India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Hokkaido known as Ezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, the largest and northernmost prefecture. The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaido from Honshu; the two islands are connected by the undersea railway Seikan Tunnel. The largest city on Hokkaido is its capital, its only ordinance-designated city. About 43 km north of Hokkaido lies Russia. To its east and north-east are the disputed Kuril Islands; the Nihon Shoki, finished in 720 AD, is said to be the first mention of Hokkaido in recorded history. According to the text, Abe no Hirafu led a large navy and army to northern areas from 658 to 660 and came into contact with the Mishihase and Emishi. One of the places Hirafu went to was called Watarishima, believed to be present-day Hokkaido. However, many theories exist in relation to the details of this event, including the location of Watarishima and the common belief that the Emishi in Watarishima were the ancestors of the present-day Ainu people. During the Nara and Heian periods, people in Hokkaido conducted trade with Dewa Province, an outpost of the Japanese central government.
From the Middle Ages, the people in Hokkaido began to be called Ezo. Hokkaido subsequently became known as Ezogashima; the Ezo relied upon hunting and fishing and obtained rice and iron through trade with the Japanese. During the Muromachi period, the Japanese created a settlement at the south of the Oshima Peninsula; as more people moved to the settlement to avoid battles, disputes arose between the Japanese and the Ainu. The disputes developed into a war. Takeda Nobuhiro killed the Ainu leader and defeated the opposition in 1457. Nobuhiro's descendants became the rulers of the Matsumae-han, granted exclusive trading rights with the Ainu in the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods; the Matsumae family's economy relied upon trade with the Ainu. They held authority over the south of Ezochi until the end of the Edo period in 1868; the Matsumae clan rule over the Ainu must be understood in the context of the expansion of the Japanese feudal state. Medieval military leaders in northern Honshū maintained only tenuous political and cultural ties to the imperial court and its proxies, the Kamakura Shogunate and Ashikaga Shogunate.
Feudal strongmen sometimes located themselves within medieval institutional order, taking shogunal titles, while in other times they assumed titles that seemed to give them a non-Japanese identity. In fact, many of the feudal strongmen were descended from Emishi military leaders, assimilated into Japanese society; the Matsumae clan were of Yamato descent like other ethnic Japanese people, whereas the Emishi of northern Honshu were a distinctive group related to the Ainu. The Emishi were conquered and integrated into the Japanese state dating back as far as the 8th century, as result began to lose their distinctive culture and ethnicity as they became minorities. By the time the Matsumae clan ruled over the Ainu most of the Emishi were ethnically mixed and physically closer to Japanese than they were to Ainu; this dovetails nicely with the "transformation" theory that native Jōmon peoples changed with the infusion of Yayoi immigrants into the Tōhoku rather than the "replacement" theory which posits that one population was replaced by another.
There were numerous revolts by the Ainu against the feudal rule. The last large-scale resistance was Shakushain's Revolt in 1669–1672. In 1789, a smaller movement, the Menashi–Kunashir rebellion, was crushed. After that rebellion, the terms "Japanese" and "Ainu" referred to distinguished groups, the Matsumae were unequivocally Japanese. In 1799–1821 and 1855–1858, the Edo Shogunate took direct control over Hokkaido in response to a perceived threat from Russia. Leading up to the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa Shogunate realized there was a need to prepare northern defenses against a possible Russian invasion and took over control of most of Ezochi; the Shogunate made the plight of the Ainu easier, but did not change the overall form of rule. Hokkaido was known as Ezochi until the Meiji Restoration. Shortly after the Boshin War in 1868, a group of Tokugawa loyalists led by Enomoto Takeaki temporarily occupied the island, but the rebellion was crushed in May 1869. Ezochi was subsequently put under control of Hakodate Prefectural Government.
