There was just enough public discussion of A. I. safety in the air."A paid version of the game was sold for mobile devices. The game begins with a single button; the user can automate paperclip production, invest the profits in the stock market, invest the stock market profits into computer upgrades, all for the sake of maximizing paperclip production. An activity log records the user's accomplishments, gives the user some glimpses into the AI's unsettling thoughts; the game ends if the player reaches 30.0 septendecillion paperclips, finishing the conversion of all matter in the universe into paperclips. According to Lantz, the game was inspired by the paperclip maximizer, a thought experiment attributed to philosopher Nick Bostrom and popularized by the Less Wrong internet forum, which Lantz visited. In the paperclip maximizer scenario, an artificial general intelligence designed to build paperclips becomes superintelligent through recursive self-improvement. In the worst-case scenario, the AI becomes smarter than humans in the same way that humans are smarter than apes.
The goal of making paperclips seems banal and harmless, but the AI uses its superintelligence to gain a strategic advantage over the human race and takes over the world, as taking over the world is the best way to maximize its goal of building paperclips. The AI does not allow humans to shut it down or slow it down once it has a strategic advantage, as that would interfere with its goal of building as many paperclips as possible. According to Bostrom, the paperclips example is a toy model: "It doesn't have to be paper clips, it could be anything. But if you give an artificial intelligence an explicit goal – like maximizing the number of paper clips in the world – and that artificial intelligence has gotten smart enough to the point where it is capable of inventing its own super-technologies and building its own manufacturing plants well, be careful what you wish for." A innocuous goal leads to human extinction, as our bodies are made of matter and so too, it happens, are paperclips. Lantz argues that Universal Paperclips reflects a version of the orthogonality thesis, which states that an agent can theoretically have any combination of intelligence level and goal: "When you play a game – any game, but a game, addictive and that you find yourself pulled into – it does give you direct, first-hand experience of what it means to be compelled by an arbitrary goal."
While the game takes narrative license, Eliezer Yudkowsky of the Machine Intelligence Research Institute argues that the core of the game's fundamental understanding of what superintelligence would entail is correct: "The AI is smart. The AI is being strategic; the AI is building hypnodrones, but not releasing them before it’s ready... There isn't a long, drawn-out fight with the humans because the AI is smarter than that."Lantz states that exponential growth is another strong theme, saying "The human brain isn't designed to intuitively understand things like exponential growth" but that Paperclips as a clicker game allows users to "directly engage with these numerical patterns, to hold them in your hands and feel the weight of them."Lantz was inspired by Kittens, an simple videogame that spirals into an exploration of how societies are structured. Brendan Caldwell of Rock, Shotgun stated that "like all the best clicker games, there's a sinister and funny underbelly in which to become hopelessly lost."
Emanuel Maiberg of Vice Media's MotherBoard called the game mindlessly addictive: "The truth is, I am kind of embarrassed by how much I enjoy Paperclips and that I can't figure out what Lantz is trying to say with it." Stephanie Chan of VentureBeat stated "I found myself delighted by sudden musical cues and the occasional koans that appeared in the activity log at the top of the page." Adam Rogers of Wired praised Lantz for "taking a denigrated game genre and making it more than it is." James Vincent of The Verge recommended Paperclips as "the most addictive you'll play today". Vox Media's Polygon ranked Paperclips as #37 among the best 50 games of 2017; the game was nominated for
Paper Clips (film)
Paper Clips is a 2004 American documentary film written and produced by Joe Fab, directed by Fab and Elliot Berlin, about the Paper Clips Project, in which a middle school class tries to collect 6 million paper clips to represent the 6 million Jews killed by the Nazis. Paper Clips takes place in the rural, blue-collar Tennessee community of Whitwell, where a middle-school class attempts to gauge the magnitude of World War II's Holocaust by collecting paper clips, each of which represents a human life lost in the Nazis' slaughter of Jews; the idea came in 1998 from three of the teachers at the school and was completed in their eighth grade classrooms. The students succeeded in collecting over 25 million paperclips; the documentary film about the project was released in 2004. This film's genesis lies with Rachel Pinchot who saw an article about the Whitwell Middle School in the Washington Post, she took the idea of a film to Ari Pinchot, of The Johnson Group. The Johnson Group sent a team to Whitwell to film key moments, such as the arrival of several Holocaust survivors from New York who shared their experiences with the community.
