University of Melbourne
The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is Australias second oldest university and the oldest in Victoria, Times Higher Education ranks Melbourne as 33rd in the world, while the Academic Ranking of World Universities places Melbourne 40th in the world. Melbournes main campus is located in Parkville, a suburb north of the Melbourne central business district. Melbourne is a university and a member of the Group of Eight, Universitas 21. Since 1872 various residential colleges have become affiliated with the university, there are 12 colleges located on the main campus and in nearby suburbs offering academic and cultural programs alongside accommodation for Melbourne students and faculty. Amongst Melbournes 15 graduate schools the Melbourne Business School, the Melbourne Law School, four Australian prime ministers and five governors-general have graduated from Melbourne. Nine Nobel laureates have been students or faculty, the most of any Australian university, the university was established by Act of Incorporation on 22 January 1853, with power to confer degrees in arts, medicine and music.
The act provided for an endowment of £9,000. The original buildings were opened by the Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Victoria, Sir Charles Hotham. The first chancellor, Redmond Barry, held the position until his death in 1880, the inauguration of the university was made possible by the wealth resulting from Victorias gold rush. The institution was designed to be an influence at a time of rapid settlement. In 1881, the admission of women was a seen as victory over the conservative ruling council. The universitys 150th anniversary was celebrated in 2003, as of May 2009 the university suspended the Bachelor of Music Theatre and Puppetry courses at the college and there were fears they may not return under the new curriculum. New dean Sharman Pretty outlined drastic changes under the plan for the college in early April 2009. As a result, it is now being called into question whether the university have upheld that agreement, staff at the college responded to the changes, claiming the university did not value vocational arts training, and voicing fears over the future of quality training at the VCA.
Melbourne University has 12 residential colleges in total, seven of which are located in an arc around the oval at the northern edge of the campus. The other five are located outside of university grounds, the residential colleges aim to provide accommodation and holistic education experience to university students. Several of the earliest campus buildings, such as the Old Quadrangle and Baldwin Spencer buildings, the new Wilson Hall replaced the original building which was destroyed by fire
Pulse-code modulation is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the form of digital audio in computers, compact discs, digital telephony. In a PCM stream, the amplitude of the signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals. Linear pulse-code modulation is a type of PCM where the quantization levels are linearly uniform. This is in contrast to PCM encodings where quantization levels vary as a function of amplitude, though PCM is a more general term, it is often used to describe data encoded as LPCM. Early electrical communications started to sample signals in order to interlace samples from multiple telegraphy sources, the American inventor Moses G. Farmer conveyed telegraph time-division multiplexing as early as 1853. Electrical engineer W. M. Miner, in 1903, used an electro-mechanical commutator for time-division multiplexing multiple telegraph signals and he obtained intelligible speech from channels sampled at a rate above 3500–4300 Hz, lower rates proved unsatisfactory.
This was TDM, but pulse-amplitude modulation rather than PCM, in 1920 the Bartlane cable picture transmission system, named after its inventors Harry G. Bartholomew and Maynard D. In 1926, Paul M. Rainey of Western Electric patented a machine which transmitted its signal using 5-bit PCM. The machine did not go into production, british engineer Alec Reeves, unaware of previous work, conceived the use of PCM for voice communication in 1937 while working for International Telephone and Telegraph in France. He described the theory and advantages, but no practical application resulted, Reeves filed for a French patent in 1938, and his US patent was granted in 1943. By this time Reeves had started working at the Telecommunications Research Establishment, the first transmission of speech by digital techniques, the SIGSALY encryption equipment, conveyed high-level Allied communications during World War II. In 1943 the Bell Labs researchers who designed the SIGSALY system became aware of the use of PCM binary coding as already proposed by Alec Reeves.
