Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Royal Papworth Hospital
Royal Papworth Hospital is a leading heart and lung hospital, located in Papworth Everard in Cambridgeshire, England. It was home to the first successful heart transplant in the UK, the world's first successful heart and liver transplant, one of the world's first non-beating-heart transplants. Royal Papworth Hospital is due to move to new premises on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus in spring 2019. Papworth Hospital was founded in 1918 as a sanitorium for the treatment of tuberculosis among discharged soldiers who had served in the First World War, following a campaign led by Elsbeth Dimsdale, was known as the “Cambridgeshire Tuberculosis Colony”; the institution was under the direction of Dr Pendrill Varrier-Jones. From the 1950s, surgical facilities developed, beginning with thoracic surgery and expanding to cardiac surgery. Surgeon Ben Milstein performed the first open-heart surgery at Papworth Hospital in September 1958. In August 1979, surgeon Terence English performed the first successful heart transplant in the UK at Papworth Hospital.
The patient, Keith Castle, lived for over five years following his surgery. In August 1994 a team of doctors carried out a revolutionary operation when 62-year-old Arthur Cornhill was given the world's first permanent battery-operated heart. In December 2013 it was announced that the hospital would move to the Cambridge Biomedical Campus next to Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge. Implementation of the scheme was temporarily delayed, following an intervention by HM Treasury, while the Trust investigated an alternative proposal of moving to the Peterborough City Hospital site, a concept to which there was considerable opposition given the financial problems at that hospital. In March 2015, the hospital announced that its move to the Cambridge Biomedical Campus was being procured under a private finance initiative contract; the construction works, which are being carried out by Skanska at a cost of £165 million, started immediately. They are expected to be complete, following some rectification to the cladding, in spring 2019.
In May 2014, a new CT Scanner was unveiled at the hospital by its royal patron, the Duchess of Gloucester. In September 2017, Papworth Hospital was granted the designation “royal” by the Queen and so became Royal Papworth Hospital in January 2018. Fundraising is taking place for a Heart and Lung Research Institute, a joint venture between Papworth Hospital and the University of Cambridge, to be built on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus adjacent to the new hospital; the Papworth site has two main building complexes: the Chest Medical Unit. Sub-specialities include:Those based in the Bernhard Baron Building called the Chest Medical Unit: the Respiratory Support and Sleep Centre, providing services for patients with sleep disorders and those with ventilatory failure; the service provides non-invasive ventilation and accepts referrals from other intensive care units to wean patients from invasive ventilation. Those based in the Christopher Parish Building: cardiac surgery, including heart transplantation, coronary artery bypass grafting, heart valve surgery, pulmonary thromboendarterectomy.
On 2 November 2007 it was announced that Papworth Hospital would suspend heart transplant activities while an investigation was undertaken into an unexplained rise in recipient mortality rates. The Hospital was given the all-clear on 19 November 2007 after the Healthcare Commission ruled the quality of care was good. Papworth Hospital was named by the Health Service Journal as one of the top hundred NHS trusts to work for in 2015. At that time it had 1677 full-time equivalent staff and a sickness absence rate of 3.63%. 92 % of staff recommend it as a place for 75 % recommended it as a place to work. In a survey of 242 hospitals in England it had the fastest responding telephone switchboard, with an average response time of 3 seconds. On 23 December 2011, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh 90 years of age, underwent successful coronary angioplasty and stenting at Papworth Hospital. Healthcare in Cambridgeshire List of hospitals in England New Papworth Hospital website Papworth Hospital Papworth Hospital website Respiratory Support and Sleep Centre microsite Papworth Direct microsite The Papworth Hospital Charity website The Papworth Hospital Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care website Papworth Clinic website for the Papworth's Private Patients' Centre
Cambridgeshire Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the ceremonial county of Cambridgeshire in the United Kingdom. In addition to the non-metropolitan county, the Police area includes the city of Peterborough, which became a unitary authority area in 1998; the Chief Constable is Nick Dean, who replaced Alec Wood in 2018. The Deputy Chief Constable is Alan Baldwin and the Assistant Chief Constable is Dan Vajzovic; the force is divided into two area commands, since October 2017 of North and South each being commanded by a Superintendent. North consists of Fenland and Peterborough and South based on the areas of local district councils: Cambridge, East Cambridgeshire and South Cambridgeshire. There were three divisions: Northern and Southern, however these were abolished in 2012; the force's headquarters is situated at Hinchingbrooke Park on the outskirts of Huntingdon. There is a centralised call centre for the county at Copse Court in Peterborough.
