Rhinoceros is a commercial 3D computer graphics and computer-aided design application software developed by Robert McNeel & Associates, an American held, employee-owned company founded in 1980. Rhinoceros geometry is based on the NURBS mathematical model, which focuses on producing mathematically precise representation of curves and freeform surfaces in computer graphics. Rhinoceros is used in processes of computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, rapid prototyping, 3D printing and reverse engineering in industries including architecture, industrial design, product design as well as for multimedia and graphic design. Rhinoceros is developed for the Microsoft Windows operating system and OS X. A visual scripting language add-on for Rhino, Grasshopper, is developed by Robert McNeel & Associates. Rhinoceros is a free form surface modeler that utilizes the NURBS mathematical model. Rhinoceros' application architecture and open SDK makes it modular and enables the user to customize the interface and create custom commands and menus.
There are dozens of plug-ins available from both McNeel and other software companies that complement and expand Rhinoceros' capabilities in specific fields like rendering and animation, marine, engineering and others. The Rhinoceros file format is useful for the exchange of NURBS geometry; the Rhino developers started the openNURBS Initiative to provide computer graphics software developers the tools to transfer 3-D geometry between applications. An open-source toolkit, openNURBS includes the 3DM file format specification, documentation, C++ source code libraries and. NET 2.0 assemblies to write the file format, on supported platforms. The McNeel Wiki has more current information. Rhinoceros offers compatibility with other software as it supports over 30 CAD file formats for importing and exporting; the following CAD and image file formats are natively supported: The following CAD file formats are supported with use of external plugins: When opening CAD file formats not in its native.3dm file format, Rhinoceros will convert the geometry into its native format.
When AutoDesk AutoCAD's file format changes, the Open Design Alliance reverse engineers the file format to allow these files to be loaded by other vendors' software. Rhinoceros' import and export modules are plug-ins so they can be updated via a service release. Rhinoceros service releases are frequent and downloadable. Rhinoceros 5 SR10 can import and export DWG/DXF file formats up to version 2014. Rhinoceros is compatible with a number of graphic design-based programs. Among them is Adobe Illustrator; this method is best. Start by saving the file and when prompted save as Adobe Illustrator from there you are able to control the vectors created in Rhinoceros and can be further enhanced in Adobe Illustrator. Rhinoceros 3D relies on a few plug-ins that allows the export of the. STL and. OBJ file formats, both of which are supported by 3D printing services. Rhinoceros supports two scripting languages and Python, it has an SDK, a complete plug-in system. One McNeel plug-in, a parametric modeling/visual programming tool called Grasshopper, has attracted many architects to Rhinoceros due to its ease of use and ability to create complex algorithmic structures.
Commercial third-party plug-ins for Rhinoceros include: Import & ExportCrossCad/Plg Add import & export formats to Rhino AnalysisScan&Solve for Rhino automates basic structural simulation of Rhino solids Diva for Rhino by Solemma LLC: Environmental analysis for buildings. The plug-in was developed at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University and is now distributed and developed by Solemma LLC. RenderingKeyShot by Luxion: Rendering and animation Octane Render for Rhino by OTOY Maxwell Render for Rhino by Next Limit Technologies Thea Render by Altair Engineering nVidia Iray for Rhino by Nvidia V-Ray for Rhino by Chaos Group: Rendering Flamingo nXt the nXtRender for Rhino by Robert McNeel & Associates RhinoCycles a opensource renderer for Rhino WIP by Robert McNeel & Associates Radeon ProRender a opensource renderer for Rhino WIP by AMD Brazil for Rhino the Brazil rendering engine for Rhino by Robert McNeel & Associates Realtime Renderer Plug-in for Rhino by Autodesk: rendering CAMmadCAM by madCAM AB: Mould and Die CAM system for 2.5, 3, 3+2, 4 and 5-axis toolpath creation RhinoCAM, RhinoART, Rhino3DPrint, RhinoCAM-Mill, RhinoCAM-Nest, RhinoCAM-Turn by Mecsoft: machining, rapid prototyping AnimationBongo integrated animation for Rhino 5 by Robert McNeel & Associates MiscellaneousRhinoGold, RhinoNest, RhinoEmboss, Clayoo by TDM Solutions: jewelry, modeling VisualARQ by Asuni CAD: BIM architectural modeling tool RhinoWorks by Bricsys: Constraint-based parametric design in Rhino Shape Modelling for Rhino by Autodesk.