In 1949 for the Canadian Navys DATAR system, Ferranti Canada built a working PCM radio system that was able to transmit digitized radar data over long distances, PCM in the late 1940s and early 1950s used a cathode-ray coding tube with a plate electrode having encoding perforations. The plate collected or passed the beam, producing current variations in binary code, rather than natural binary, the grid of Goodalls tube was perforated to produce a glitch-free Gray code, and produced all bits simultaneously by using a fan beam instead of a scanning beam. Patent 2,801,281 filed in 1946 and 1952, another patent by the same title was filed by John R. Pierce in 1945, and issued in 1948, U. S. The three of them published The Philosophy of PCM in 1948, PCM is the method of encoding generally used for uncompressed audio, although there are other methods such as pulse-density modulation. The 4ESS switch introduced time-division switching into the US telephone system in 1976, LPCM is used for the lossless encoding of audio data in the Compact disc Red Book standard, introduced in 1982
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. ANU enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students, the universitys endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is ranked 22nd in the world by the 2016/17 QS World University Rankings, ANU was named the worlds 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2016 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, a ranking of university graduates employability. ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking, ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers,30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of Government departments of Australia, calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900.
After the location of the capital, was determined in 1908. A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock, economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANUs first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was originally organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies, the first residents’ hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the government in 1924. The first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, the Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of education in the national capital, having been established in 1929. Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution, CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university.
Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, in 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies, initially with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later, Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961. The Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art were amalgamated by ANU in 1992, ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires largely destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory, ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope
University of Sydney
The University of Sydney is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it is Australias first university and is regarded as one of the leading universities. The university comprises 16 faculties and schools, through which it offers bachelor, master, in 2011 it had 32,393 undergraduate and 16,627 graduate students. The university is known as one of Australias sandstone universities. Five Nobel and two Crafoord laureates have been affiliated with the university as graduates and faculty, the university has educated six prime ministers and 24 justices of the High Court of Australia, including four chief justices. Sydney has produced 24 Rhodes Scholars and several Gates Scholars and it would take two attempts on Wentworths behalf, before the plan was finally adopted. The university was established via the passage of the University of Sydney Act, two years later, the university was inaugurated on 11 October 1852 in the Big Schoolroom of what is now Sydney Grammar School.
The first principal was John Woolley, the first professor of chemistry, by 1859, the university had moved to its current site in the Sydney suburb of Camperdown. Most of the estate of John Henry Challis was bequeathed to the university and this was thanks in part due to William Montagu Manning who argued against the claims by British Tax Commissioners. The following year seven professorships were created, zoology, history, law and mental philosophy, the New England University College was founded as part of the University of Sydney in 1938 and separated in 1954 to become the University of New England. During the late 1960s, the University of Sydney was at the centre of rows to introduce courses on Marxism and feminism at the major Australian universities, prior to 1981, the Sydney Institute of Education was the Sydney Teachers College. In January 2005, the University of Sydney transferred the OAC to Charles Sturt University, in February 2007, the university agreed to acquire a portion of the land granted to St Johns College to develop the Sydney Institute of Health and Medical Research.
This caused concern among some groups, who argued that it would interfere with scientific medical research, at the start of 2010, the university controversially adopted a new logo. It retains the same university arms, however it takes on a modern look. The original Coat of Arms from 1857 continues to be used for ceremonial and other formal purposes, concerns about public funding for higher education were reflected again in 2014 following the federal governments proposal to deregulate student fees. In order to enhance its competitiveness locally and internationally, the university has introduced plans to consolidate existing degrees to reduce the overall number of programs. In 2001, the University of Sydney chancellor, Dame Leonie Kramer, was forced to resign by the governing body. In 2005, the Public Service Association of New South Wales, action initiated by Spence to improve the financial sustainability of the university has alienated some students and staff
Compared to CD quality digital audio, MP3 compression commonly achieves 75 to 95% reduction in size. MP3 files are thus 1/4 to 1/20 the size of the digital audio stream. This is important for both transmission and storage concerns, the basis for such comparison is the CD digital audio format which requires 1411200 bit/s. A commonly used MP3 encoding setting is CBR128 kbit/s resulting in file size 1/11 of the original CD-quality file, the MP3 lossy compression works by reducing the accuracy of certain parts of a continuous sound that are considered to be beyond the auditory resolution ability of most people. This method is referred to as perceptual coding or psychoacoustics. It uses psychoacoustic models to discard or reduce the precision of less audible to human hearing. MP3 was designed by the Moving Picture Experts Group as part of its MPEG-1 standard, the first subgroup for audio was formed by several teams of engineers at Fraunhofer IIS, University of Hanover, AT&T-Bell Labs, Thomson-Brandt, CCETT, and others.
