De Beers Group is an international corporation that specialises in diamond exploration, diamond mining, diamond retail, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. The company is active in open-pit, large-scale alluvial and deep sea mining, it operates in 35 countries and mining takes place in Botswana, South Africa and Canada. Until the start of the 21st century, De Beers had total control over the diamond market as a monopoly. Competition has since dismantled the complete monopoly, though the De Beers Group still sells 35% of the world's rough diamond production through its global sightholder and auction sales businesses; the company was founded in 1888 by British businessman Cecil Rhodes, financed by the South African diamond magnate Alfred Beit and the London-based N M Rothschild & Sons bank. In 1926, Ernest Oppenheimer, an immigrant to Britain and South Africa who had earlier founded mining company Anglo American plc with American financier J. P. Morgan, was elected to the board of De Beers.
He built and consolidated the company's global monopoly over the diamond industry until his death in 1957. During this time, he was involved in a number of controversies, including price fixing and trust behaviour, was accused of not releasing industrial diamonds for the U. S. war effort during World War II. In 2011, Anglo American took control of De Beers after buying the Oppenheimer's family stake of 40 percent for US$5.1 billion and increasing its stake to 85 percent, ending the 80-year Oppenheimer control of the company. In 2018, De Beers became the first diamond company to announce that it would track its diamonds using blockchain technology, though this technology has not yet been rolled out; the name'De Beers' was derived from the two Dutch settlers and brothers Diederik Arnoldus De Beer and Johannes Nicolaas De Beer, who owned a South African farm named Vooruitzicht near Zandfontein in the Boshof District of Orange Free State. After they discovered diamonds on their land, the increasing demands of the British government forced them to sell their farm on July 31, 1871, to merchant Alfred Johnson Ebden for £6,600.
Vooruitzicht would become the site of the Big Hole and the De Beers mine, two successful diamond mines. Their name, given to one of the mines, subsequently became associated with the company. Cecil Rhodes, the founder of the British South Africa Company, got his start by renting water pumps to miners during the diamond rush that started in 1869, when an 83.5 carat diamond called the'Star of South Africa' was found at Hopetown near the Orange River in South Africa. He invested the profits of this operation into buying up claims of small mining operators, with his operations soon expanding into a separate mining company, he soon secured funding from the Rothschild family. De Beers Consolidated Mines was formed in 1888 by the merger of the companies of Barney Barnato and Cecil Rhodes, by which time the company was the sole owner of all diamond mining operations in the country. In 1889, Rhodes negotiated a strategic agreement with the London-based Diamond Syndicate, which agreed to purchase a fixed quantity of diamonds at an agreed price, thereby regulating output and maintaining prices.
The agreement soon proved to be successful — for example, during the trade slump of 1891–1892, supply was curtailed to maintain the price. Rhodes was concerned about the break-up of the new monopoly, stating to shareholders in 1896 that the company's "only risk is the sudden discovery of new mines, which human nature will work recklessly to the detriment of us all"; the Second Boer War proved to be a challenging time for the company. Kimberley was besieged as soon. Rhodes moved into the city at the onset of the siege in order to put political pressure on the British government to divert military resources towards relieving the siege rather than more strategic war objectives. Despite being at odds with the military, Rhodes placed the full resources of the company at the disposal of the defenders, manufacturing shells, defences, an armoured train and a gun named Long Cecil in the company workshops. In 1898, diamonds were discovered on farms near Transvaal. One led to the discovery of the Premier Mine.
The Premier Mine was registered in 1902 and the Cullinan Diamond, the largest rough diamond discovered, was found there in 1905. However, its owner refused to join the De Beers cartel. Instead, the mine started selling to a pair of independent dealers named Bernhard and Ernest Oppenheimer, thereby weakening the De Beers stronghold. Francis Oats, who became Chairman of De Beers in 1908, was dismissive of the threats from the Premier mine and the finds in German South West Africa. However, production soon equalled all of the De Beers mines combined. Ernest Oppenheimer was appointed the local agent for the powerful London Syndicate, rising to the position of mayor of Kimberley within 10 years, he understood the core principle that underpinned De Beers' success, stating in 1910 that "common sense tells us that the only way to increase the value of diamonds is to make them scarce, to reduce production". During World War I, the Premier mine was absorbed into De Beers; when Rhodes died in 1902, De Beers controlled 90% of the world's diamond production.
Ernest Oppenheimer took over the chairmanship of the company in 1929, after buying shares and being appointed to the board in 1926. Oppenheimer was concerned about the discovery of diamonds in 1908 in German South West Africa, fearing that
A kite shield is a large, almond-shaped shield rounded at the top and curving down to a point or rounded point at the bottom. The term "kite shield" is a reference to the shield's unique shape, is derived from its supposed similarity to a flying kite, although "leaf-shaped shield" and "almond shield" have been used in recent literature. Since the most prominent examples of this shield have appeared on the Bayeux Tapestry, the kite shield has become associated with Norman warfare; the first known illustration of a kite shield appeared in the Gospels of Otto III, made between 983 and 991, indicating it was in use with Western European armies by the late tenth century. The shield was developed for mounted cavalry, its dimensions correlate to the approximate space between a horse's neck and its rider's thigh. A narrow bottom protected the rider's left leg, the pronounced upper curve, the rider's shoulder and torso; this was a vast improvement over more common circular shields, such as bucklers, which afforded poor protection to the horseman's left flank when he was charging with a lance.