Creation and modification of freeform surfaces T-splines for Rhino by Autodesk: T-splines modelling, Urban Network Analysis by the joint MIT-SUTD International Design Center to describe spatial patterns of cities using mathematical network analysis methods Mindesk by Mindesk: 3D modeling in virtual reality. Rhinoceros received Gold Customer Satisfaction Award from CNCCookbook
Spray foam is a chemical product created by two materials and polyol resin, which react when mixed with each other and expand up to 30-60 times its liquid volume after it is sprayed in place. This expansion makes it useful as a specialty packing material which forms to the shape of the product being packaged and produces a high thermal insulating value with no air infiltration. Otto Bayer is credited with the invention of polyurethane in 1937, he succeeded in synthesizing polyurethane foam by exploring his basic idea that mixing small volumes of chemical substances could create dry foam materials. Polyurethane was further developed for different applications, ranging from shoe soles and cushions to industrial uses. In the 1940s rigid foam was applied to airplanes, in 1979 polyurethane began being used as building insulation. R-value is the term given to thermal resistance to heat flow; the higher the R-value of an insulation product, the more effective the insulation properties. Spray polyurethane foam comes in a range of densities and cel structure.
Low density foams are referred to as Open Cel SPF while higher density foams are referred to as Closed Cel foam. 1.8-2 pound polyurethane foam has the highest R-value of available spray foam insulation used in homes and buildings. Polyurethane is a closed-cell foam insulation material that contains a low-conductivity gas in its cells; as a result of the high thermal resistance of the gas, spray polyurethane insulation has an initial R-value around R-3.4 to R-6.7 per inch. In comparison, blown fiberglass has an R-Value of only R-3 to R-4 per inch. Foam insulation blocks all three forms of heat transfer: Conductive heat transfer The flow of thermal energy through a substance from a higher to a lower temperature region. Foam thermoset plastics reduce conductive heat transfer due in part to having loose molecular bonds. Radiant heat transfer The process by which heat energy in the form of light is emitted more by warm surfaces and absorbed by other materials those of low IR reflectivity. Radiant heat transfer does not require a medium.
Foam insulation materials, such as spray foam insulation, are opaque to thermal radiation, like most solid materials. Convective heat transfer Heat, created elsewhere, transported by means of a fluid, such as water or in our case air. Spray foam insulation's most important attribute is the ability to air seal creating a custom airtight envelope within the building structure; the added benefit to air sealing is the ability to block convective heat transfer from interior to exterior during heating months and vice versa during cooling months, as the heat cannot escape through gaps in the buildings envelope without the aid of air movement from infiltration as a means of transport. Spray foam is a specialized packing material required for use in shipping valuable fragile items. Engineered packaging principles are designed to protect sculptures, large fossils, lamp bases, computers, furniture and other objects of unusual shape. By virtue of the liquid foam expanding by up to 30-60 times the volume of its liquid state, it efficiently protects any size and weight.
The custom fit of the molds and bottom, securely and uniformly cushions the object. There are many types of alternative materials. Spray foam insulation or spray polyurethane foam is an alternative to traditional building insulation such as fiberglass. A two-component mixture composed of isocyanate and polyol resin comes together at the tip of a gun, forms an expanding foam, sprayed onto roof tiles, concrete slabs, into wall cavities, or through holes drilled in into a cavity of a finished wall. "Spray foam" is an informal term used to refer to various plastic foam materials that are used in building construction to provide thermal insulation and minimize air infiltration. Polyurethane and polyisocyanurate are two types of foam used in this application. Spray polyurethane foam insulation can be categorized into two different types: light-density open-cell spray foam insulation and medium-density closed-cell spray foam insulation. Both types of SPF are thermoset cellular plastics comprising millions of small cells.
Open cell insulation has a lower insulation value. Closed cell is rigid to the touch and each air cell is sealed. While closed cell foam has a higher R-value, it is more costly to buy. Medium-Density Closed-Cell Spray Foam Medium-density closed-cell foam insulation is referred to as two pound foam, it is a rigid insulating material with a Long Term Thermal Resistance R-value that ranges between 5.1 - 6 per inch When the required minimum thickness of 50 mm is installed, ccSPF is both a vapour barrier and an air barrier. In Canada, the National Building Code references two standards that apply to the manufacturing and installation of ccSPF: the CAN/ULC S705.1 Material Standard and the CAN/ULC S705.2 National Application Standard. The installation standard requires that all installers of ccSPF in Canada be licensed and carry a photo ID card; the foam's natural colour is yellow, however in Canada all ccSPF that have CCMC listings are required to have a unique colour for field identification. Light-Density Open-Cell Spray Foam Light-density open-cell SPF is known as half-pound foam.
