The spotted sandpiper is a small shorebird, 18–20 cm long. The genus name Actitis is from Ancient Greek aktites, "coast-dweller", derived from akte, "coast", macularius is Latin from macula, "spot". Together with its sister species the common sandpiper, it makes up the genus Actitis, they replace each other geographically. Their breeding habitat is near fresh water across most of the United States, they migrate to the southern United States and South America, are rare vagrants to western Europe. These are not gregarious birds and are seen in flocks. Adults have an orange bill with a dark tip; the body is brown on white underneath with black spots. Non-breeding birds, depicted below, do not have the spotted underparts, are similar to the common sandpiper of Eurasia; the Actitis species have a distinctive stiff-winged flight low over the water. Spotted sandpipers nest on the ground. During each summer breeding season, females may mate with and lay clutches for more than one male, leaving incubation to them.
This is called polyandry. Male parents of first clutches may father chicks in male's clutches due to sperm storage within female reproductive tracts, common in birds. Females that fail to find additional mates help incubate and rear chicks. "Prior to incubation, blood plasma concentrations of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are higher in males than in females" and these levels plummet 25-fold in males as incubation proceeds. Additionally, mated females have testosterone concentrations that are 7 times higher than those of unmated females; these birds forage on water, picking up food by sight. They may catch insects in flight, they eat insects and other invertebrates. As they forage, they can be recognized by their constant teetering. Vinicombe, Keith ID in depth: Spotted Sandpiper Birdwatch 171: 29-31 Spotted Sandpiper Species Account - Cornell Lab of Ornithology Spotted Sandpiper - Actitis macularia - USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter "Actitis macularius". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
"Spotted Sandpiper media". Internet Bird Collection. Spotted Sandpiper photo gallery at VIREO
Lomas called fog oases and mist oases, are areas of fog-watered vegetation in the coastal desert of Peru and northern Chile. About 100 lomas near the Pacific Ocean are identified between 5°S and 30°S latitude, a north-south distance of about 2,800 kilometres. Lomas range in size from a small vegetated area to more than 40,000 hectares and their flora includes many endemic species. Apart from river valleys and the lomas the coastal desert is without vegetation. Scholars have described individual lomas as "an island of vegetation in a virtual ocean of desert." In a nearly rainless desert, the lomas owe their existence to the moist dense fog and mist which rolls in from the Pacific. The fog is called garúa in Camanchaca in Chile. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, the coastal desert of Peru and the Atacama desert of Chile feature a rare desert climate, abbreviated "BWn" on climate maps with the n denoting frequent fog. Temperatures are mild year round and precipitation is nearly non-existent, averaging 3 millimetres to 13 millimetres per year in most locations.
Many years have no precipitation at all. The Atacama Desert of Chile is known as the driest non-polar place in the world. Arica, Chile, in the middle portion of the coastal desert, went a record 173 months without measurable precipitation in the early 20th century. Occasional rainfall is caused by El Niño. For example, in March 2015, the desert in Chile received about 25 millimetres in one day which caused flooding. In a phenomenen called the flowering desert, after the rare rains the desert blooms with flowers. With the nearly non-existent precipitation, the coastal desert is devoid of vegetation except in lomas and along rivers which originate in the Andes and cross the desert to the Pacific; the moisture for the vegetation in the lomas comes from fog which rolls in from the nearby Pacific Ocean and embraces mountains which come down near the sea. The cold waters of the Humboldt Current run offshore. During the austral winter thick stratus clouds, the garúa, creep inland to an altitude of 1,000 metres most days from May until November.
During this season the vegetation in the lomas is green and many species of flowers bloom. In the austral summer from December to April, the weather is sunny and the lomas become dryer; the moisturizing impact of the fog is increased by the mild temperatures throughout the year and high average humidity of the coastal deserts. For example, Peru, located at 12°S latitude has average monthly temperatures ranging from 17 °C to 23 °C cool for locations in the tropics. Lima's average humidity is more than double the average humidity in most deserts. Peru has more than 40 lomas totalling in area less than 2,000 square kilometres out of a total desert area of 144,000 square kilometres. Chile has 50 lomas with an area of less than 5,000 square kilometres out of a total desert area of 291,000 square kilometres. Teetering on a narrow edge of survival the lomas are sensitive to climate change. Radio-carbon dating has indicated that, prior to 3800 BCE, the Peruvian desert north of Lima received more seasonal precipitation and was vegetated.