Though their great length and unwieldy nature made them cumbersome and inconvenient for foot soldiers, kite shields gained popularity, spreading throughout Western Europe during the 1000s. In the Bayeux Tapestry, most of the English are depicted on foot with kite shields, while a minority still use round shields. Aside from Normandy, they appeared early on in parts of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, it is unclear from. A common theory is. However, no documentation or remains of kite shields from the Viking era have been discovered, they were not ideally suited to the Vikings' mobile light infantry. Kite shields were depicted on eleventh century illustrations in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire, but in the Caucasus, the Fatimid Caliphate, among the Kievan Rus'. For example, an eleventh century silver engraving of Saint George recovered from Bochorma, depicts a kite shield, as do other isolated pieces of Georgian art dating to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Kite shields appear on the Bab al-Nasr in Cairo, constructed around 1087.
Arab historians described them as tariqa or januwiyya. Kite shields were introduced in large numbers to the Middle East by the First Crusade, when Arab and Byzantine soldiers first observed the type being carried by Norman crusaders. Around the mid to late twelfth century, traditional kite shields were replaced by a variant in which the top was flat, rather than rounded; this change made it easier for a soldier to hold the shield upright without limiting his field of vision. Flat-topped kite shields were phased out by most Western European armies in favour of much smaller, more compact heater shields. However, they were still being carried by Byzantine infantrymen well into the thirteenth century. To compensate for their awkward nature, kite shields were equipped with enarmes, which gripped the shield to the arm and facilitated keeping it in place when a knight relaxed his arm; some examples were also fitted with an additional guige strap that allowed the shield to be slung over one shoulder when not in use.
Byzantine soldiers carried kite shields on their backs, sometimes upside down. At the time of the First Crusade, most kite shields were still fitted with a domed metal centrepiece, although the use of enarmes would have rendered them unnecessary, it is possible that shields may have been fitted with an auxiliary hand grip. A typical kite shield was at least three feet high, being constructed of laminated wood, stretched animal hide, iron components. Records from Byzantium in the 1200s suggests that the shield frame accounted for most of the wood and iron. Grazebrook, George; the Dates of Variously-shaped Shields With Coincident Dates and Examples. Medieval Chronicles > Kite Shield
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders. With a population of 520,504, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium, with 1,200,000 the second largest metropolitan region after Brussels. Antwerp is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea by the river's Westerschelde estuary, it is about 40 kilometres north of Brussels, about 15 kilometres south of the Dutch border. The Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally; the city is known for its diamond industry and trade. Both economically and culturally, Antwerp is and has long been an important city in the Low Countries before and during the Spanish Fury and throughout and after the subsequent Dutch Revolt. Antwerp was the place of the world's oldest stock exchange building built in 1531 and re-built in 1872; the inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, "lord", referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century.
The city hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics. According to folklore, notably celebrated by a statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend about a giant called Antigoon who lived near the Scheldt river, he extracted a toll from passing boatmen, for those who refused, he severed one of their hands and threw it into the river. The giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giant's own hand and flung it into the river. Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan, which has evolved to today's warp. A longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante Verpia, indicating land that forms by deposition in the inside curve of a river. Note that the river Scheldt, before a transition period between 600 and 750, followed a different track; this must have coincided with the current ringway south of the city, situating the city within a former curve of the river.
However, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large settlement which would be named'Antverpia', but more something like an outpost with a river crossing. However, John Lothrop Motley argues, so do a lot of Dutch etymologists and historians, that Antwerp's name derives from "anda" and "werpum" to give an't werf. Aan't werp is possible; this "warp" is a man-made hill or a river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide, whereupon a construction could be built that would remain dry. Another word for werp is pol hence polders. Alfred Michiels has suggested that derivations based on hand werpen, Antverpia, "on the wharf", or "at the warp" lack historical backing in the form of recorded past spellings of the placename, he points instead to Dado's Life of St. Eligius from the 7th century, which records the form Andoverpis, he sees in it a Celtic origin indicating "those who live on both banks". Historical Antwerp had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961, produced pottery shards and fragments of glass from mid-2nd century to the end of the 3rd century.