It is a semi-rigid material with a sponge-like appearance that expands during installation and create
SketchUp Google Sketchup, is a 3D modeling computer program for a wide range of drawing applications such as architectural, interior design, landscape architecture and mechanical engineering and video game design. It is available as a web-based application, SketchUp Free, a freeware version, SketchUp Make, a paid version with additional functionality, SketchUp Pro. SketchUp is owned by Trimble Inc. a mapping and navigation equipment company. There is an online library of free model assemblies, 3D Warehouse, to which users may contribute models; the program includes drawing layout functionality, allows surface rendering in variable "styles", supports third-party "plug-in" programs hosted on a site called Extension Warehouse to provide other capabilities and enables placement of its models within Google Earth. SketchUp was developed by startup company @Last Software of Boulder, Colorado, co-founded in 1999 by Brad Schell and Joe Esch. SketchUp debuted in August 2000 as a general-purpose 3D content creation tool and was envisioned as a software program "that would allow design professionals to draw the way they want by emulating the feel and freedom of working with pen and paper in a simple and elegant interface, that would be fun to use and easy to learn and that would be used by designers to play with their designs in a way, not possible with traditional design software.
It has user friendly buttons to make it easier to use."The program won a Community Choice Award at its first tradeshow in 2000. Google acquired @Last Software on March 14, 2006 for an undisclosed sum, attracted by @Last Software's work developing a plugin for Google Earth. On January 9, 2007, Google announced Google SketchUp 6, a free downloadable version of SketchUp, without some functionality of SketchUp Pro, but including integrated tools for uploading content to Google Earth and to the Google 3D Warehouse. A toolbox enables a viewer to "walk around" and see things from different viewpoints and supports labels for models, a look-around tool and an "any polygon" shape tool. Google SketchUp Pro 6 introduced a beta version of Google SketchUp LayOut. LayOut includes 2D vector tools and page layout tools allowing presentations to be produced without the need for a separate presentation program. On November 17, 2008, SketchUp 7 was released with changes intended to make it easier to use, integration of SketchUp's Component Browser with Google 3D Warehouse, LayOut 2 and dynamic components that respond to scaling.
Windows 2000 was no longer supported. On September 1, 2010, SketchUp 8 was released with model geolocation with Google Maps and Building Maker integration. Mac OS X Tiger was no longer supported. Neither the free version nor the professional version was available in a native format for Linux, or Mac OS earlier than 10.5. SketchUp version 8 use under Wine has been rated "Gold". Geolocation information is always stored in the KMZ file; the building designs themselves are saved in SKP. Trimble Navigation acquired SketchUp from Google on June 1, 2012 for an undisclosed sum. In 2013 SketchUp 2013 was released. A new site was provided, Extension Warehouse, hosting extensions for Sketchup. SketchUp comes in multiple editions. SketchUp Pro includes the functionality of SketchUp Make plus importers and exporters to common 2D and 3D formats, access to LayOut and Style Builder. SketchUp Pro 2016 has native integration with Trimble Connect, treat 3D Warehouse models as references, a rebuilt Generate Report and now LayOut offers web-friendly reference objects as well as a new LayOut API.
SketchUp Pro licensing is cross-platform and works on both Mac machines. SketchUp Shop is a version of SketchUp for DIY designers and woodworkers, it has a feature set designed to meet their needs. A major difference between Shop and Pro is that SketchUp Shop is a web application that you run in a browser while connected to the Internet whereas SketchUp Pro is a downloadable application that you can use offline. In November 2017, SketchUp Free was released as a web-based application which replaces SketchUp Make. Drawings can be saved locally as native SKP file or exported as a STL file. Compared to Make, SketchUp Free does not support creation and editing of materials. Sketchup Make, introduced in May 2013, is a free-of-charge version for home and educational use, it begins with a 30-day trial of SketchUp Pro. After that time, users can continue to use SketchUp Make for free. There will be no further releases of Make after November 2017, users are expected to migrate to SketchUp Free, though the installer remains available for download.
3D Warehouse is an open library in which SketchUp users may download 3D models to share. The models can be downloaded right into the program without anything having to be saved onto your computer's storage. File sizes of the models can be up to 50 MB. Anyone can modify and re-upload content to and from the 3D warehouse free of charge. All the models in 3D Warehouse are free, so anyone can download files for use in SketchUp or other software such as AutoCAD, Revit and ArchiCAD - all of which have apps allowing the retrieval of models from 3D Warehouse. Since 2014 Trimble has launched a new version of 3D Warehouse where companies may have an official page with their own 3D catalog of products. Trimble is investing in creating 3D developer partners in order to have more professionally modeled products avai
Banner-making is the ancient art or craft of sewing banners. Techniques used include applique, fabric painting and others. In the United Kingdom, the first of these banners were sometimes painted by local signwriters, coachpainters or decorators. More than not, they were made by a member of the local branch, considered to be artistic. However, from 1837 onwards, more than three quarters were made by the firm of George Tutill of Chesham in Buckinghamshire. All their banners were made from pure silk woven by Huguenots in London. At the height of banner production there were said to be 17,000 looms in operation; the silk was stretched taut over a wooden frame and coated with India rubber, the oil colours applied to it were'old', i.e. had been standing around for a while. This allowed the paint to dry and to make it more pliant or elastic. There were many designs from the Bible, from heraldry or from popular tradition, e.g. the "all-seeing eye", or symbols of truth, hope or justice. With the advent of Conservative governments in Britain after the 1979 general election, trades union banners lost their popularity, many languished in damp cellars or lofts.
Additionally the large number of trade union mergers meant that many banners no longer had the correct union name on and became obsolete. In the last 10 years or so, the interest in these banners has been rekindled, many books, videos and the like have been produced to help people rediscover and celebrate this part of the history of working men and women. Durham Miners Gala is the largest current parade of trade union banners. There are special museums which restore and exhibit trade union banners, e.g. the People's History Museum in Manchester and Beamish Museum in the North East. Design is all-important in a banner for ecclesiastical use; the banner maker needs a sound knowledge of religious iconography. There is the question of its use, i.e. indoor or outdoor. If outdoor, it must be able to be carried. Whether indoor or outdoor, proper storage provision must be made; the types of material can vary from vinyl to cloth
An adhesive known as glue, mucilage, or paste, is any non metallic substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation. Adjectives may be used in conjunction with the word "adhesive" to describe properties based on the substance's physical or chemical form, the type of materials joined, or conditions under which it is applied; the use of adhesives offers many advantages over binding techniques such as sewing, mechanical fastening, thermal bonding, etc. These include the ability to bind different materials together, to distribute stress more efficiently across the joint, the cost effectiveness of an mechanized process, an improvement in aesthetic design, increased design flexibility. Disadvantages of adhesive use include decreased stability at high temperatures, relative weakness in bonding large objects with a small bonding surface area, greater difficulty in separating objects during testing. Adhesives are organized by the method of adhesion.
These are organized into reactive and non-reactive adhesives, which refers to whether the adhesive chemically reacts in order to harden. Alternatively they can be organized by whether the raw stock is of natural or synthetic origin, or by their starting physical phase. Adhesives may be found or produced synthetically; the earliest human use of adhesive-like substances was 200,000 years ago, when Neanderthals produced tar from the dry distillation of birch bark for use in binding stone tools to wooden handles. The first references to adhesives in literature first appeared in 2000 BC; the Greeks and Romans made great contributions to the development of adhesives. In Europe, glue was not used until the period AD 1500–1700. From until the 1900s increases in adhesive use and discovery were gradual. Only since the last century has the development of synthetic adhesives accelerated and innovation in the field continues to the present; the earliest use of adhesives was discovered in central Italy when two stone flakes covered with birch-bark tar and a third uncovered stone from the Middle Pleistocene era were found.
This is thought to be the oldest discovered human use of tar-hafted stones. The birch-bark-tar adhesive is a one-component adhesive. Although sticky enough, plant-based adhesives are brittle and vulnerable to environmental conditions; the first use of compound adhesives was discovered in South Africa. Here, 70,000-year-old stone segments that were once inserted in axe hafts were discovered covered with an adhesive composed of plant gum and red ochre as adding ochre to plant gum produces a stronger product and protects the gum from disintegrating under wet conditions; the ability to produce stronger adhesives allowed middle stone age humans to attach stone segments to sticks in greater variations, which led to the development of new tools. More recent examples of adhesive use by prehistoric humans have been found at the burial sites of ancient tribes. Archaeologists studying the sites found that 6,000 years ago the tribesmen had buried their dead together with food found in broken clay pots repaired with tree resins.
