The Doctor and the Soul
The Doctor and the Soul is a book by Dr. Viktor E. Frankl, the Vienesse psychiatrist and founder of logotherapy; the book explores topics on the meaning of life in general as well as the meaning of specific areas of one's life, such as work and personal relationships. Frankl took the original manuscript of the book with him into the Nazi concentration camps where he was held. However, it was soon discarded by other inmates. Frankl reconstructed the manuscript from memory while still in the concentration camps, published after the end of World War II; the Doctor and the Soul is divided into five sections: From Psychotherapy to Logotherapy From Psychoanalysis to Existential Analysis Logotherapy as a Psychotherapeutic Technique From Secular Confession to Medical Ministry Psychotherapy on Its Way to Rehumanization Frankl wrote the book during Nazi occupation of Austria. However, he was not able to publish at that time. Instead, he was forced to take it with him to the concentration camps. Soon after arriving at the concentration camp, Frankl was forced to discard his work.
A few years while still incarcerated, Frankl began reconstructing the manuscript from memory on scraps of paper. Sometime after his release, after the war had ended, Frankl published both Man's Search for Meaning as well as The Doctor and the Soul. Frankl attributed his survival during the war years to his awareness of the topics written in The Doctor and the Soul, he countered the image of him as portrayed in the American media, that he discovered these ideas in the concentration camps. Instead, said Frankl, discovering this ideas prior to his arrest and detainment helped him overcome the existential crises of losing everything dear to him
Thought encompasses an "aim-oriented flow of ideas and associations that can lead to a reality-oriented conclusion". Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood; because thought underlies many human actions and interactions, understanding its physical and metaphysical origins, effects has been a longstanding goal of many academic disciplines including philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, biology and cognitive science. Thinking allows humans to make sense of, represent or model the world they experience, to make predictions about that world, it is therefore helpful to an organism with needs and desires as it makes plans or otherwise attempts to accomplish those goals. The word thought comes from Old English þoht, or geþoht, from stem of þencan "to conceive of in the mind, consider"; the word "thought" may mean: a single product of thinking or a single idea the product of mental activity the act or system of thinking the capacity to think, imagine, so on the consideration of or reflection on an idea recollection or contemplation half-formed or imperfect intention anticipation or expectation consideration, care, or regard judgment, opinion, or belief the ideas characteristic of a particular place, class, or time the state of being conscious of something tending to believe in something with less than full confidence Definitions may or may not require that thought take place within a human brain, take place as part of a living biological system, take place only at a conscious level of awareness, require language, is principally or only conceptual, involve other concepts such as drawing analogies, evaluating, imagining and remembering.
Definitions of thought may be derived directly or indirectly from theories of thought. "Outline of a theory of thought-processes and thinking machines" – thought processes and mental phenomena modeled by sets of mathematical equations Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking – a theory built on analogies The Neural Theory of Language and Thought – neural modeling of language and spatial relations ThoughtForms – The Structure and Limitations of Thought – a theory built on mental models Unconscious Thought Theory – thought, not conscious Linguistics theories – The Stuff of Thought – The linguistic and cognitive theory that thought is based on syntactic and linguistic recursion processes Language of thought hypothesis – A syntactic composition of representations of mental states – Literally, the'Language of Thought'. What is most thought-provoking in these thought-provoking times; the phenomenology movement in philosophy saw a radical change in the way in which we understand thought.
Martin Heidegger's phenomenological analyses of the existential structure of man in Being and Time cast new light on the issue of thinking, unsettling traditional cognitive or rational interpretations of man which affect the way we understand thought. The notion of the fundamental role of non-cognitive understanding in rendering possible thematic consciousness informed the discussion surrounding artificial intelligence during the 1970s and 1980s. Phenomenology, however, is not the only approach to thinking in modern Western philosophy. Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties and their relationship to the physical body the brain; the mind–body problem, i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is seen as the central issue in philosophy of mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body. The mind–body problem concerns the explanation of the relationship that exists between minds, or mental processes, bodily states or processes.
The main aim of philosophers working in this area is to determine the nature of the mind and mental states/processes, how—or if—minds are affected by and can affect the body. Human perceptual experiences depend on stimuli which arrive at one's various sensory organs from the external world and these stimuli cause changes in one's mental state causing one to feel a sensation, which may be pleasant or unpleasant. Someone's desire for a slice of pizza, for example, will tend to cause that person to move his or her body in a specific manner and in a specific direction to obtain what he or she wants; the question is how it can be possible for conscious experiences to arise out of a lump of gray matter endowed with nothing but electrochemical properties. A related problem is to explain how someone's propositional attitudes can cause that individual's neurons to fire and his muscles to contract in the correct manner; these comprise some of the puzzles that have confronted epistemologists and philosophers of
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher
The Unconscious God
The Unconscious God is a book by Viktor E. Frankl, the Viennese psychiatrist and founder of Logotherapy; the book was the subject of his dissertation for a Ph. D. in philosophy in 1948. The Unconscious God is an examination of the relation of psychology and religion; the term "the unconscious God" refers to a "hidden relationship with the hidden God". In his work, Frankl advocates for the use of the Socratic dialogue or "self-discovery discourse" to be used with clients to get in touch with their "Noetic" unconscious. Human religiousness is a individual decision. Frankl contends that a mature involvement with a religious group increases the sense of purpose in life. Frankl's book was published as Der Unbewußte Gott by Ehrlich Schmidt in 1943.