Lomas—isolated fog oases—existed only south of Lima. This is evidenced by the uniformity of plant species in present-day lomas north of Lima while lomas south of Lima have more endemic plant species, indicating geographic isolation; the cause of the climatic change was the duration and strength of El Niño events. Lomas have been impacted, in some cases destroyed, by centuries of unregulated grazing, wood-cutting, mining. In Chile, the Huasco and Copiapó river valleys once supported dense stands of trees. In the 18th century, the city of Copiapó was known as San Francisco de la Selva for its extensive forests; as the branches of trees and bushes trap the fog and create more moisture for other plants, their absence reduces the viability for all the plant life in the lomas. In many locations the lomas were over-exploited for grazing. One example is that, in prehistoric times, 25 kilometres north of Ilo, far from any other source of water, four lomas-fed springs permitted about 85 hectares of irrigated agriculture plus grazing for llamas and alpacas.
Hundreds of people of the Chiribaya culture benefited from this unlikely agriculture in a rainless land. During the 17th century, Spanish colonists pastured 200 mules in these lomas; as late as 1951, a few tara trees still lived although the lomas were by nearly devoid of all vegetation and population. In Peru, the Reserva Nacional de Lachay protects 5,070 hectares 105 kilometres north of Lima; the Lomas de Atiquipa is the largest and the best preserved lomas forest in Peru, covering more that 42,000 hectares with some 350 plant species, including 44 endemics. The National University of Saint Augustine in Arequipa has partnered with Peruvian conservation groups and the Nature Conservancy to preserve and restore the environment of the lomas. Included in the project is the installation of fog-catching nets to capture water and thereby helping the 80 families who live within the area to expand agriculture of olives. In Chile the Pan de Azúcar and Llanos de Challe National Parks and the La Chimba National Reserve preserve lomas.
The richest diversity of species of llomas flora in Chile, however, is near the village of Paposo. The fog oasis near Papos
South American sea lion
The South American sea lion called the Southern Sea Lion and the Patagonian sea lion, is a sea lion found on the Ecuadorian, Chilean, Falkland Islands, Argentinean and Southern Brazilian coasts. It is the only member of the genus Otaria, its scientific name was subject to controversy, with some taxonomists referring to it as Otaria flavescens and others referring to it as Otaria byronia. The former won out, although that may still be overturned. Locally, it is known by several names, most lobo marino /lobo marinho and león marino /leão marinho and the hair seal; the South American sea lion is the archetypal sea lion in appearance. Males have a large head with a well-developed mane, making them the most lionesque of the eared seals, they are twice the weight of females. Both males and females are brown coloured with upturned snouts. Pups are born greyish orange ventrally and black moult into a more chocolate colour; the South American sea lion's size and weight can vary considerably. Adult males can weigh up to 350 kg.
Adult females grow up to 1.8–2 m and weigh about half the weight of the males, around 150 kg. This species is more sexually dimorphic than the other sea lions; the South American sea lion is found along the coasts and offshore islands of South America, from Peru south to Chile in the Pacific and north to southern Brazil in the Atlantic. Notable breeding colonies include Uruguay; some individuals wander as far north as southern Ecuador, although they never bred there. However, the movement ecology of South American sea lions remains poorly understood, although biologging studies in recent years have advanced our understanding of their at-sea movements at some breeding locations. There is no evidence of a winter migration of sea lions from the Falkland Islands. South American sea lions breed on beaches made of sand, rocky, or pebble beaches They can be seen on flat, rocky cliffs with tidepools. Sea lion colonies tend to be small and scattered on rocky beaches; the colonies make spaces between each individual when the weather is sunny.
They can be found in marinas and wharves, but do not breed there. South American sea lions consume numerous species of fishes, including anchovies, they eat cephalopods, such as shortfin squid, Patagonian squid, octopus. They have been observed preying on penguins and young South American fur seals. South American sea lions may forage at the ocean floor for slow-moving prey or hunt schooling prey in groups, depending on the area; when captured, the prey is torn apart. South American sea lions have been recorded to take advantage of the hunting efforts of dusky dolphins, feeding on the fish they herd together; the sea lions themselves are preyed on by killer whales and sharks, visited as a handy source of blood by common vampire bats from Isla Pan de Azúcar. Mating occurs between August and December, the pups are born between December and February. Males arrive first to establish and defend territories, but switch to defending females when they arrive. A male aggressively defends both from neighbors and intruders.