Out of that footage, Elliot Berlin created a seven-minute presentation. With help from Ergo Entertainment and its partners Donny Epstein, Yeeshai Gross, Elie Landau, this "demo" helped to convince the Miramax film company that this project was worth a full-length movie, it was described as being not yet another movie showing the tragedy, but a project of hope and inspiration. The movie features interviews with students, Holocaust survivors, people who sent paper clips, it shows how the railcar traveled from Germany to Baltimore, Whitwell. The creators had accumulated about 150 hours of footage; the movie was shown for the first time in November 2003 in Whitwell. Audience Choice Award - Jackson Hole Film Festival, Marco Island Film Festival, Palm Springs International Film Festival, Rome International Film Festival, Washington Jewish Film Festival Cowboy Award - Jackson Hole Film Festival NBR Award for Top Five Documentaries - National Board of Review Best Overall Film, Best Director, Best Original Score - Rome International Film Festival Nominated for an Emmy for Outstanding Historical Programming Paper Clips on IMDb Paper Clips at Rotten Tomatoes
One red paperclip
One red paperclip is a website created by Canadian blogger Kyle MacDonald, who bartered his way from a single red paperclip to a house in a series of fourteen online trades over the course of a year. MacDonald was inspired by the childhood game Bigger, his site received a considerable amount of notice for tracking the transactions. "A lot of people have been asking how I've stirred up so much publicity around the project, my simple answer is:'I have no idea'", he told the BBC. MacDonald made his first trade, a red paper clip for a fish-shaped pen, on July 14, 2005, he reached his goal of trading up to a house with the fourteenth transaction, trading a movie role for a house. This is the list of all transactions MacDonald made: On July 14, 2005, he went to Vancouver and traded the paperclip for a fish-shaped pen, he traded the pen the same day for a hand-sculpted doorknob from Seattle, Washington. On July 25, 2005, he travelled to Amherst, with a friend to trade the doorknob for a Coleman camp stove.
On September 24, 2005, he went to California, traded the camp stove for a Honda generator. On November 16, 2005, he traveled to Maspeth and traded the generator for an "instant party": an empty keg, an IOU for filling the keg with the beer of the bearer's choice, a neon Budweiser sign; this was his second attempt to make the trade. On December 8, 2005, he traded the "instant party" to Quebec comedian and radio personality Michel Barrette for a Ski-Doo snowmobile. Within a week of that, he traded the snowmobile for a two-person trip to Yahk, British Columbia, scheduled for February 2006. On or about January 7, 2006, he traded the second spot on the Yahk trip for a box truck. On or about February 22, 2006, he traded the box truck for a recording contract with Metalworks in Mississauga, Ontario. On or about April 11, 2006, he traded the contract to Jody Gnant for a year's rent in Phoenix, Arizona. On or about April 26, 2006, he traded the year's rent in Phoenix for one afternoon with Alice Cooper.
On or about May 26, 2006, he traded the afternoon with Cooper for a KISS motorized snow globe. On or about June 2, 2006, he traded the snow globe to Corbin Bernsen for a role in the film Donna on Demand. On or about July 5, 2006, he traded the movie role for a two-story farmhouse in Kipling, Saskatchewan. Straw Millionaire Gudbrand on the Hill-side, a Norwegian folk tale about the reverse situation: A man makes a series of ever-worse trades. "One Red Paperclip Website" Red Paperclip Official site. Red Paperclip Story at the Kipling website^ TEDx Talks, What if you could trade a paperclip for a house? | Kyle MacDonald | TEDxVienna, retrieved 2018-06-26
Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were taken from Germany to America for U. S. government employment between 1945 and 1959. Many were former members, some were former leaders, of the Nazi Party; the primary purpose for Operation Paperclip was U. S. military advantage in the Soviet–American Cold War, the Space Race. The Soviet Union was more aggressive in forcibly recruiting more than 2,200 German specialists—a total of more than 6,000 people including family members—with Operation Osoaviakhim during one night on October 22, 1946; the Joint Chiefs of Staff established the first secret recruitment program, called Operation Overcast, on July 20, 1945 "to assist in shortening the Japanese war and to aid our postwar military research". The term "Overcast" was the name first given by the German scientists' family members for the housing camp where they were held in Bavaria.