When establishing the Development Commission, the Meiji Government introduced a new name. After 1869, the northern Japanese island was known as Hokkaido; the primary purpose of the development commission was to secure Hokkaido before the Russians extended their control of the Far East beyond Vladivostok. Kuroda Kiyotaka was put in charge of the venture, his first step was to journey to the United States and recruit Horace Capron, President Grant's Commissioner of Agriculture. From 1871 to 1873 Capron bent his efforts to expounding Western agriculture and mining with mixed results. Capron, frustrated with obstacles to his efforts returned home in 1875. In 1876, William S. Clark arrived to found an agricultural college in Sapporo. Although he only remained a year, Clark left a lasting impression on Hokkaido, inspiring the Japanese with his teachings on agriculture as well as Christianity
Swallowtail butterflies are large, colorful butterflies in the family Papilionidae, include over 550 species. Though the majority are tropical, members of the family inhabit every continent except Antarctica; the family includes the largest butterflies in the world, the birdwing butterflies of the genus Ornithoptera. Swallowtails have a number of distinctive features; the osmeterium remains hidden, but when threatened, the larva turns it outward through a transverse dorsal groove by inflating it with fluid. The forked appearance of the swallowtails' hindwings, which can be seen when the butterfly is resting with its wings spread, gave rise to the common name swallowtail; as for its formal name, Linnaeus chose Papilio for the type genus, as papilio is Latin for "butterfly". For the specific epithets of the genus, Linnaeus applied the names of Greek figures to the swallowtails; the type species: Papilio machaon honored Machaon, one of the sons of Asclepius, mentioned in the Iliad. Further, the species Papilio homerus is named after Homer.
The genera of extant swallowtails are classified into three subfamilies, Baroniinae and Papilioninae, the latter two being further divided into tribes. In swallowtails, besides morphological characteristics, the choice of food plants and ecological lifestyle reflect phylogeny and classification; the Baroniinae are a monotypic subfamily, restricted to a small region in Mexico and are considered to be the most basal of the subfamilies. Baronia brevicornis is considered to be a relict species, shares features with a fossil taxon Praepapilio. Baronia is unique among papilionids as having an Acacia species as its food plant. Subfamily: Baroniinae; the Parnassiinae are a subfamily of Holarctic butterflies. The vast majority of species Parnassius, can be found in mountain habitats. Parnassiinines can be found in other habitats such as "arid deserts, humid forests and lowland meadows"; the tribes recognized in the Parnassiinae are Parnassiini and Luehdorfiini. Tribe Parnassiini contains two genera, Hypermnestra confined to central Asia and the genus Parnassius, a distinctive group of many species, all of which are alpine and capable of living at high altitudes.
Most Parnassius have two small reddish spots on their hindwings. The tribe Luehdorfiini contains the genera Archon of Asia minor and the genus Luehdorfia of China and Japan; these two tribes have evolved to change their food plants, while the third tribe, has retained the archetypical papilionid food plant, the lowland vine Aristolochia. Zerynthiini comprises four genera – Sericinus, Bhutanitis and Allancastria. Subfamily: Parnassiinae; the tribes recognized in the Papilioninae are Leptocircini, Teinopalpini and Papilionini. Subfamily: Papilioninae. An additional subfamily, consisting of a single genus Praepapilio, includes two species of extinct butterflies, each member being described from single fossils found in a middle Eocene deposit in Colorado, United States. A phylogeny of the Papilionidae based on Nazari is given: It is now accepted that the subfamily Papilioninae is monophyletic; the swallowtail butterflies in the nominate tribe Papilionini number about 225 species and studies have been made on their host plant coevolution and phylogeny.
Old morphological classifications were found to be valid in that they formed clusters. Species belonging to the groups that use Rutaceae as host plants formed two groups corresponding to Old World and American taxa; those that fed on Lauraceae and Magnoliaceae were found to form another cluster which includes both Asian and American taxa. The Parnassinae, like the Papilioninae, were believed to be monophyletic based on morphological studies but recent studies based on both morphological and molecular characteristics suggest that this is not the case. Of the Parnassiinae, the genera Parnassius and Hypermnestra were found to be close based on molecular studies and are now considered to be part of the tribe Parnassiini; the two taxa and Luehdorfia, have been found to be related through analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, though they share no morphological similarities, have now been united in the tribe Luehdorfiini. The subfamily Baroniinae is represented by the sole representative species Baronia brevicornis.
They are unique in the family to use the Fabaceae as their larval host plants. The Baronninae and the extinct subfamily Praepapilioninae share many external similarities and are traditionally considered to be the most primitive subfamilies and sister to the rest of the swallowtails. Recent research suggests that this may not be the case, the Baroniinae being related to only the Parnassiinae, Praepapilio to only the Papilionini and neither taxa being sister to the rest of the swallowtails; as of 2005, 552 extant species have been identified which are distributed across the tropical and temperate regions. Various species inhabit altitudes ranging from sea level to high mountains, as in the case of most species of Parnassius; the majority of swallowtail species and the greatest diversity are found in the tropics and subtropical regions between 20°N and 20°S Southeast Asia, between 20°N and 40°N in East Asia. Only 12 species are found in Europe and only one species, Papilio machaon is found in the British Isles.