On rocky beaches, males establish territories where females go to cool off, keeping them until estrus. On cobble or sandy beaches, males have territories near the surf and monopolize females trying to get access to the sea; the number of actual fights between males depends on the number of females in heat. The earlier a male arrives at the site, the longer his tenure will be and the more copulations he will achieve. Males are able to keep around three females in their harems, but some have as many as 18. During the breeding season, males that fail to secure territories and harems, most subadults, will cause group raids in an attempt to change the status quo and gain access to the females. Group raids are more common on sandy beaches than rocky ones; these raids cause chaos in the breeding harems splitting mothers from their young. The resident males try to fight off the raiders and keep all the females in their territorial boundaries. Raiders are unsuccessful in securing a female, but some are able to capture some females or stay in the breeding area with one or more females.
Sometimes, an invading male abducts pups as an attempt to control the females. They take pups as substitutes for mature females. Subadults herd their captured pups and prevent them from escaping, much like adult males do to females. A pup may be mounted by its abductor. While abducting pups does not give males immediate reproductive benefits, these males may gain experience in controlling females. Pups are sometimes injured or killed during abductions. Despite being a harem-territorial species, one population in Peru has been recorded having a lek-like breeding system. Here, with its longer ratio of males in comparison to females, the males cluster together and display and try to attract females while allowing to move freely; the warmer climate makes the females move to the water, further making the traditional mating system difficult to maintain. The group raids that exist in temperate populations are non-existent here. Sea lion mothers remain with their newborn pups for nearly a week before making a routine of taking three-day foraging trips and coming back to nurse the pups.
They act aggressively to other females that come close to their pups, as well as
Ulva lactuca known by the common name sea lettuce, is an edible green alga in the family Ulvaceae. It is the type species of the genus Ulva. Ulva lactuca is a thin flat green algae growing from a discoid holdfast; the margin is somewhat ruffled and torn. It may reach 18 centimetres or more in length, though much less, up to 30 centimetres across; the membrane is two cells thick and translucent, grows attached, without a stipe, to rocks or other algae by a small disc-shaped holdfast. Green to dark green in colour, this species in the Chlorophyta is formed of two layers of cells irregularly arranged, as seen in cross-section; the chloroplast is cup-shaped in some references but as a parietal plate in others with one to three pyrenoids. There are other species of Ulva; the distribution is worldwide: Europe, North America, Central America, Caribbean Islands, South America, Indian Ocean Islands, South-west Asia, Pacific Islands and New Zealand. Ulva lactuca is common on rocks and on other algae in the littoral and sublittoral on shores all around the British Isles, the coast of France, the Low Countries and up to Denmark.
It is prolific in areas where nutrients are abundant. This has been the case off the coast of Brittany where a high level of nitrates, from the intensive farming there, washes out to sea; the result is that large quantities of Ulva lactuca are washed up on beaches, where their decay produces methane, hydrogen sulfide, other gases. Certain environmental conditions can lead to the algae spreading over large areas. In August 2009, unprecedented levels of the algae washed up on the beaches of Brittany, causing a major public health scare as it decomposed; the rotting thalli produced large quantities of hydrogen sulfide, a toxic gas which, like hydrogen cyanide, inhibits cytochrome c oxidase, inhibiting cellular respiration and resulting in critical cellular hypoxia. In one incident near Saint-Michel-en-Grève, a horse rider lost consciousness and his horse died after breathing the seaweed fumes. Environmentalists blamed the phenomenon on excessive use of fertilizers and the excretion of nitrates by pig and poultry farmers.
In an earlier separate incident at the same beach in July 2009, a truck driver had died near his vehicle after hauling three truckloads of sea lettuce without protective gear during the annual cleanup. Although recorded as a heart attack, the death of the truck driver prompted French authorities to exhume his remains for an autopsy, it was determined to be cardiac arrest resulting from pulmonary edema, an indication of possible hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Dead animals found on the algae-clogged beaches were claimed to be linked to toxic fumes by environmentalists; the sporangial and gametangial thalli are morphologically alike. The diploid adult plant produces haploid zoospores by meiosis, these settle and grow to form haploid male and female plants similar to the diploid plants; when these haploid plants release gametes they unite to produce the zygote which germinates, grows to produce the diploid plant. U. lactuca is locally used in Scotland in salads. Hayden, H. S. Blomster, J. Maggs, C. A. Silva, P.