In late summer 1945, the JCS established the JIOA, a subcommittee of the Joint Intelligence Community, to directly oversee Operation Overcast and Operation Paperclip. The JIOA representatives included the army's director of intelligence, the chief of naval intelligence, the assistant chief of Air Staff-2, a representative from the State Department. In November 1945, Operation Overcast was renamed Operation Paperclip by Ordnance Corps officers, who would attach a paperclip to the folders of those rocket experts whom they wished to employ in America. In a secret directive circulated on September 3, 1946, President Truman approved Operation Paperclip and expanded it to include one thousand German scientists under "temporary, limited military custody". In the part of World War II, Nazi Germany found itself at a logistical disadvantage, having failed to conquer the USSR with Operation Barbarossa, the Siege of Leningrad, Operation Nordlicht, the Battle of Stalingrad; the failed conquest had depleted German resources, its military-industrial complex was unprepared to defend the Großdeutsches Reich against the Red Army's westward counterattack.
By early 1943, the German government began recalling from combat a number of scientists and technicians. The recall from frontline combat included 4,000 rocketeers returned to Peenemünde, in northeast coastal Germany. Overnight, Ph. D.s were liberated from KP duty, masters of science were recalled from orderly service, mathematicians were hauled out of bakeries, precision mechanics ceased to be truck drivers. The Nazi government's recall of their now-useful intellectuals for scientific work first required identifying and locating the scientists and technicians ascertaining their political and ideological reliability. Werner Osenberg, the engineer-scientist heading the Wehrforschungsgemeinschaft, recorded the names of the politically cleared men to the Osenberg List, thus reinstating them to scientific work. In March 1945, at Bonn University, a Polish laboratory technician found pieces of the Osenberg List stuffed in a toilet. S. Intelligence. U. S. Army Major Robert B. Staver, Chief of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research and Intelligence Branch of the U.
S. Army Ordnance Corps, used the Osenberg List to compile his list of German scientists to be captured and interrogated. In Operation Overcast, Major Staver's original intent was only to interview the scientists, but what he learned changed the operation's purpose. On May 22, 1945, he transmitted to the U. S. Pentagon headquarters Colonel Joel Holmes's telegram urging the evacuation of German scientists and their families, as most "important for Pacific war" effort. Most of the Osenberg List engineers worked at the Baltic coast German Army Research Center Peenemünde, developing the V-2 rocket. After capturing them, the Allies housed them and their families in Landshut, Bavaria, in southern Germany. Beginning on July 19, 1945, the U. S. JCS managed the captured ARC rocketeers under Operation Overcast. However, when the "Camp Overcast" name of the scientists' quarters became locally known, the program was renamed Operation Paperclip in November 1945. Despite these attempts at secrecy that year the press interviewed several of the scientists.
Early on, the United States created the Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee. This provided the information on targets for the T-Forces that went in and targeted scientific and industrial installations for their know-how. Initial priorities were advanced technology, such as infrared, that could be used in the war against Japan. A project to halt the research was codenamed "Project Safehaven", it was not targeted against the Soviet Union. In order to avoid the complications involved with the emigration of German scientists, the CIOS was responsible for scouting and kidnapping high-profile individuals for the deprivation of technological advancements in na
A paper clip is a device used to hold sheets of paper together made of steel wire bent to a looped shape. Most paper clips are variations of the Gem type introduced in the 1890s or earlier, characterized by the two full loops made by the wire. Common to paper clips proper is their utilization of torsion and elasticity in the wire, friction between wire and paper; when a moderate number of sheets are inserted between the two "tongues" of the clip, the tongues will be forced apart and cause torsion in the bend of the wire to grip the sheets together. Paper clips have an oblong shape with straight sides, but may be triangular or circular, or have more elaborate shapes; the most common material is steel or some other metal, but moulded plastic is used. Some other kinds of paper clip use a two-piece clamping system. Recent innovations include multi-colored plastic-coated paper clips and spring-fastened binder clips. According to the Early Office Museum, the first patent for a bent wire paper clip was awarded in the United States to Samuel B. Fay in 1867.
