Paperboy is an arcade game developed and published by Atari Games. It was released in North America in April 1985; the player takes the role of a paperboy who delivers a fictional newspaper called "The Daily Sun" along a suburban street on his bicycle. The arcade version of the game featured bike handlebars as the controller; the game was ported to many home systems beginning in 1986. A sequel for home computers and consoles, Paperboy 2, was released in 1991; the player controls a paperboy on a bicycle delivering newspapers along a suburban street, displayed in a cabinet perspective view. The player attempts to deliver a week of daily newspapers to subscribing customers, attempts to vandalize non-subscribers' homes and must avoid hazards along the street. Subscribers are lost by damaging a subscriber's house; the game begins with a choice of difficulty levels: Middle Road and Hard Way. The object of the game is to deliver papers to subscribers for an entire week and avoid crashing before the week ends.
The game lasts for Monday through Sunday. Controlling the paperboy with the handlebar controls, the player attempts to deliver newspapers to subscribers; each day begins by showing an overview of the street indicating non-subscribers. Subscribers and non-subscribers' homes are easy to discern in the level itself, with subscribers living in brightly colored houses, non-subscribers living in dark houses; the cabinet of this game is a standard upright but with custom controls. The controls consist of a bicycle handlebar with one button on each side, used to throw papers; the handlebars pulled back to brake. The game runs on the Atari System 2 hardware; the CPU is a 10 MHz Digital Equipment Corporation T-11. For sound and coin inputs, it uses a 2.2 MHz MOS Technology 6502. The sound chips are two POKEYs for digital sound, a Yamaha YM2151 for music, a Texas Instruments TMS5220 for speech; the protection chip is a Slapstic model 137412-105. The game program code for the arcade version was written in BLISS.
Home ports started appearing in 1986. In some of these versions, the player can assume the role of a papergirl instead of a paperboy. Paperboy was ported to the BBC Micro and Acorn Electron by Andy Williams in 1986. Versions for the Amstrad CPC, Apple II, TRS-80 Color Computer were released in 1986. Elite Systems produced versions for the ZX Spectrum and the Commodore 64; the ZX Spectrum version had been released in the United Kingdom by October 1986, the Commodore 64 version was published there by February 1987. Elite created versions for the Commodore 16 and Commodore Plus/4 that year. A version for the Apple IIGS was released in 1988. In the United States, a Nintendo Entertainment System version was developed by Tengen and published by Mindscape in December 1988; the NES version is notable for being the first NES game developed in the United States. In October 1989, Elite released versions for the Atari ST and PC in the United Kingdom, followed by an Amiga version that month; the game was released for the Famicom by Altron in January 1991.
In the United Kingdom, a Game Boy version by Mindscape was released in October or November 1990. A Master System version, by Sega and U. S. Gold, was released in the United Kingdom in November 1990. Atari released a version of Paperboy for the Atari Lynx in 1990. By March 1991, an NES version by Mindscape had been released in the United Kingdom. Advanced Computer Entertainment offered praise for the Atari ST version, awarding it a score of 850 out of 1,000, while Zero gave it a score of 86 out of 100. ACE and Zero noted that the Atari ST version played like the arcade version. Computer Gamer gave the ZX Spectrum version a rating of 16 out of 20, considering it to be a faithful conversion of the arcade game, while noting that some people may find the gameplay to be repetitive. For the ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64 and Amstrad CPC versions, ACE gave the game a rating of 5 out of 5, noting the "extremely well executed" graphics and referring to the game as a "budget classic." U. K. magazine Computer and Video Games gave the Commodore 64 version a 52 percent rating, criticizing its music and "blocky and ill-proportioned" sprites.
Ken McMahon of Commodore User reviewed the Commodore 16 and Commodore Plus/4 version and rated it 6 out of 10, noting that it was too easy. Crash gave the ZX Spectrum version an 88% rating with the general rating "Another slick, playable conversion from Elite", while Zzap!64 was less enthusiastic for the Commodore 64 version giving it 44%. In 1993, Zzap!64 rated the Commodore 64 version a 60 percent score, calling it repetitive. Richard Leadbetter of CVG reviewed the Lynx version and stated, "Looks good, but isn't enough fun to play." STart's Clayton Walnum praised the Lynx version's graphics and sound effects but deemed the game "just another shoot-em-up without the shooting." Raze offered praise for the clear and colorful graphics of the Lynx version, but stated that the game "is too old and tired for the exciting and new Lynx." AllGame's Kyle Knight criticized the Lynx version for its simple sound effects and music, as well as its repetitive gameplay. Leadbetter praised the Master System version, calling it "one of the best arcade conversions" available for the system, while noting that the game's only "slight downer" was the music.
Mean Machines praised the Master System version for its graphics and similarities to the arcade game, while Raze wrote a mixed review for the Master System version. Mean Machines was critical of the NES version for its graph
USS Rhode Island was the last of five Virginia-class battleships built for the United States Navy, was the second ship to carry her name. She was laid down in May 1902, launched in May 1904, commissioned into the Atlantic Fleet in February 1906; the ship was armed with an offensive battery of four 12-inch guns and eight 8-inch guns, she was capable of a top speed of 19 knots. The ship's career consisted of training with the other battleships of the Atlantic Fleet. Rhode Island took part in the cruise of the Great White Fleet in 1907–1909, thereafter remained in the Atlantic. In late 1913, she cruised the Caribbean coast of Mexico to protect American interests during the Mexican Revolution. After the United States entered World War I in April 1917, Rhode Island was assigned to anti-submarine patrols off the east coast of the US. Starting in December 1918, after the end of the war, the ship was used to repatriate American soldiers, she carried over 5,000 men in the course of five trips. She was transferred to the Pacific Fleet in 1919 before being decommissioned in 1920 and sold for scrap in 1923 under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty.