C. Stanhope, M. J. and Waaland, J. R. "Linnaeus was right all along: Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinct genera" European Journal of Phycology 38: pp. 277–294, doi:10.1080/1364253031000136321 Ulva lactuca, AlgaeBase entry Ulva lactuca, University of Rhode Island
The Paracas culture was an Andean society existing between 800 BCE and 100 BCE, with an extensive knowledge of irrigation and water management and that made significant contributions in the textile arts. It was located in. Most information about the lives of the Paracas people comes from excavations at the large seaside Paracas site on the Paracas Peninsula, first investigated by the Peruvian archaeologist, Julio Tello, in the 1920s; the Paracas Cavernas are shaft tombs set into the top of Cerro Colorado, each containing multiple burials. There is evidence. In some cases, the heads of the deceased were taken out for rituals, reburied; the associated ceramics include incised polychrome, "negative" resist decoration, other wares of the Paracas tradition. The associated textiles include many complex weave structures as well as elaborate plaiting and knotting techniques; the necropolis of Wari Kayan consisted of two clusters of hundreds of burials set together inside and around abandoned buildings on the steep north slope of Cerro Colorado.
The associated ceramics are fine plain wares, some with white and red slips, others with pattern-burnished decoration, other wares of the Topara tradition. Each burial consisted of a conical textile-wrapped bundle, most containing a seated individual facing north across the bay of Paracas, next to offerings such as ceramics, foodstuffs and weapons; each body was bound with cord to hold it in a seated position, before being wrapped in many layers of intricate and finely woven textiles. Now the Paracas Necropolis embroideries are known as some of the finest produced by Pre-Columbian Andean societies and are the primary works of art by which Paracas culture is known. Burials at the necropolis of Wari Kayan continued until 250 CE, many of the mortuary bundles include textiles similar to those of early Nazca; the dry environment of southern Peru's Pacific coast allows organic materials to be preserved when buried. Mummified human remains were found in a tomb in the Paracas peninsula of Peru, buried under layers of cloth textiles.
The dead were wrapped in layers of cloth called "mummy bundles". These bodies were found at the Great Paracas Necropolis along the south Pacific coast of the Andes. At the Necropolis there was a large communal tomb holding 420 bodies dating to around 300-200 B. C. E; the mummified bodies in the tomb were wrapped in textile fragments. The textiles would have required many hours of work; the larger mummy bundles had elaborate embroidery detail with bright colored cloth. Jewelry and food were found inside some mummy bundles; the shape of the mummy bundles resembled seeds. According to Anne Paul, this shape of a seed could have been a conscious choice, a symbol of rebirth. Paul suggests that due to the detail and high quality of the textiles found in the mummy bundles that these fabrics were used for ceremonial purposes; the technique used for these textiles, called wrap and wrapping, involves a piece of colored fleece woven around pieces of cotton wrap threads before the weaving process. The colored fleece was mixed with the white cotton.
This combination of materials shows trading relationships with other communities at lower and higher elevations. The example of this trade is seen; the imagery found on these textiles included spiritual journeys. Some depicted a fallen figure, or flying; each figure appears to have face paint indicating different city states. Each holds a severed head called trophy heads. Victims' heads were severed and collected during battles; the heads were used for spiritual rituals, the head of a person was considered their life force, the place in the body where the spirit was located. It is believed the fallen or flying figure represents a spiritual journey showing a ruler priest on a spiritual journey or undergoing a type of spiritual transformation from the celestial world back to the terrestrial. Not only did these textiles show important symbols of the Paracas cosmology, it is thought that they were worn to establish social standing and indicate the Paracas city state in which one resided; these garments were brightly colored, with a palette of pinks, yellows, red and whites, all of which would have been striking against the beige desert sands of the surrounding environment.
The bright colors are another example of the extensive labor used to create these textiles. The dyes used come from across the Andes and are an example of reciprocity, as people from different altitudes traded with one another for different goods; the color red comes from the cochineal bug found on the prickly pear cactus. The cochineal pestle to create a red pigment. Yellow dyes could be made from the qolle tree and quico flowers, while orange dyes can be extracted from a type of moss called beard lichen. For the color green the most common plant used. While blues are created from a tara. Fibres could take up to two hours to boil and dye, while the dye-making process itself could take up to several hours; the textiles and jewelry in the tombs and mummy bundles tempted looters. Once discovered, the Paracas Necropolis was looted between the years 1931 and 1933 in the Wari Kayan section; the amount of stolen materials is not known.