This clip was intended for attaching tickets to fabric, although the patent recognized that it could be used to attach papers together. Fay received U. S. patent 64,088 on April 23, 1867. Although functional and practical, Fay's design along with the 50 other designs patented prior to 1899 are not considered reminiscent of the modern paperclip design known today. Another notable paper clip design was patented in the United States by Erlman J. Wright in 1877; this clip was advertised at that time for use in fastening newspapers. The most common type of wire paper clip still in use, the Gem paper clip, was never patented, but it was most in production in Britain in the early 1870s by "The Gem Manufacturing Company", according to the American expert on technological innovations, Professor Henry J. Petroski, he refers to an 1883 article about "Gem Paper-Fasteners", praising them for being "better than ordinary pins" for "binding together papers on the same subject, a bundle of letters, or pages of a manuscript".
Since the 1883 article had no illustration of this early "Gem", it may have been different from modern paper clips of that name. The earliest illustration of its current form is in an 1893 advertisement for the "Gem Paper Clip". In 1904 Cushman & Denison registered a trademark for the "Gem" name in connection with paper clips; the announcement stated that it had been used since March 1, 1892, which may have been the time of its introduction in the United States. Paper clips are still sometimes called "Gem clips", in Swedish the word for any paper clip is "gem". Definite proof that the modern type of paper clip was well known in 1899 at the latest, is the patent granted to William Middlebrook of Waterbury, Connecticut on April 27 of that year for a "Machine for making wire paper clips." The drawing shows that the product is a perfect clip of the Gem type. The fact that Middlebrook did not mention it by name, suggests that it was well known at the time. Since countless variations on the same theme have been patented.
Some have pointed instead of rounded ends, some have the end of one loop bent to make it easier to insert sheets of paper, some have wires with undulations or barbs to get a better grip. In addition, purely aesthetic variants have been patented, clips with triangular, star, or round shapes, but the original Gem type has for more than a hundred years proved to be the most practical, by far the most popular. Its qualities—ease of use, gripping without tearing, storing without tangling—have been difficult to improve upon, it has been claimed, though without evidence, that Herbert Spencer, the originator of the term "survival of the fittest", invented the paper clip. Spencer claimed in his autobiography to have invented a "binding-pin", distributed by Ackermann & Company, he shows a drawing of the pin in his Appendix I; this pin looked more like a modern cotter pin than a modern paper clip, but it was designed to hold sheets of paper together. It is 15 cm unfolded. A Norwegian, Johan Vaaler, has erroneously been identified as the inventor of the paper clip.
He was granted patents in Germany and in the United States for a paper clip of similar design, but less functional and practical, because it lacked the last turn of the wire. Vaaler did not know that a better product was on the market, although not yet in Norway, his version was never manufactured and never marketed, because the superior Gem was available. Long after Vaaler's death his countrymen created a national myth based on the false assumption that the paper clip was invented by an unrecognised Norwegian genius. Norwegian dictionaries since the 1950s have mentioned Vaaler as the inventor of the paper clip, that myth found its way into international dictionaries and much of the international literature on paper clips. Vaaler succeeded in having his design patented abroad, despite the previous existence of more useful paper clips, because patent authorities at that time were quite liberal and rewarded any marginal modification of existing inventions. Johan Vaaler began working for Alfred J. Bryns Patentkontor in Kristiania in 1892 and was promoted to office manager, a position he held until his death.
As the employee of a patent office, he could have obtained a patent in Norway. His reasons for applying abroad are not known, he may have been aware that a Norwegian manufacturer would find it difficult to introduce a new invention abroad, starting from the small home market. Vaaler's patents expired quie
"Paper Clip" is the second episode of the third season of the American science fiction television series The X-Files. It premiered on the Fox network on September 29, 1995, it was directed by Rob Bowman, written by series creator Chris Carter. "Paper Clip" featured guest appearances by Melinda McGraw and Nicholas Lea. The episode is one of those that explored the overarching mythology, or fictional history of The X-Files. "Paper Clip" earned a Nielsen household rating of 11.1, being watched by 17.2 million people in its initial broadcast. "Paper Clip" has received positive reviews from critics. The show centers on FBI special agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully, who work on cases linked to the paranormal, called X-Files. In this episode and Scully investigate information gleaned from secret government records, finding that a Nazi scientist working as part of Operation Paperclip may have been responsible for creating a race of human-alien hybrids. "Paper Clip" concludes a three-episode storyline, carrying on from the second season finale "Anasazi" and the third season premiere "The Blessing Way".