The first formal police force in the area was started in the Isle of Ely in 1841 by the magistrate of the Isle. This was followed in the city of Cambridge by the original Cambridgeshire Constabulary in 1851. Huntingdonshire and Peterborough did not start their forces until 1857, under the County and Borough Police Act 1856. In 1965, Cambridgeshire Constabulary amalgamated with Cambridge City Police, Isle of Ely Constabulary, Huntingdonshire Constabulary, Peterborough Combined Police to form Mid-Anglia Constabulary, with the same boundaries as the current force; this force had an establishment of 805 and an actual strength of 728. A separate Wisbech Borough Police had merged with the Isle of Ely Constabulary in 1889; the force was renamed Cambridgeshire Constabulary in 1974, when the new non-metropolitan county of Cambridgeshire was created by the Local Government Act 1972 with identical boundaries to the Mid-Anglia Constabulary area. In 2001 the constabulary conducted one of Peterborough's biggest police enquiries following the racist murder of teenager Ross Parker.2002 saw the Soham murders, an event that led to the biggest investigation in the history of Cambridgeshire police and one of the most expensive in the country, costing £3.5million.
Proposals made by the Home Secretary, Charles Clarke, in March 2006 would have seen the force merge with neighbouring Norfolk Constabulary and Suffolk Constabulary to form a strategic police force for East Anglia. While Norfolk supported the proposal. In July 2006 however, the Home Office announced that all plans to merge police forces had been abandoned by the incoming John Reid. Since 2010, there has been reorganisation and collaboration of the force with nearby Hertfordshire Constabulary and Bedfordshire Police under the banner of "Op ReDesign", with many departments merging such as Tactical Firearms Unit, Dog Section and Uniform Stores. In 2013, Cambridgeshire officers attempted to infiltrate student political groups at Cambridge University including UK Uncut and Unite Against Fascism by attempting to persuade an activist to become an informant. In 2015 the constabulary hit controversy when it was announced that it would not review CCTV footage of bicycle thefts. Prior to 2012, Cambridgeshire Constabulary was overseen by a police authority that comprised 17 members.
This was made up of nine district councillors, of which seven were nominated by Cambridgeshire County Council and two by Peterborough City Council, three magistrates, nominated by the county's Magistrates' Courts Committee. However, In 2011 the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 was passed by Parliament which abolished Police Authorities in favour of an elected Police and Crime Commissioner. On 15 November 2012, elections took place in England and Wales to elect a Police and Crime Commissioner for each Police Area. In Cambridgeshire, the winning candidate was Conservative Sir Graham Bright, former MP for Luton; the Cambridgeshire Police and Crime Commissioner is scrutinised by the Cambridgeshire Police and Crime Panel, made up of elected councillors from the local authorities in the police area. Cambridgeshire Constabulary 1851–1876: Captain George Davies Mid-Anglia Constabulary 1965–1974: F Drayton PorterCambridgeshire Constabulary 1974–: F Drayton Porter 1994–2002: Dennis George "Ben" Gunn 2002–2005: Thomas Lloyd 2005–2010: Julie Spence 2010–2015: Simon Parr 2015–2018: Alec Wood 2018–Present: Nick Dean The Police Roll of Honour Trust lists and commemorates all British police officers killed in the line of duty, since its establishment in 1984 has erected over 38 memorials to some of those officers.