North America has 40 species, including Parnassius. The northernmost swallowtail is the Siberian Apollo, found in the Arctic Circle in northeastern
Papilio is a genus in the swallowtail butterfly family, Papilionidae, as well as the only representative of the tribe Papilionini. The word papilio is Latin for butterfly; the genus includes a number of well-known North American species such as the western tiger swallowtail. Familiar species in elsewhere in the world include the Mormons in Asia, the orchard and Ulysses swallowtails in Australia and the citrus swallowtail of Africa. Older classifications of the swallowtails tended to use a large number of rather small genera. More recent classifications have been more conservative, as a result a number of former genera are now absorbed within Papilio; the genus as recognized by modern systems has about 200 members. The genus Chilasa is regarded as a subgenus of Papilio by some workers, as are the baggy-tailed swallowtails, although the latter taxon is considered a subgenus of Chilasa. Many of the larvae resemble bird droppings during a development stage. Adults are edible to birds and some species are mimics.
Now included in the genus Papilio, are the former genera: Achillides, Druryia, Menelaides, Princeps and Sinoprinceps. In their laval form, members of Papilio feed upon plants of Rutaceae including common ornamental and agriculturally important species such as Citrus species, Murraya species, Choisya species and Calodendrum species. Caterpillars sequester terpenoids from their diet to produce a foul smelling oil used in defence. Listed alphabetically within groups.subgenus: Papilio Linnaeus, 1758 species group: machaon Papilio alexanor Esper, 1800 – southern swallowtail Papilio brevicauda Saunders, 1869 – short-tailed swallowtail Papilio hospiton Géné, 1839 – Corsican swallowtail Papilio indra Reakirt, 1866 – Indra swallowtail, short-tailed black swallowtail, or cliff swallowtail Papilio joanae J. Heitzman, 1973 – Ozark swallowtail Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758 – Old World swallowtail, common yellow swallowtail, or artemisia swallowtail Papilio polyxenes Fabricius, 1775 – black swallowtail, eastern black swallowtail, or American swallowtail Papilio saharae Oberthür, 1879 – Sahara swallowtail Papilio zelicaon Lucas, 1852 – anise swallowtail or western swallowtailsubgenus: Princeps Hübner, species group: antimachus Papilio antimachus Drury, 1782 – Antimachus swallowtail or giant African swallowtailspecies group: zalmoxis Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson, 1864 – giant blue swallowtailspecies group: nireus Papilio aristophontes Oberthür, 1897 Papilio charopus Westwood, 1843 – tailed green-banded swallowtail Papilio chrapkowskii Suffert, 1904 – broad green-banded swallowtail or Chrapkowski's green-banded swallowtail Papilio chrapkowskoides Storace, 1952 – broadly green-banded swallowtail Papilio desmondi van Someren, 1939 – Desmond's green-banded swallowtail Papilio hornimani Distant, 1879 – Horniman's green-banded swallowtail or Horniman's swallowtail Papilio interjectana Vane-Wright, 1995 – Van Someren's green-banded swallowtail Papilio nireus Linnaeus, 1758 – green-banded swallowtail, narrow-banded green swallowtail, or African blue-banded swallowtail Papilio sosia Rothschild & Jordan, 1903 – medium green-banded swallowtail Papilio thuraui Karsch, 1900 Papilio ufipa Carcasson, 1961 Papilio wilsoni Rothschild, 1926species group: cynorta Papilio arnoldiana Vane-Wright, 1995 Papilio cynorta Fabricius, 1793 – mimetic swallowtail Papilio plagiatus Aurivillius, 1898 – mountain mimetic swallowtailspecies group: dardanus Papilio constantinus Ward, 1871 – Constantine's swallowtail Papilio dardanus Brown, 1776 – mocker swallowtail, flying handkerchief, or African swallowtail Papilio delalandei Godart, Papilio phorcas Cramer, – apple-green swallowtail or green banded swallowtail Papilio rex Oberthür, 1886 – regal swallowtailspecies group: zenobia Papilio cyproeofila Butler, 1868 – common white-banded swallowtail Papilio fernandus Fruhstorfer, 1903 Papilio filaprae Suffert, 1904 Papilio gallienus Distant, 1879 – narrow-banded swallowtail Papilio mechowi Dewitz, 1881 Papilio mechowianus Dewitz, 1885 Papilio nobicea Suffert, 1904 – Volta swallowtail Papilio zenobia Fabricius, 1775 – Zenobia swallowtailspecies group: demodocus Papilio demodocus Esper, 1799 – citrus swallowtail, citrus butterfly, orange dog, or Christmas butterfly Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758 – lime swallowtail or lime butterfly Papilio erithonioides Grose-Smith, 1891 Papilio grosesmithi Rothschild, 1926 Papilio morondavana Grose-Smith, 1891 – Madagascan emperorspecies group: echerioides Papilio echerioides Trimen, 1868 – white-banded swallowtail Papilio fuelleborni Karsch, 1900 Papilio jacksoni Sharpe, 1891 – Jackson's swallowtail Papilio sjoestedti Aurivillius, 1908 – Kilimanjaro swallowtailspecies group: oribazus Papilio epiphorbas Boisduval, 1833 Papilio nobilis Rogenhofer, 1891 – noble swallowtail Papilio oribazus Boisduval, 