Man's Search for Meaning
Man's Search for Meaning is a 1946 book by Viktor Frankl chronicling his experiences as a prisoner in Nazi concentration camps during World War II, describing his psychotherapeutic method, which involved identifying a purpose in life to feel positively about, immersively imagining that outcome. According to Frankl, the way a prisoner imagined; the book intends to answer the question "How was everyday life in a concentration camp reflected in the mind of the average prisoner?" Part One constitutes Frankl's analysis of his experiences in the concentration camps, while Part Two introduces his ideas of meaning and his theory called logotherapy. According to a survey conducted by the Book-of-the-Month Club and the Library of Congress, Man's Search for Meaning belongs to a list of "the ten most influential books in the United States." At the time of the author's death in 1997, the book had sold over 10 million copies and had been translated into 24 languages. The book and Frankl himself would however garner considerable controversy by many, most notably amongst Holocaust analyst, Lawrence L. Langer who upon reviewing the book, was perturbed by both Frankl's promotion of his logotherapy ideology, the survival of the fittest subtext, the tone of self-aggrandizement and general inhumane sense of studying-detachment with which Frankl appears to have treated the victims of the holocaust, as all problematic.
The book's original title in German is...trotzdem Ja zum Leben sagen: Ein Psychologe erlebt das Konzentrationslager: that is, "... Say'Yes' to Life: A Psychologist Experiences the Concentration Camp"; the title of the first English-language translation was From Death-Camp to Existentialism. The book's common full English title is Man's Search for Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy, although this subtitle is not printed on the cover of modern editions. Frankl identifies three psychological reactions experienced by all inmates to one degree or another: shock during the initial admission phase to the camp, apathy after becoming accustomed to camp existence, in which the inmate values only that which helps himself and his friends survive, reactions of depersonalization, moral deformity and disillusionment if he survives and is liberated. Frankl concludes. In a group therapy session during a mass fast inflicted on the camp's inmates trying to protect an anonymous fellow inmate from fatal retribution by authorities, Frankl offered the thought that for everyone in a dire condition there is someone looking down, a friend, family member, or God, who would expect not to be disappointed.
Frankl concludes from his experience that a prisoner's psychological reactions are not the result of the conditions of his life, but from the freedom of choice he always has in severe suffering. The inner hold a prisoner has on his spiritual self relies on having a hope in the future, that once a prisoner loses that hope, he is doomed. Frankl concludes that there are only two races of men, decent men and indecent. No society is free of either of them, thus there were "decent" Nazi guards and "indecent" prisoners, most notably the kapo who would torture and abuse their fellow prisoners for personal gain, his concluding passage in Part One describes the psychological reaction of the inmates to their liberation, which he separates into three stages. The first is depersonalization—a period of readjustment, in which a prisoner returns to the world; the liberated prisoners are so numb that they are unable to understand what freedom means, or to respond to it. Part of them believes that it is a dream that will be taken away from them.
In their first foray outside their former prison, the prisoners realized that they could not comprehend pleasure. Flowers and the reality of the freedom they had dreamed about for years were all surreal, unable to be grasped in their depersonalization; the body is the first element to break out of this stage, responding by big appetites of eating and wanting more sleeping. Only after the partial replenishing of the body is the mind able to respond, as "feeling broke through the strange fetters which had restrained it"; this begins the second stage. As the intense pressure on the mind is released, mental health can be endangered. Frankl uses the analogy of a diver released from his pressure chamber, he recounts the story of a decent friend who became obsessed with dispensing the same violence in judgment of his abusers that they had inflicted on him. Upon returning home, the prisoners had to struggle with two fundamental experiences which could damage their mental health: bitterness and disillusionment.
The last stage is bitterness at the lack of responsiveness of the world outside—a "superficiality and lack of feeling...so disgusting that one felt like creeping into a hole and neither hearing nor seeing human beings any more". Worse was disillusionment, the discovery that suffering does not end, that the longed-for happiness will not come; this was the experience of those. The hope that had sustained them throughout their time in the concentration camp was now gone. Frankl cites this experience as the most difficult to overcome; as time passed, the prisoner's experience in a concentration camp became nothing but a remembered nightmare. What is more, he comes to believe that he has nothing left to fear any more, "except his God". One of Frankl's main claims in the book is that a positive a