The following officers of Cambridgeshire Constabulary were killed while they were on duty: Police Constable Thomas Saunders Lamb, 1841 Police Constable Richard Peak 1855, Detective Sergeant Francis James Willis, 1930 Police Sergeant Raymond George Bowland, 1957 Police Constable Anthony Allder, 1966 (Died from severe head injuries following a collision with a car while on
Doner kebab is a type of kebab, made of meat cooked on a vertical rotisserie. Seasoned meat stacked in the shape of an inverted cone is turned on the rotisserie, next to a vertical cooking element; the outer layer is sliced into thin shavings. The vertical rotisserie was invented in the 19th-century Ottoman Empire, doner kebab inspired similar dishes such as the Arab shawarma, Greek gyros, Mexican al pastor; the sliced meat of a doner kebab may be served on a plate with various accompaniments, stuffed into a pita or other type of bread as a sandwich, or wrapped in a thin flatbread such as lavash or yufka, known as a dürüm. Since the early 1970s, the sandwich or wrap form has become popular around the world as a fast food dish sold by kebab shops, is called a "kebab"; the sandwich contains salad or vegetables, which may include tomato, cabbage, onion with sumac, fresh or pickled cucumber, or chili, various types of sauces. In the Ottoman Empire at least as far back as the 17th century, stacks of seasoned sliced meat were cooked on a horizontal rotisserie, similar to the cağ kebab.
The vertical rotisserie was introduced no than the mid-19th century. The town of Bursa, in modern-day Turkey, is considered the birthplace of the vertically-roasted döner kebab. According to Yavuz İskenderoğlu, his grandfather İskender Efendi as a child in 1850s Bursa had the idea of roasting the lamb at his father's restaurant vertically rather than horizontally. However, he may have been preceded by Hamdi Usta from Kastamonu around 1830, it was not until a century that döner kebab was introduced and popularized in Istanbul, most famously by Beyti Güler. His restaurant, first opened in 1945, was soon discovered by journalists and began serving döner and other kebab dishes to kings, prime ministers, film stars and celebrities, it has been sold in sandwich form in Istanbul since at least the mid-1960s. The döner kebab, its derivatives shawarma and gyros, served in a sandwich, came to worldwide prominence in the mid to late 20th century; the first doner kebab shop in London opened in 1966, while Greek-style doner kebab known as gyros, was popular in Greece and New York City in 1971.
In Germany, the döner kebab was popularized by Turkish guest workers in Berlin in the early 1970s. The dish developed there from its original form into a distinctive style of sandwich with abundant salad and sauces, sold in large portions at affordable prices, that would soon become one of the top-selling fast food and street food dishes in Germany and much of Europe, popular around the world. In the English name "doner kebab", the word doner is borrowed from the Turkish döner kebap, with the Turkish letter ö anglicized as "o", though "döner kebab" is an alternate spelling in English; the word "kebab" is used, which comes to English from the Arabic: كَبَاب through Urdu and Turkish. While kebab has been used in English since the late 17th century, doner/döner kebab is known only from the mid-20th or later; the Turkish word döner comes from dönmek, so the Turkish name döner kebap means "rotating roast". In German, it is spelled Döner Kebab, which can be spelled Doener Kebab if the ö character is not available.
In British English, a döner kebab sandwich may be referred to as "a kebab". A Canadian variation is "donair". In Greek, it was called döner but came to be known as gyros, from γύρος, a calque of the Turkish name; the Arabic name شاورما derives from another Turkish word, çevirme meaning "turning". Persians refer to it as "kebab torki". There are many variations of döner in Turkey: Porsiyon Pilavüstü İskender "Kebapçı İskender" is trademarked by Yavuz İskenderoğlu, whose family still runs the restaurant in Bursa. Dürüm, wrapped in a thin lavaş, sometimes grilled after being rolled, to make it crispier, it has two main variants in mainland Turkey: Soslu dürüm or SSK Kaşarlı dürüm döner Tombik or gobit Ekmekarası In Azerbaijan, döner kebab, served to the European style of sandwich wrapped in lavaş or in çörәk, is one of the most widespread fast foods. It is made with әt, but sometimes toyuq. In Japan, döner kebabs are now common in Tokyo, they are predominantly made of chicken but beef, called "kebab".
The toppings include shredded lettuce or cabbage, sliced tomato, a choice of sauces such as Thousand Islands and garlic. Döner kebab is becoming popular