1836species group: hesperus Papilio euphranor Trimen, 1868 – forest swallowtail or bush kite Papilio hesperus Westwood, 1843 – emperor swallowtail Papilio horribilis Butler, 1874 Papilio pelodurus Butler, 1896species group: menestheus Papilio lormieri Distant, 1874 – central emperor swallowtail Papilio menestheus Drury, 1773 – western emperor swallowtail Papilio ophidicephalus Oberthür, 1878 – emperor swallowtailspecies group: incertae sedis Papilio andronicus Ward, 1871 Papilio chitondensis Bivar de Sousa & Fernandes, 1966 Papilio leucotaenia Rothschild, 1908 – cream-banded swallowtail Papilio luzviae Schröder & Treadaway, 1991 Papilio mackinnoni Sharpe, 1891 – MacKinnon's swallowtail Papilio mangoura Hewitson, 1875 – Mangoura swallowtail Papilio manlius Fabricius, 1798 Papilio microps Storace, 1951 Papilio nobicea B
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more different morphs or forms referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species. To be classified as such, morphs must occupy the same habitat at the same time and belong to a panmictic population; the term polyphenism can be used to clarify. Genetic polymorphism is a term used somewhat differently by geneticists and molecular biologists to describe certain mutations in the genotype, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms that may not always correspond to a phenotype, but always corresponds to a branch in the genetic tree. See below. Polymorphism is common in nature. Polymorphism functions to retain variety of form in a population living in a varied environment; the most common example is sexual dimorphism. Other examples are mimetic forms of butterflies, human hemoglobin and blood types. According to the theory of evolution, polymorphism results from evolutionary processes, as does any aspect of a species, it is modified by natural selection.
In polyphenism, an individual's genetic makeup allows for different morphs, the switch mechanism that determines which morph is shown is environmental. In genetic polymorphism, the genetic makeup determines the morph; the term polymorphism refers to the occurrence of structurally and functionally more than two different types of individuals, called zooids, within the same organism. It is a characteristic feature of cnidarians. For example, Obelia has the gastrozooids. Although in general use, polymorphism is a broad term. In biology, polymorphism has been given a specific meaning. A more specific term, when only two forms occur, is dimorphism; the term omits characteristics showing continuous variation. Polymorphism deals with forms in which the variation is discrete or bimodal or polymodal. Morphs must occupy the same habitat at the same time; the use of the words "morph" or "polymorphism" for what is a visibly different geographical race or variant is common, but incorrect. The significance of geographical variation is in that it may lead to allopatric speciation, whereas true polymorphism takes place in panmictic populations.
The term was first used to describe visible forms, but nowadays it has been extended to include cryptic morphs, for instance blood types, which can be revealed by a test. Rare variations are not classified as polymorphisms, mutations by themselves do not constitute polymorphisms. To qualify as a polymorphism, some kind of balance must exist between morphs underpinned by inheritance; the criterion is that the frequency of the least common morph is too high to be the result of new mutations or, as a rough guide, that it is greater than 1%. Polymorphism crosses several discipline boundaries, including ecology and genetics, evolution theory, taxonomy and biochemistry. Different disciplines may give the same concept different names, different concepts may be given the same name. For example, there are the terms established in ecological genetics by E. B. Ford, for classical genetics by John Maynard Smith; the shorter term morphism may be more accurate than polymorphism, but is not used. It was the preferred term of the evolutionary biologist Julian Huxley.
Various synonymous terms exist for the various polymorphic forms of an organism. The most common are morpha, while a more formal term is morphotype. Form and phase are sometimes used, but are confused in zoology with "form" in a population of animals, "phase" as a color or other change in an organism due to environmental conditions. Phenotypic traits and characteristics are possible descriptions, though that would imply just a limited aspect of the body. In the taxonomic nomenclature of zoology, the word "morpha" plus a Latin name for the morph can be added to a binomial or trinomial name. However, this invites confusion with geographically variant ring species or subspecies if polytypic. Morphs have no formal standing in the ICZN. In botanical taxonomy, the concept of morphs is represented with the terms "variety", "subvariety" and "form", which are formally regulated by the ICN. Horticulturists sometimes confuse this usage of "variety" both with cultivar and with the legal concept "plant variety".
