelphia, which serves as its seat of government. Philadelphia County is part of the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. Philadelphia County is the economic and cultural anchor of the Delaware Valley, the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States, with a population of 7.2 million. Native American tribes of Lenape were the first known occupants in the area that became Philadelphia County; the first European settlers were Swedes and Finns who arrived during 1638.
The Netherlands seized the area during 1655, but lost control to England during 1674. William Penn received his charter for Pennsylvania from Charles II of England during 1681, November 1682 he divided Pennsylvania into three counties. During the same year, Philadelphia was planned and was made the county seat and the capital of the Province of Pennsylvania. Penn wanted Philadelphia, meaning "love brotherly", to be a place where religious tolerance and the freedom to worship were ensured. Philadelphia's name is shared with an ancient city in Asia Minor mentioned by the Bible's Book of Revelation, it was William Penn's desire, as a Quaker, that his "Holy Experiment" would be found blameless at the Last Judgment. When established, Philadelphia County consisted of the area from the Delaware River west between the Schuylkill River to the south and the border with Bucks County to the north. Two counties would be formed out of Philadelphia County, Berks County, formed during 1752, Montgomery County established during 1784.
From these separations, as well as other border changes, was created the present-day boundaries of the county. The City of Philadelphia, as planned by Penn, comprised only that portion of the present day city situated between South and Vine Streets and the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. Other settlements were made beyond the boundaries of the city, in the course of time they became incorporated separately and had separate governments. Several of these settlements were situated contiguous to the "city proper" of Philadelphia, such as Southwark and Moyamensing in the south, the Northern Liberties District, Spring Garden and Penn District to the north, West Philadelphia and Blockley to the west — which combined with the City of Philadelphia formed one continuously urban area, the whole group being known abroad as Philadelphia. Besides these, there were a number of other outlying townships and settlements throughout the county. Over time, as the population expanded out from the City of Philadelphia, those closer to the City of Philadelphia became absorbed into Philadelphia.
During this period, the city government of Philadelphia and the county government of Philadelphia acted separately. By the mid-19th century, a more structured government bureaucracy was needed. A reform charter, on February 2, 1854, defined all the boroughs and districts of the County of Philadelphia as being within the City of Philadelphia, thus abolishing the patchwork of cities and townships that had comprised Philadelphia County since its founding; the city-county consolidation was a result of the inability of a colonial-type government by committees to adapt to the needs of a growing city for new public services, for example, better streets, transportation and schools. The newly integrated districts had marked characteristics between them, but over time, after the consolidation, these characteristics were integrated into the City of Philadelphia. Presently, the names of some of these old districts survive as the names of neighborhoods in the city, with their boundaries matching their historic boundaries.
During 1951, a new law known as the Home Rule Charter merged county offices completely. This new charter provided the city with a common structure and outlined the "strong mayor" form of government, still used; the county offices were merged with the city government during 1952 eliminating the county as a government. Though the county no longer has a government structure by law, in both the Unconsolidated Pennsylvania Statutes and The Philadelphia Code and Charter, the County of Philadelphia is still an entity within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, it is thus subject to the laws of the Commonwealth concerning counties. Exceptions include restrictions stated in the Home Rule Charter of Philadelphia, Act of Consolidation, 1854, subsequent legislation; the county is the only First Class County, meaning it had a population of 1.5 million or more at the last census, in the Commonwealth. Philadelphia has become racially and ethnically diverse over the years, this process continues. Since 1990, thousands of immigrants from Latin America and Europe have arrived in the county.
Presently, the city has some of the largest Irish, German, Puerto Rican, Vietnamese, Ukrainian, Chinese, Arab and Cambodian populations in America. The county has the fourth largest concentration of African Americans in North America, including large nu
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe