Madang is the capital of Madang Province and is a town with a population of 27,420 on the north coast of Papua New Guinea. It was first settled by the Germans in the 19th century. Russian biologist Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai was the first European to visit the area. In 1871 he stayed at Astrolabe Bay south of present-day Madang for 15 months, he had a good relationship with the local communities before suffering from malaria. In April 1884 an expedition by the German New Guinea Company led by Otto Finsch and Eduard Dallmann arrived and named the landing point "Friedrich Wilhelmshafen". A subsequent survey in 1888 mentioned good soil conditions that would make a coffee plantation possible. In the summer of 1891 a station was built and by September 1892 was the seat of the provincial administration; the name of "Madang" was used by Papuan natives who had accompanied the German administrators after their home island and only became the official name of the settlement towards the end of the German administration.
Although the settlement was expanded from 1893-1894 with warehouses, a sawmill and other facilities, various ventures, such as the coffee plantations and atap palm processing proved economically ruinous, due to malaria and inclement climate. From 1895 and 1896 several German warships were stationed here for a survey of surrounding waters, during which time a total of 295 men came down with malaria. In 1899 the capital of the New Guinea Company was transferred to Herbertshöhe on the island of New Pomerania. Following World War I, the area was turned over to Australia as part of the League of Nations mandated Territory of New Guinea; the Imperial Japanese Army captured Madang without a fight during World War II in 1942. In September 1943, Australian forces launched a sustained campaign to retake the Finisterre Range and Madang; the town was captured on April 24, 1944, but during the fighting and occupation it was destroyed and had to be rebuilt afterwards. Madang is viewed by many in the country as being safer and more pleasant for expatriates than the larger cities of Lae and Port Moresby.
Because of this, some NGOs have chosen Madang as the location of their main offices in country. CUSO and VSO both have their headquarters in Madang. Save the Children, WWF, World Vision are present with branch offices in Madang; as a consequence Madang has a larger number of expatriates working and living in the town than its small population would suggest. Madang is the home of Divine Word University. Industry and farming are growing in importance for export. There are the widespread coconut palm plantations on the cardamum is grown in Madang; the Kulili plantation is the second largest of Kar Kar Island's twelve plantations with its more than a thousand coconut palms and cocoa trees. 70% of the cocoa and 50% of the copra produced in Madang province comes from Kar Kar. In Madang province 173 regional languages are spoken, some of them being different from the others. Bilibil List of towns in Papua New Guinea "When the Japanese bombed Magang: Bob Emery". Papua New Guinea Association of Australia.
16 September 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2016.. An eyewitness recollection of the 1942 Japanese attack on Madang
Goroka is the capital of the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. It is a town of 19,000 people, 1600m above sea level, it has an airport and is on the "Highlands Highway", about 285 km from Lae in Morobe province and 90 km from the nearby town of Kainantu in the Eastern Highlands. Other nearby towns include Mount Hagen in Western Highlands Province, it has a mild climate, known as a "perpetual Spring". It is the home of several national institutions: CRMF Christian Radio Missionary Fellowship, the PNG Institute of Medical Research, the National Film Institute, the Melanesian Institute, the Raun Raun Theatre Company and the University of Goroka. Several NGOs have presences there, including Oxfam and Save the Children; the town's single largest hotel is the Bird of Paradise, owned by the Coral Seas Hotels chain. Coffee is a common cash crop in the area. In May, Goroka hosts the PNG Coffee Festival; the renowned Goroka Show is an event that takes place annually around the time of the country's Independence Day.
It continues for three days. The Goroka Show is the oldest show in Papua New Guinea, over 50 years of "keeping the spirit alive". Goroka is the birthplace of ex-Premier of Tasmania Lara Giddings rugby league players Stanley Gene and James Segeyaro. Goroka travel guide from Wikivoyage The University of Goroka Melanesian Institute CRMF Christian Radio Missionary Fellowship Goroka Show website
Politics of Papua New Guinea
The politics of Papua New Guinea takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic multi-party system, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. Papua New Guinea is an independent Commonwealth realm, with a governor-general, nominated by the National Parliament, acting as head of state. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the parliament. Constitutional safeguards include freedom of speech, worship and association; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. The Head of the Commonwealth, or Queen of Papua New Guinea, is represented in Papua New Guinea by a governor general who acts on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet; the Governor-General of Papua New Guinea is elected by parliament. The governments of Papua New Guinea are characterized by weak political parties and unstable parliamentary coalitions; the prime minister, elected by Parliament, chooses the other members of the cabinet. Each ministry is headed by a cabinet member, assisted by a permanent secretary, a career public servant, who directs the staff of the ministry.
The cabinet consists members, including ministers of executive departments. They answer politically to parliament; the Governor General appoints the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition. The Governor General appoints the other justices with the advice of a judicial commission; the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council serves as the highest appellate court. Papua New Guinea has a unicameral National Parliament known as the House of Assembly, it has 109 seats, with 89 elected from single-member "Open" electorates and 20 from province-level "Provincial" electorates. Members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; the most recent election was held in June–July 2017. Members of Parliament are elected from the National Capital District. After independence in 1975, members were elected by the first past the post system, with winners gaining less than 15% of the vote. Electoral reforms in 2001 introduced the Limited Preferential Vote system, a modified version of alternative vote, where voters number their first three choices among the candidates.
The first general election to use LPV was held in 2007. Parliament introduced reforms in June 1995 to change the provincial government system, with Provincial members of Parliament becoming provincial governors, while retaining their national seats in Parliament. However, if a provincial member accepts a position as a cabinet minister, the role of governor falls to one of the Open members of Parliament from the province. Papua New Guinea's judiciary is independent of the government, it interprets the laws. There are several levels. There is a Supreme Court of Papua New Guinea, not separately constituted but an appellate Full Court of the National Court, its Chief Justice the Chief Justice of the National Court, is appointed by the Governor General on the proposal of the National Executive Council after consultation with the Minister responsible for justice. Other justices of the National Court, who are available to sit as members of ad hoc benches of the Supreme Court, are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission.
Reforms in June 1995 changed the provincial government system. Regional members of Parliament became provincial governors, while retaining their national seats in Parliament. Papua New Guinea has 22 province-level divisions: twenty provinces, one autonomous province and the National Capital District. On Bougainville Island focused on traditional land rights and economic issues stemming from the operation of the Panguna mine, a civil war grew into a war for independence from PNG. From early 1989 until a truce came into effect in October 1997 and a permanent cease-fire was signed in April 1998 as many as 20,000 people were killed. Under the eyes of a regional peace-monitoring force and a United Nations observer mission, the government and provincial leaders have established an interim government and are working toward election of a provincial government and a referendum on independence; the people of Bougainville are related to those of the nearby Solomon Islands. The Morauta government brought in a series of electoral reforms in 2001, designed to address instability and corruption.
Among the reforms was the introduction of the Limited Preferential Vote system, a modified version of Alternative vote, for future elections in PNG. The first general election to use LPV was held in 2007. There are many parties. Winning candidates are courted in efforts to forge the majority needed to form a government, allegiances are fluid. No single party has yet won enough seats to form a government in its own right. Papua New Guinea has a history of changes in government coalitions and leadership from within Parliament during the five-year intervals between national elections. New governments are protected by law from votes of no confidence for the first 18 months of their incumbency, no votes of no confidence may be moved in the 12 months preceding a national election. On Bougainville Island, a rebellion occurred from early 1989 until a truce came into effect in October 1997 and a permanent cease-fire was signed in April 1
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology. In the past the term "insect" was more vague, the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla, such as arachnids, earthworms, land snails, slugs; this wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use. Like several of the other fields that are categorized within zoology, entomology is a taxon-based category. Entomology therefore overlaps with a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics, biomechanics, systematics, developmental biology, ecology and paleontology. At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms, date back some 400 million years, have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth. Entomology is rooted in nearly all human cultures from prehistoric times in the context of agriculture, but scientific study began only as as the 16th century. William Kirby is considered as the father of Entomology.
In collaboration with William Spence, he published a definitive entomological encyclopedia, Introduction to Entomology, regarded as the subject's foundational text. He helped to found the Royal Entomological Society in London in 1833, one of the earliest such societies in the world. Entomology developed in the 19th and 20th centuries, was studied by large numbers of people, including such notable figures as Charles Darwin, Jean-Henri Fabre, Vladimir Nabokov, Karl von Frisch, two-time Pulitzer Prize winner E. O. Wilson. There has been a history of people becoming entomologists through museum curation and research assistance, such as Sophie Lutterlough at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Insect identification is an common hobby, with butterflies and dragonflies being the most popular. Most insects can be recognized to order such as Hymenoptera or Coleoptera. However, insects other than Lepidoptera are identifiable to genus or species only through the use of Identification keys and Monographs.
Because the class Insecta contains a large number of species and the characteristics separating them are unfamiliar, subtle, this is very difficult for a specialist. This has led to the development of automated species identification systems targeted on insects, for example, Daisy, ABIS, SPIDA and Draw-wing. In 1994, the Entomological Society of America launched a new professional certification program for the pest control industry called the Associate Certified Entomologist. To qualify as a "true entomologist" an individual would require an advanced degree, with most entomologists pursuing a PhD. While not true entomologists in the traditional sense, individuals who attain the ACE certification may be referred to as ACEs or Associate Certified Entomologists. Many entomologists specialize in a single order or a family of insects, a number of these subspecialties are given their own informal names derived from the scientific name of the group: Coleopterology – beetles Dipterology – flies Odonatology – dragonflies and damselflies Hemipterology – true bugs Isopterology – termites Lepidopterology – moths and butterflies Melittology – bees Myrmecology – ants Orthopterology – grasshoppers, etc.
Trichopterology – caddis flies Vespology – Social wasps Like other scientific specialties, entomologists have a number of local and international organizations. There are many organizations specializing in specific subareas. Amateur Entomologists' Society Deutsches Entomologisches Institut Entomological Society of America Entomological Society of Canada Entomological Society of Japan Entomologischer Verein Krefeld Entomological Society of India International Union for the Study of Social Insects Netherlands Entomological Society Royal Belgian Entomological Society Royal Entomological Society of London Société entomologique de France Here is a list of selected museums which contain large insect collections. Zoological survey of India National Pusa Collection, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India Pakistan Museum of Natural History Garden Avenue, Islamabad, Pakistan Natal Museum, South Africa Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, France Museum für Naturkunde, Germany Kelvingrove Art Gallery, Scotland Natural History Museum, Budapest Hungarian Natural History Museum Natural History Museum, Geneva Natural History Museum, the Netherlands Natural History Museum, United Kingdom Natural History Museum, Oslo Norway Natural History Museum, St. Petersburg Zoological Collection of the Russian Academy of Science Naturhistorisches Museum, Austria Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden The Bavarian State Collection of Zoology Zoologische Staatssammlung München World Museum Liverpool, the Bug House Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia American Museum of Natural History, New York City Auburn University Museum of Natural History, Ala
Port Moresby referred to as Pom City or Moresby, is the capital and largest city of Papua New Guinea and the largest city in the South Pacific outside of Australia and New Zealand. It is located on the shores of the Gulf of Papua, on the south-western coast of the Papuan Peninsula of the island of New Guinea; the city emerged as a trade centre in the second half of the 19th century. During World War II it was a prime objective for conquest by the Imperial Japanese forces during 1942–43 as a staging point and air base to cut off Australia from Southeast Asia and the Americas. In 2000 it had a population of 254,158; as of 2011, it had a population of 364,145, giving it an annual growth rate of 2.1% over a nine-year period. The place where the city was founded has been inhabited by the Motu-Koitabu people for centuries; the first Briton to see it was Captain John Moresby in 1873. It was named in honour of Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby. Although Port Moresby is surrounded by Central Province, of which it is the capital, it is not part of that province, but forms the National Capital District.
Port Moresby hosted the APEC summit in November 2018, however there were concerns about security given the capital's reputation for violent crime. The Motuan people of the area now known as Port Moresby traded their pots for sago, other food and canoe logs, sailing from Hanuabada and other villages built on stilts above the waters of the bay, their language, was the basis of Hiri Motu, an official language of Papua New Guinea. It has been in decline since the 1960s when Tok Pisin began to grow in popularity; the Hiri expeditions were large scale. As many as 20 multi-hulled canoes or lakatoi, crewed by some 600 men, carried about 20,000 clay pots on each journey. To the Motuans, the Hiri was an economic enterprise and it confirmed their tribal identity through its long and dangerous voyages. There was an important trade centre on the site of Port Moresby when the English Captain John Moresby of HMS Basilisk first visited it, he sailed through the Coral Sea at the eastern end of New Guinea, saw three unknown islands, landed there.
At 10 a.m. on 20 February 1873, he claimed the land for Britain and named it after his father, Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby. He called the other Port Moresby. In 1883 Queensland attempted to annex the south-eastern corner of the New Guinea Island, fearing that Germany would take control of the entire eastern half of the island. British authorities refused to approve the annexation following the German annexation of New Guinea in 1884, but four years it established a protectorate over Papua as British New Guinea. In 1905 the federated Australian government passed the Papua Act which came into effect in 1906; the act transferred Papua, with Port Moreseby as its capital. From until 1941 Port Moresby grew slowly; the main growth was on the peninsula, where port facilities and other services were improved. The first butcher's shop and grocery opened in 1909, electricity was introduced in 1925, piped water supply provided in 1941. During World War II, some Papuan men enlisted in the Papua Infantry Battalion and others as carriers over trails and rough terrains as supply support to Allied and Japanese armies during long jungle marches.
Historian William Manchester makes it plain in his biography of General Douglas MacArthur, American Caesar, that acting as porters was well down the natives' list of acceptable voluntary activities and that they would fade away without great inducements. Many Papuan residents of Port Moresby either returned to their family villages or were evacuated to camps when the threat of Japanese invasion loomed; the city became, by September 1942, home to an important Allied complex of bases and thousands of troops were stationed in the area or more staged through it, as it was the last Allied bastion on the island and, conversely, a key staging and jumping off point as the Allies began conducting offensive warfare themselves, pushing back the Japanese advances. In 1945, the Territory of Papua and New Guinea was formed when Papua and the former German New Guinea, administered by Australia since 1918, were amalgamated under a single Australian administration though several laws remained in two territories and remain so, which can be complicating with provinces sitting on two sides of the otherwise extinct boundary.
Port Moresby became the capital of the new combined territory and a focal point for the expansion of public services. In September 1975, Papua New Guinea became an independent country with Port Moresby as its capital city. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, represented the Queen of Papua New Guinea at the celebrations. New government and cultural buildings were constructed in the suburb of Waigani to supplement and replace those of downtown Port Moresby, they included those for government departments, including a National Parliament Building, opened in 1984 by Prince Charles and blends traditional design with modern building technology. The Papua New Guinea National Museum and National Library are in Waigani. A mansion was built in Port Moresby just west of the old legislative building but the last pre-independence chief minister and first prime minister of the sovereign state declared it not nearly grand enough. Several of the government buildings have been abandoned due to long-term neglect. Ch
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation branded as the'William H. Gates Foundation', is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates. Based in Seattle, Washington, it was launched in 2000 and is reported to be the largest private foundation in the world, holding $50.7 billion in assets. The primary aims of the foundation are, globally, to enhance healthcare and reduce extreme poverty, and, in the U. S. to expand educational opportunities and access to information technology. The foundation is controlled by its three trustees: Bill and Melinda Gates, Warren Buffett. Other principal officers include Co-Chair William H. Gates, Sr. and Chief Executive Officer Susan Desmond-Hellmann. It had an endowment of $50.7 billion as of December 31, 2017. The scale of the foundation and the way it seeks to apply business techniques to giving makes it one of the leaders in venture philanthropy, though the foundation itself notes that the philanthropic role has limitations. In 2007, its founders were ranked as the second most generous philanthropists in the US, Warren Buffett the first.
As of May 16, 2013, Bill Gates had donated $28 billion to the foundation. Since its founding, the foundation has endowed and supported a broad range of social and education developments including the establishment of the Gates Cambridge Scholarships at Cambridge University. In 1994, the foundation was formed as the William H. Gates Foundation. During the foundation's following years, funding grew to $2 billion. On June 15, 2006, Gates announced his plans to transition out of a day-to-day role with Microsoft, effective July 31, 2008, to allow him to devote more time to working with the foundation. In 2005, Bill and Melinda Gates, along with the musician Bono, were named by Time as Persons of the Year 2005 for their outstanding charitable work. In the case of Bill and Melinda Gates, the work referenced was that of this foundation. In April 2010, Gates was invited to visit and speak at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he asked the students to take on the hard problems of the world in their futures.
He explained the nature and philosophy of his philanthropic endeavors. In 2010, the foundation's founders started the Commission on Education of Health Professionals for the 21st Century, entitled "Transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world."A 2011 survey of grantees found that many believed the foundation did not make its goals and strategies clear and sometimes did not understand those of the grantees. The foundation's response was to improve the clarity of its explanations, make "orientation calls" to grantees upon awarding grants, tell grantees who their foundation contact is, give timely feedback when they receive a grantee report, establish a way for grantees to provide anonymous or attributed feedback to the foundation; the foundation launched a podcast series. In 2013, Hillary Clinton launched a partnership between the foundation and the Clinton Foundation to gather and study data on the progress of women and girls around the world since the 1995 United Nations Fourth World Conference On Women in Beijing.
This is called "No Ceilings: The Full Participation Project." On June 25, 2006, Warren Buffett pledged to give the foundation 10 million Berkshire Hathaway Class B shares spread over multiple years through annual contributions, with the first year's donation of 500,000 shares being worth $1.5 billion. Buffett set conditions so that these contributions do not increase the foundation's endowment, but work as a matching contribution, doubling the foundation's annual giving. Bloomberg News noted, "Buffett's gift came with three conditions for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: Bill or Melinda Gates must be alive and active in its administration. Buffett gave the foundation two years to abide by the third requirement." The Gates Foundation received 5% of the shares in July 2006 and will receive 5% of the remaining earmarked shares in the July of each following year. In July 2018, Buffet announced another donation of his company's Class B stock, this time worth $2 billion, to the Gates Foundation.
To maintain its status as a charitable foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation must donate funds equal to at least 5 percent of its assets each year. As of April 2014, the foundation is organized into four program areas under chief executive officer Susan Desmond-Hellmann, who "sets strategic priorities, monitors results, facilitates relationships with key partners": Global Development Division Global Health Division United States Division Global Policy & Advocacy Division Global Growth & Opportunity DivisionThe foundation maintains an online database of grants on its website which includes for each grant the name of the grantee organization, the purpose of the grant and the amount; this database is publicly available. In November 2014, the Gates Foundation announced that they were adopting an open access policy for publications and data, "to enable the unrestricted access and reuse of all peer-reviewed published research funded by the foundation, including any underlying data sets".
This move has been applauded by those who are working in the area of capacity building and knowledge sharing. Its terms have been called the most stringent among similar OA policies; as of January 1, 2015 their Open Access polic
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
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