Another investigation by archaeologists uncovered the use of bituminous cements to fasten ivory eyeballs to statues in Babylonian temples dating to 4000 BC. In 2000, a paper revealed the discovery of a 5,200-year-old man nicknamed the "Tyrolean Iceman" or "Ötzi", preserved in a glacier near the Austria-Italy border. Several of his belongings were found with him including two arrows with flint arrowheads and a copper hatchet, each with evidence of organic glue used to connect the stone or metal parts to the wooden shafts; the glue was analyzed as pitch. The retrieval of this tar requires a transformation of birch bark by means of heat, in a process known as pyrolysis; the first references to adhesives in literature first appeared in 2000 BC. Further historical records of adhesive use are found from the period spanning 1500–1000 BC. Artifacts from this period include paintings depicting wood gluing operations and a casket made of wood and glue in King Tutankhamun's tomb. Other ancient Egyptian artifacts employ animal glue for lamination.
Such lamination of wood for bows and furniture is thought to have extended their life and was accomplished using casein -based glues. The ancient Egyptians developed starch-based pastes for the bonding of papyrus to clothing and a plaster of Paris-like material made of calcined gypsum. From AD 1 to 500 the Greeks and Romans made great contributions to the development of adhesives. Wood veneering and marquetry were developed, the production of animal and fish glues refined, other materials utilized. Egg-based pastes were used to bond gold leaves incorporated various natural ingredients such as blood, hide, cheese and grains; the Greeks began the use of slaked lime as mortar while the Romans furthered mortar development by mixing lime with volcanic ash and sand. This material, known as pozzolanic cement, was used in the construction of the Roman Colosseum and Pantheon; the Romans were the first people known to have used tar and beeswax as caulk and sealant between the wooden planks of their boats and ships.
In Central Asia, the rise of the Mongols in AD 1000 can be attributed to the good range and power of the bows of Genghis Khan's hordes. These bows were constructed with laminated bullhorn bonded by an unknown adhesive. In Europe, glue fell into disuse until the period AD 1500–1700. At this time, world-renowned cabinet and furniture makers such
Paper craft is the collection of art forms employing paper or card as the primary artistic medium for the creation of three-dimensional objects. It is the most used material in arts and crafts, it lends itself to a wide range of techniques, as it can for instance be folded, glued, stitched, or layered. Papermaking by hand is an important paper craft. Painting and calligraphy though they are applied as decoration are considered as separate arts or crafts. Paper crafts are known in most societies that use paper, with certain kinds of crafts being associated with specific countries or cultures. In Caribbean countries paper craft is unique to Caribbean culture which reflect the importance of native animals in life of people. In addition to the aesthetic value of paper crafts, various forms of paper crafts are used in the education of children. Paper is a inexpensive medium available, easier to work with than the more complicated media used in the creation of three-dimensional artwork, such as ceramics and metals.
It is neater to work with than paints and other coloring materials. Paper crafts may be used in therapeutic settings, providing children with a safe and uncomplicated creative outlet to express feelings; the word "paper" derives from papyrus, the name of the ancient material manufactured from beaten reeds in Egypt as far back as the third millennium B. C. Indeed, the earliest known example of "paper folding" is an ancient Egyptian map, drawn on papyrus and folded into rectangular forms like a modern road map. However, it does not appear that intricate paper folding as an art form became possible until the introduction of wood-pulp based papers; the first Japanese origami is dated from the 6th century A. D. In much of the West, the term origami is used synonymously with paper folding, though the term properly only refers to the art of paper folding in Japan. Other forms of paper folding include Zhezhi, Jong-i.e.-jeop-gi, from Korea, Western paper folding, such as the traditional paper boats and paper planes.