The creators of the series likened themes of the episode to the Star Wars trilogy, referring to the revelations about Mulder's father, Sophie's Choice, referring to how William Mulder was forced to choose Fox or Samantha to be taken. Continuing from the previous episode, Dana Scully and Walter Skinner hold each other at gunpoint. Fox Mulder, the person lingering outside his apartment, bursts in and forces Skinner to put his gun down, he demands that Skinner surrender the digital tape. Skinner insists on keeping the tape; the agents visit The Lone Gunmen, showing them an old photo featuring Bill Mulder, The Smoking Man, Deep Throat, other members of the Syndicate. The Lone Gunmen recognize Victor Klemper, a notorious Nazi scientist, brought to the United States under Operation Paperclip. Melvin Frohike informs Scully of her sister Melissa's condition. Mulder persuades Scully not to visit Melissa at the hospital. Furious that the wrong person was murdered, the Syndicate demands that the Smoking Man produce the tape.
The Smoking Man promises to do so the following day. Meanwhile and Scully visit Klemper, who says that the photo was taken at a former mining facility in West Virginia. After the agents leave, Klemper informs him that Mulder is alive; the news causes the Syndicate to further mistrust the Smoking Man. Meanwhile, at the hospital, Albert Hosteen visits Melissa. Mulder and Scully arrive at the mining facility and, using the code for Napier's constant given to them by Klemper, unlock one of the reinforced doors inside; the agents discover a large complex of filing cabinets containing smallpox vaccination records and tissue samples. Mulder finds his sister Samantha's file and finds that it was meant for him. Meanwhile, Skinner tells the Smoking Man; the Smoking Man is agitated at this, insisting that he will not make a deal with Skinner and tacitly threatening his life. Hearing noise, Mulder heads outside and witnesses a UFO flying overhead. Cars full of armed soldiers arrive; the agents meet with Skinner at a diner in rural Maryland.
Skinner wants to turn over the tape in exchange for their safety. After objecting, Mulder agrees to let Skinner turn the tape over. Skinner heads to see Melissa in the hospital and is told by Hosteen of the mysterious blue-suited man outside. Skinner chases the man to a stairwell where he is attacked by Alex Krycek and Luis Cardinal, who beat him unconscious and steal the tape. Krycek narrowly escapes an attempt on his life, he subsequently phones the Smoking Man, telling him that he has the tape and will make its contents public should anyone come after him. The Smoking Man lies to the rest of the Syndicate, telling them that Scully's would-be assassin was killed in the car bombing and that the tape has been destroyed with him. Mulder and Scully return to Klemper's greenhouse, he admits to knowing Mulder's father and states that he helped gather genetic data for post-apocalyptic identification, data Klemper used to work on alien-human hybrids. Samantha was taken to ensure Bill Mulder's silence.
Mulder confronts his mother. At FBI headquarters, Skinner once again meets with the Smoking Man about the tape; the Smoking Man calls Skinner's bluff, knowing he no longer has the tape, but Skinner reveals that Hosteen and twenty other Navajo have memorized the contents of the tape and are ready to reveal it if either Mulder or Scully are harmed. Mulder meets with Scully at the hospital. Mulder tells Scully. Scully tells him that she's heard the truth, now what she wants are the answers. Jan Delasara, in the book'"PopLit, PopCult and The X-Files" argues that episodes like "Paper Clip", or the episodes like "Nisei" and "731", show the public's trust in science "eroding", Delasara proposes that "arrogated" scientists who are "rework the fabric of life" are causing the public's faith in science to fade drastically, "a concern", she notes, "that is directly addressed by X-Files episodes". Moreover, she notes that all of the scientists
Paper Clips Project
The Paper Clips Project, by middle school students from the small southeastern Tennessee town of Whitwell, created a monument for the Holocaust victims of Nazi Germany. It started in 1998 as a simple 8th-grade project to study other cultures, evolved into one gaining worldwide attention. At last count, over 30 million paper clips had been received. Paper Clips, an award-winning documentary film about the project, was released in 2004 by Miramax Films. In 1998, Linda M. Hooper, principal of Whitwell Middle School in Whitwell, asked Assistant Principal David Smith to find a voluntary after-school project to teach the children about tolerance. David Smith and Sandra Roberts started a Holocaust education program and held the first class in the fall of 1998. Soon the students were overwhelmed with the massive scale of the Holocaust and asked Mrs. Hooper if they could collect something to represent the lives that were exterminated during the Holocaust. Mrs. Hooper responded that they could if they could find something that related to the Holocaust or to World War II.