MPEG-1 Audio, which included MPEG-1 Audio Layer I, II and III was approved as a draft of ISO/IEC standard in 1991, finalised in 1992. A backwards compatible MPEG-2 Audio extension with lower sample and bit rates was published in 1995, MP3 is a streaming or broadcast format meaning that individual frames can be lost without affecting the ability to decode successfully delivered frames. Storing an MP3 stream in a file enables time-shifted playback, the MP3 lossy audio data compression algorithm takes advantage of a perceptual limitation of human hearing called auditory masking. In 1894, the American physicist Alfred M. Mayer reported that a tone could be rendered inaudible by another tone of lower frequency, in 1959, Richard Ehmer described a complete set of auditory curves regarding this phenomenon. Ernst Terhardt et al. created an algorithm describing auditory masking with high accuracy and this work added to a variety of reports from authors dating back to Fletcher, and to the work that initially determined critical ratios and critical bandwidths.
A wide variety of compression algorithms were reported in IEEEs refereed Journal on Selected Areas in Communications. The genesis of the MP3 technology is described in a paper from Professor Hans Musmann who chaired the ISO MPEG Audio group for several years. The immediate predecessors of MP3 were Optimum Coding in the Frequency Domain, the first practical implementation of an audio perceptual coder in hardware, was an implementation of a psychoacoustic transform coder based on Motorola 56000 DSP chips. Another predecessor of the MP3 format and technology is to be found in the perceptual codec MUSICAM based on an integer arithmetics 32 sub-bands filterbank, driven by a psychoacoustic model. It was primarily designed for Digital Audio Broadcasting and digital TV and this codec incorporated into a broadcasting system using COFDM modulation was demonstrated on air and on the field together with Radio Canada and CRC Canada during the NAB show in 1991. F. As a doctoral student at Germanys University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Karlheinz Brandenburg began working on music compression in the early 1980s
Sydney Conservatorium of Music
The Sydney Conservatorium of Music is one of the oldest and most prestigious music schools in Australia. In addition to its secondary, post-graduate and community teaching and learning functions. Originally commissioned in 1815 as the stables for the proposed Government House and it is the only example of a gothic building designed by Greenway still standing. The cost and apparent extravagance was one of the reasons Macquarie was recalled to Britain, the stables, located close to picturesque Sydney Harbour, reflect the building techniques and the range of materials and skills employed during the early settlement era. In 1915 the NSW Government under William Holman allocated £22,000 to the redevelopment of the stables into a music school. The NSW State Conservatorium of Music opened on 6 March 1916 under the directorship of the Belgian conductor and violinist Henri Verbrugghen, the reference to European standards and the appointment of a European director was not uncontroversial at the time, but criticism soon subsided.
Enrolments in the first year were healthy with 320 single-study students and a contingent of full-time students. Verbrugghens impact was incisive but briefer than had been hoped and he resigned in 1921 after taking the Conservatorium Orchestra to Melbourne and to New Zealand. The Conservatorium was home to Australias first full-time orchestra, composed of professional musicians and Conservatorium students. The orchestra remained Sydneys main orchestra for much of the 1920s, including the legendary violinist Jascha Heifetz, who donated money to the Conservatorium library for orchestral parts. However, during the part of the stewardship of Verbrugghens successor. Under Sir Eugene Goossens, opera at the Conservatorium made a contribution to what researcher Roger Covell has described as the most seminal years in the history of locally produced opera. Although the most prominent musician to have held the post of Director and he disbanded the choir and several chamber ensembles and, some claimed, tended to ignore administrative matters.
Under the direction of Rex Hobcroft, the Conservatorium adopted the educational profile recognised today. In 1990, as part of the Dawkins Reforms, the Conservatorium amalgamated with the University of Sydney, as in 1916, a wide range of sites were considered, many of them controversial. To mark the centenary of the Conservatorium in 2015, it commissioned 101 new works, the first work in the series was John Coriglianos Mr Tambourine Man, based on the poetry of Bob Dylan, which was presented on 11 September 2009. The past directors and deans were, University of Sydney Sydney Conservatorium of Music Daryl Jackson Robin Dyke Andrew Robson, percy Grainger at the Sydney Conservatorium of Music