Rhode Island was 441 feet 3 inches long overall and had a beam of 76 ft 3 in and a draft of 23 ft 9 in. She up to 16,094 long tons at full load; the ship was powered by two-shaft triple-expansion steam engines rated at 19,000 indicated horsepower and twelve coal-fired Babcock & Wilcox boilers, generating a top speed of 19 knots. As built, she was fitted with heavy military masts, but these were replaced by cage masts in 1909, she enlisted men. The ship was armed with a main battery of four 12-inch/40 caliber Mark 4 guns in two twin gun turrets on the centerline, one forward and aft; the secondary battery consisted of twelve 6-inch / 50 caliber guns. The 8-inch guns were mounted in four twin turrets; the 6-inch guns were placed in casemates in the hull. For close-range defense against torpedo boats, she carried twelve 3-inch /50 caliber guns mounted in casemates along the side of the hull and twelve 3-pounder guns, she carried two 1-pounder guns. As was standard for capital ships of the period, Rhode Island carried four 21 inch torpedo tubes, submerged in her hull on the broadside.
Rhode Island's main armored belt was 11 in thick over the magazines and the machinery spaces and 6 in elsewhere. The main battery gun turrets had 12-inch thick faces, the supporting barbettes had 10 in of armor plating; the conning tower had 9 in thick sides. Rhode Island was laid down at the Fore River Shipyard in Massachusetts on 1 May 1902 and was launched on 17 May 1904, to little fanfare due to a worker strike at the shipyard. Upon launching, the ship became stuck on a mud bank where she remained before being towed afloat two days later; the ship was completed a year and on 19 February 1906 commissioned into the fleet. The ship conducted an extensive shakedown cruise and sea trials before steaming to Hampton Roads, where she was assigned to the 2nd Division of the 1st Squadron, Atlantic Fleet on 1 January 1907, she left Hampton Roads on 9 March 1907, bound for Guantanamo Bay. There and the rest of the 1st Squadron conducted maneuvers and gunnery training. After the conclusion of these exercises, she returned to the east coast of the United States for a cruise to Cape Cod Bay.
On 8 December, Rhode Island returned to Hampton Roads, where she and fifteen other battleships held a naval review at the start of the cruise of the Great White Fleet. The battleships were joined by a squadron of torpedo boats. On 16 December, President Theodore Roosevelt reviewed the fleet before it departed on the first leg of the trip; the cruise of the Great White Fleet was conceived as a way to demonstrate American military power to Japan. Tensions had begun to rise between the United States and Japan after the latter's victory in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 over racist opposition to Japanese immigration to the United States; the press in both countries began to call for war, Roosevelt hoped to use the demonstration of naval might to deter Japanese aggression. The fleet cruised south to the Caribbean and to South America, making stops in Port of Spain, Rio de Janeiro, Punta Arenas, Valparaíso, among other cities. After arriving in Mexico in March 1908, the fleet spent three weeks conducting gunnery practice.
The fleet resumed its voyage up the Pacific coast of the Americas, stopping in San Francisco and Seattle before crossing the Pacific to Australia, stopping in Hawaii on the way. Stops in the South Pacific included Melbourne and Auckland; the fleet turned north for the Philippines, stopping in Manila, before continuing on to Japan where a welcoming ceremony was held in Yokohama. Three weeks of exercises followed in Subic Bay in the Philippines in November; the ships entered the Indian Ocean. The fleet called in several Mediterranean ports before stopping in Gibraltar, where an international fleet of British, Russian and Dutch warships greeted the Americans; the ships crossed the Atlantic to return to Hampton Roads on 22 February 1909, having traveled 46,729 nautical miles. There, they conducted a naval review for Theodore Ro
Ramón Lobo Leyder is a Spanish-Venezuelan journalist and writer who works for Spanish newspaper El País. Born in Venezuela to a Spanish father and an English mother, Ramón Lobo has been based in Spain since 1960. Graduated in Journalism from the Complutense University of Madrid, since 1975 he worked in various media such as Pyresa, Radio Intercontinental, Heraldo de Aragón, Radio 80, Voice of America, Expansión, Cinco Días, La Gaceta de los Negocios and El Sol. From August 1992 until 2012, he worked as editor of the International section of El País, covering various conflicts: Croatia and Kosovo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Chechnya, Lebanon, Haiti, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Sierra Leone, Congo, Zimbabwe and the Philippines. In 2001, he received the XVIII Cirilo Rodríguez Journalism Award, granted by the Association of the Press of Segovia and has directed the summer course "The uncomfortable witnesses: Reporters in a conflict zone" at the King Juan Carlos University. In 2012, at an event at the Miguel Hernández University of Elche in which the journalist Juan R. Gil and the writer José Luis V. Ferris participated, he recounted his experiences in journalism.
In 2013, he began collaborating with El Periódico de Catalunya, of the Zeta Group writing a weekly article on Sundays in the international section under the heading "Nomads", commenting on the main issues of global news. In 2018, he returned to El País. El héroe inexistente: It is divided into three blocks: Balkan War, from Bosnia-Herzegovina until Kosovo-Serbia. Isla África: situation in Sierra Leone and the child-soldiers. Cuadernos de Kabul El autoestopista de Grozni y otras historias de fútbol Todos náufragos El día que murió Kapuściński Official website Interview with Ramón Lobo in the television program TESIS