The sei whale is a baleen whale, the third-largest rorqual after the blue whale and the fin whale. It inhabits most oceans and adjoining seas, prefers deep offshore waters, it semienclosed bodies of water. The sei whale migrates annually from cool and subpolar waters in summer to winter in temperate and subtropical waters, with a lifespan of 70 years. Reaching 19.5 m long and weighing as much as 28 t, the sei whale consumes an average of 900 kg of food every day. It is among the fastest of all cetaceans, can reach speeds of up to 50 km/h over short distances; the whale's name comes from the Norwegian word for pollock, a fish that appears off the coast of Norway at the same time of the year as the sei whale. Following large-scale commercial whaling during the late 19th and 20th centuries, when over 255,000 whales were killed, the sei whale is now internationally protected, although limited hunting occurs under a controversial research program conducted by Japan; as of 2008, its worldwide population was about 80,000, less than a third of its prewhaling population.
Sei is the Norwegian word for pollock referred to as coalfish, a close relative of codfish. Sei whales appeared off the coast of Norway at the same time as the pollock, both coming to feed on the abundant plankton; the specific name is the Latin word borealis. In the Pacific, the whale has been called the Japan finner. In Japanese, the whale was called iwashi kujira, or sardine whale, a name applied to Bryde's whales by early Japanese whalers; as modern whaling shifted to Sanriku — where both species occur — it was confused for the sei whale. Now the term only applies to the latter species, it has been referred to as the lesser fin whale because it somewhat resembles the fin whale. The American naturalist Roy Chapman Andrews compared the sei whale to the cheetah, because it can swim at great speeds "for a few hundred yards", but it "soon tires if the chase is long" and "does not have the strength and staying power of its larger relatives". On 21 February 1819, a 32-ft whale stranded in Schleswig-Holstein.
The Swedish-born German naturalist Karl Rudolphi identified it as Balaena rostrata. In 1823, the French naturalist Georges Cuvier described and figured Rudolphi's specimen under the name "rorqual du Nord". In 1828, Rene Lesson translated this term into Balaenoptera borealis, basing his designation on Cuvier's description of Rudolphi's specimen and on a 54-ft female that had stranded on the coast of France the previous year. In 1846, the English zoologist John Edward Gray, ignoring Lesson's designation, named Rudolphi's specimen Balaenoptera laticeps, which others followed. In 1865, the British zoologist William Henry Flower named a 45-ft specimen, obtained from Pekalongan, on the north coast of Java, Sibbaldius schlegelii — in 1946 the Russian scientist A. G. Tomilin synonymized S. schlegelii and B. borealis, creating the subspecies B. b. schlegelii and B. b. borealis. In 1884–85, the Norwegian scientist G. A. Guldberg first identified the "sejhval" of Finnmark with B. borealis. Sei whales are rorquals, baleen whales that include the humpback whale, the blue whale, Bryde's whale, the fin whale, the minke whale.
Rorquals take their name from the Norwegian word røyrkval, meaning "furrow whale", because family members have a series of longitudinal pleats or grooves on the anterior half of their ventral surface. Balaenopterids diverged from the other families of suborder Mysticeti called the whalebone whales or great whales, as long ago as the middle Miocene. Little is known about when members of the various families in the Mysticeti, including the Balaenopteridae, diverged from each other. Two subspecies have been identified—the northern sei whale and southern sei whale, their ranges do not overlap. The sei whale is the fourth-largest balaenopterid, after the blue whale and the fin whale and the humpback whale. In the North Pacific, adult males average 13.7 m and adult females 15 m, weighing 15 and 18.5 tonnes, while in the North Atlantic adult males average 14 m and adult females 14.5 m, weighing 15.5 and 17 tonnes In the Southern Hemisphere, they average 14.5 and 15 m weighing 17 and 18.5 tonnes. ( In the Northern Hemisphere, males reach up to 17.1 m and females up to 18.6 m, while in the Southern Hemisphere males reach 18.6 m and females 19.5 m — the authenticity of an alleged 22 m female caught 50 miles northwest of St. Kilda in July 1911 is doubted.
The largest specimens taken off Iceland were a 16.15 m female and a 14.6 m male, while the longest off Nova Scotia were two 15.8 m females and a 15.2 m male. The longest measured during JARPN II cruises in the North Pacific were a 16.32 m female and a 15 m male. The longest measured by Discovery Committee staff were an adult male of 16.15 m and an adult female of 17.1 m, both caught off South Georgia. Adults weigh between 15 and 20 metric tons — a 16.4 m pregnant female caught off Natal in 1966 weighed 37.75 tonnes, not including 6% for loss of fluids during flensing. Females are considera