Papel picado, as practiced in Mexico and other places in Latin America is done using chisels to cut 50 to a hundred sheets at a time, while Chinese paper cutting uses knives or scissors for up to 8 sheets. Wycinanki and other European forms are done on one single sheet. In either of these traditions, paper sheets are folded prior to cutting to achieve symmetrical designs. Images built using colored paper pulp are a form of paper art. Chuck Close, Lynn Sures are among contemporary artist developing this medium. Paper pulp craft is used in rural India for making kitchen utility baskets. Scrapbooking Cardmaking Paper Flowers Decoupage Paper Mache Origami Paper Cutting Quilling Paper Making Book Binding Paper Layering Arts and crafts Cartonería, a traditional handcraft in Mexico, of which piñatas are one of many examples Decorative arts
In art and architecture, plastic model may be any three-dimensional physical model, regardless of material. In mechanical engineering, a plastic model is a mathematical model of a material which incorporates plasticity. A plastic model is a plastic scale model manufactured as a kit assembled by hobbyists, intended for static display. A plastic model kit depicts various subjects, with a majority depicting military and civilian vehicles. A kit varies in difficulty, ranging from a "snap-together" model that assemble straight from the box, to a kit that requires special tools and cements; the most popular subjects of plastic models by far are vehicles such as aircraft, ships and armored vehicles such as tanks. The majority of models depict military vehicles, due to the wider variety of form and historical context compared to civilian vehicles. Other subjects include science fiction vehicles and robots, real spacecraft, animals, human figures, characters from motion pictures. While military and aircraft modelers prize accuracy above all, modelers of automobiles and science-fiction themes may attempt to duplicate an existing subject, or may depict a imaginary subject.
The creation of custom automobile models is related to the creation of actual custom cars and an individual may have an interest in both, although the cost of customizing a real car is enormously greater than that of customizing a model. The first plastic models were injection molded in cellulose acetate, but most plastic models are injection-molded in polystyrene, the parts are glued together with a plastic solvent-based adhesive, although experienced modelers may use epoxy and white glue where their particular properties would be advantageous. While omitted by novice modellers, specially formulated paint is sold for application to plastic models. Complex markings such as aircraft insignia or automobile body decorative details and model identification badges are provided with kits as screen-printed water-slide decals. Models requiring less skill, and/or effort have been marketed, targeted to younger or less skilled modelers as well as those who just wish to reduce the time and effort required to complete a model.
One such trend has been to offer a detailed kit requiring normal assembly and gluing, but eliminate the frustrating task of painting the kit by molding it out of colored plastic, or by supplying it prepainted and with decals applied. These kits are identical to another kit supplied in normal white or gray plastic except for the colored plastic or the prepainting, thus eliminating the large expense of creating another set of molds. Another trend which has become extensive is to produce kits where the parts snap together, with no glue needed. There is some simplification of detail as well; these are supplied in colored plastic, although smaller details would still require painting. Decals are not supplied with these but sometimes vinyl stickers are provided for insignia and similar details. Resin casting and vacuum forming are used to produce models, or particular parts where the scale of production is not such as to support the investment required for injection molding. Plastic ship model kits provide thread in several sizes and colors for the rigging.
Automobile kits contain vinyl tires, although sometimes these are molded from polystyrene as well in inexpensive kits. Thin metal details produced by photoetching have become popular recently, both as detailing parts manufactured and sold by small businesses, as parts of a complete kit. Detail parts of other materials are sometimes included in kits or sold separately, such as metal tubing to simulate exhaust systems, or vinyl tubing to simulate hoses or wiring. All plastic models are designed in a well-established scale; each type of subject has one or more common scales. The general aim is to allow the finished model to be of a reasonable size, while maintaining consistency across models for collections; the following are the most common scales for popular subjects: Aircraft: 1/24, 1/32, 1/48, 1/72, 1/100, 1/144. 1/48 and 1/72 being the most popular. Military vehicles: 1/16, 1/24, 1/32, 1/35, 1/48, 1/72, 1/76. Automobiles: 1/8, 1/12, 1/16, 1/18, 1/20, 1/24, 1/25, 1/32, 1/35, 1/43. Ships: 1/72, 1/96, 1/144, 1/200, 1/350, 1/400 1/450, 1/600, 1/700.
Figures: 1/72, 1/48, 1/35, 1/24, 1/16, 1/13, 1/8, 1/6, 1/4. The smaller scale figures are used in dioramas. Figurine busts: 1/12, 1/10, 1/9 Railways: 1:43.5, 1:76.2, 1:87 Mecha: 1/144, 1/100, 1/72, 1/60, 1/35. In reality, models do not always conform to their nominal scale. For example, the engine in the recent reissue of the AMT Ala Kart show truck is smaller than the engine in the original issue. AMT employees from the 1960s note that, at that time, all AMT kits were packaged into boxes of a standardized size, to simplify shipping; this practice was common for other genres and manufacturers of models as wel