Through Internet research, the students discovered that Johan Vaaler, a Norwegian, designed a loop of metal, the Norwegians wore paperclips on their lapels during World War II as a silent protest against Nazi occupation. The students decided to collect 6,000,000 paper clips to represent the estimated 6,000,000 Jews killed between 1939 and 1945 under the authority of the Nazi government of Adolf Hitler. At first the project went as it did not gain much publicity. Students created a website and sent out letters to friends and celebrities; the project began to snowball after it received attention from Peter and Dagmar Schroeder, journalists who were born in Germany during World War II and who covered the White House for German newspapers. They published some articles as well as a book, Das Büroklammer-Projekt published in September 2000, that promoted the project in Germany; the big break in the US came with an article in the Washington Post on April 7, 2001, written by Dita Smith. All observers note the unexpected location of the project.
The small rural town of Whitwell has about 1,600 residents and, according to the U. S. census, 97.35 percent of them are white. There was not a single Jew among the population of 425 students. Out of the 425 students that attend the school, there are only five African Americans and one Hispanic person. About 40 miles away is the Rhea County Courthouse, where, in 1925, a teacher was convicted for teaching evolution during the Scopes "Monkey" Trial; the trial upheld a statute. A hundred miles from Whitwell, in Pulaski, the infamous Ku Klux Klan was born; the city is quite poor, as its main business, coal mining, started to decline after an accident 30 years ago. About half of the students at the middle school qualify for the free lunch program, a benefit for lower-income American school children. Paper clips were chosen in part because Norwegians wore them on their lapels as a symbol of resistance against Nazi occupation during World War II; the paper clips were sent by various people by mail. Some celebrities, like George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Bill Cosby, Steven Spielberg, Tom Bosley and Tom Hanks were among those mailing in the clips.
As of the summer of 2004, the school had collected about 24 million paper clips. As of 2005, more were still coming in. Most letters contain a dedication of the attached paper clips to a certain person; some of these stories are shared in the film. The Children's Holocaust Memorial consists of an authentic German transport car surrounded by a small garden; the railcar is filled with 11 million paper clips. The monument was uncovered on the anniversary of the Kristallnacht, November 9, 2001. Linda Pickett sculpted eighteen butterflies of twisted copper which are embedded in concrete around the railcar. Butterflies came from a poem written by a child who lived in Terezin concentration camp in 1942 and the number 18 in Hebrew symbolizes life. Inside the railcar, besides the paper clips, there are the Schroeders’ book and a suitcase filled with letters of apology to Anne Frank by a class of German schoolchildren. A sculpture designed by an artist from Ooltewah, Tennessee stands next to the car, memorializing the 1.5 million children murdered by the Nazis, incorporating another 11 million paper clips.
The 2004 documentary film Paper Clips was directed by Joe Fab. It was made to describe the highlight what was done. In 2006 the Jewish Motorcyclists Alliance and Yidden on Wheels, a Toronto-based Jewish motorcycle club, organized a ride from points across North America to Whitwell, TN to commemorate the Paperclip Project and in honor of the Holocaust's victims; the ride was a fundraiser for that school, with over $35,000 raised to help the school buy interactive blackboards. Mitchell Belman, a Toronto-based filmmaker, captured the essence of this ride in his documentary Paper Clips: A Ride to Remember. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum List of Holocaust films Whitwell, Tennessee Rome Film Festival Paper Clips on IMDb Magilow, Daniel H.. "Counting to Six Million: Collecting Projects and Holocaust Memorialization", Jewish Soci