Three mechanisms may cause polymorphism: Genetic polymorphism – where the phenotype of each individual is genetically determined A conditional development strategy, where the phenotype of each individual is set by environmental cues A mixed development strategy, where the phenotype is randomly assigned during development Selection, whether natural or artificial, changes the frequency of morphs within a population. A genetic polymorphism persists over many generations, maintained by two or more opposed and powerful selection pressures. Diver found banding morphs in Cepaea nemoralis could be seen in prefossil shells going back to t
Wasps of the cosmopolitan genus Polistes are the most familiar of the polistine wasps, are the most common type of paper wasp in North America. It is the single largest genus within the family Vespidae, with over 300 recognized species and subspecies, their innate preferences for nest-building sites leads them to build nests on human habitation, where they can be unwelcome. All species are predatory, they may consume large numbers of caterpillars, in which respect they are considered beneficial; the European paper wasp, Polistes dominula, was introduced into the US about 1981 and has spread throughout most of the country, in most cases replacing native species within a few years. This species is commonly mistaken for a yellow jacket, as it is black marked with yellow, quite different from the native North American species of Polistes; the cuckoo wasp, Polistes sulcifer, is an obligate social parasite. Polistes annularis, whose species name is Latin for "ringed", is known for its distinctive red body color.
Polistes metricus adults malaxate their insect prey by chewing them into a pulp, sucking out and ingesting the body fluids feeding the rest of the morsel to their larvae. The most distributed South American wasp species, Polistes versicolor, is common in the southeastern Brazilian states; this social wasp is referred to as the yellow paper wasp due to the distinct yellow bands found on its thorax and abdomen. Polistes wasps can be identified by their characteristic flight; the general lifecycle of Polistes can be divided into four phases: Founding phase Worker phase Reproductive phase Intermediate phase The founding stage begins in the spring when a solitary female initiates the construction of a nest. The wasps begin by fashioning a petiole, a short stalk which will connect the new nest to a substrate, building a single brood cell at the end of it. Further cells are added laterally in each cell surrounded by six others. Although nests can achieve impressive sizes, they always maintain a basic shape: petiolated, single-combed and open.
Eggs are laid by the foundress directly into the brood cells and are guarded by the foundress and the assisting females. After the first larvae hatch, the foundress feeds them via progressive provisioning, bringing softened caterpillar flesh to the larvae multiple times throughout their development; each of this first seasonal brood of new paper wasps is female and destined to a subordinate worker position inside the nest. Some foundress wasps do not build their own nests, but rather attempt to usurp that of another female; these usurpation attempts may or may not be successful, but always result in impressive displays of aggression and violence. Females may adopt a more peaceful alternative reproduction strategy by joining the nest of a close relative and working as assisting females. In the latter case, such cofounding females are but not close relatives; the worker phase begins in the early summer two months after colony initiation, with the emergence of the first workers. These new females take up most of the colony's work duties, caring for brood, maintaining the structure of the nest.
Around this time, those females which assisted in nest foundation are driven from the nest by aggressive behavior on the part of the foundress, leave either to start their own late-season nests or usurp another's. The reproductive phase of the colony begins when the first female reproductives emerge from their brood cells; these reproductives differ from their worker sisters by having increased levels of fat stores and cryoprotectant carbohydrate compounds. These reproductives contribute genes directly to the next generation, while their worker sisters pass along their genes indirectly. Once male reproductives emerge and both males and females disperse from the natal nest for mating flights, the so-called intermediate phase begins. Brood care and foraging behavior decline and worker numbers drop as dying individuals are no longer replaced by new ones. Intracolonial aggression increases and the social cohesion of the nest declines. In temperate Polistes species, individuals gather in groups of up to 50 individuals and seek a sheltered location in which to overwinter.
The reproductive behavior of Polistes wasps provided some of the first evidence for the mathematical biologist W. D. Hamilton's 1964 theory of kin selection. Hamilton showed that animals such as workers could be expected to provide assistance to relatives such as their queens according to the costs and benefits involved and their degree of genetic relatedness, gave the rule that now carries his name, K > 1/r. Early caution existed among researchers as to whether social insects could assess their relatedness. Hamilton himself suggested an alternative possibility, namely that kin could become associated by "population viscosity"—that offspring tend not to disperse far from their birthplaces—an