The earliest mention of Antwerp dates from the 4th century. In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named; the Merovingian Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century. At the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto II, a border province facing the County of Flanders. In the 11th century, the best-known leader of the First Crusade, Godfrey of Bouillon, was Margrave of Antwerp, from 1076 until his death in 1100, though he was also Duke of Lower Lorraine and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michael's Abbey at Caloes. Antwerp was the headquarters of Edward III during his early negotiations with Jacob van Artevelde, his son Lionel, the Duke of Clarence, was born there in 1338. After the silting-up of the Zwin and the consequent decline of Bruges, the city of Antwerp part of the Duchy of Brabant, grew in importance.
At the end of the 15th century the foreign trading houses were transferred from Bruges to Antwerp, the building assigned to the English nation is mentioned in 1510. Antwerp became the sugar capital of Europe, importing the raw commodity from Portuguese and Spanish plantations; the city attracted Italian and German sugar refiners by 1550, shipped their refined product to Germany Cologne. Moneylenders and financiers developed a large business lending money all over Europe including the English government in 1544–1574. London bankers were too small to operate on that scale, Antwerp had a efficient bourse that itself attracted rich bankers from around Europe. After the 1570s, the city's banking business declined: England ended its borrowing in Antwerp in 1574. Fernand Braudel states that Antwerp became "the centre of the entire international economy, something Bruges had never been at its height." Antwerp was the richest city in Europe at this time. Antwerp's golden age is l
In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material, trapped inside a mineral during its formation. In gemology, an inclusion is a characteristic enclosed within a gemstone, or reaching its surface from the interior. According to Hutton's law of inclusions, fragments included in a host rock are older than the host rock itself. Inclusions are other minerals or rocks, but may be water, gas or petroleum. Liquid or vapor inclusions are known as fluid inclusions. In the case of amber it is possible to find plants as inclusions; the analysis of atmospheric gas bubbles as inclusions in ice cores is an important tool in the study of climate change. A xenolith is a pre-existing rock, picked up by a lava flow. Melt inclusions form. Inclusions are one of the most important factors. In many gemstones, such as diamonds, inclusions affect the clarity of the gem, diminishing the value. In some gems, such as star sapphires, the inclusion increases the value of the gem. Many colored gemstones, such as amethyst and sapphire, are expected to have inclusions, the inclusions do not affect the stone's value.
Colored gemstones are categorized into three types as follows: Type I colored gems include gems with little or no inclusions. They include aquamarines and zircon. Type II colored gems include those that have a few inclusions, they include sapphire, ruby and spinel. Type III colored gems include those that always have inclusions. Gems in this category include tourmaline; the term "inclusion" is used in the context of metallurgy and metals processing. During the melt stage of processing hard particles such as oxides can enter or form in the liquid metal which are subsequently trapped when the melt solidifies; the term is used negatively such as when the particle could act as a fatigue crack nucleator or as an area of high stress intensity
A necklace is an article of jewelry, worn around the neck. Necklaces may have been one of the earliest types of adornment worn by humans, they serve ceremonial, magical, or funerary purposes and are used as symbols of wealth and status, given that they are made of precious metals and stones. The main component of a necklace is the chain, or cord that wraps around the neck; these are most rendered in precious metals such as gold and platinum. Necklaces have additional attachments suspended or inset into the necklace itself; these attachments include pendants, amulets and precious and semi-precious materials such as diamond, rubies, emeralds and sapphires. Prehistoric peoples used natural materials such as feathers, bone and plant materials to create necklaces, but by the Bronze Age metallic jewelry had replaced pre-metallic adornments. Necklaces were first depicted in the statuary and art of the Ancient Near East, early necklaces made of precious metals with inset stones were created in Europe.
In Ancient Mesopotamia, cylinder seals were strung and worn as jewelry. In Ancient Babylon, necklaces were made of carnelian, lapis lazuli and gold, made into gold chains. Ancient Sumerians created necklaces and beads from gold, lapis lazuli and carnelian. In Ancient Egypt, a number of difference necklace types were worn. Upper-class Ancient Egyptians wore collars of organic or semi-precious and precious materials for religious and funerary purposes; these collars were ornamented with semi-precious, glass and hollow beads. Beads made from a variety of precious and semi-precious materials were commonly strung together to create necklaces. Gold, fashioned into stylized plant and insect shapes were common as well. Amulets were turned into necklaces. In Ancient Crete necklaces were worn by all classes. Pendants shaped into birds and humans were worn, in addition to paste beads. In Ancient Greece, delicately made gold necklaces created with repoussé and plaited gold wires were worn. Most these necklaces were ornamented with blue or green enameled rosettes, animal shapes, or vase-shaped pendants that were detailed with fringes.
It was common to wear long gold chains with suspended cameos and small containers of perfume. New elements were introduced in the Hellenistic period. Ancient Etruscans used granulation to create granulated gold beads which were strung with glass and faience beads to create colorful necklaces. In Ancient Rome necklaces were among the many types of jewelry worn by the Roman elite. Gold and silver necklaces were ornamented with foreign and semi-precious objects such as amber, amethyst and diamond. In addition, ropes of pearls, gold plates inset with enamel, lustrous stones set in gold filigree were worn. Many large necklaces and the materials that adorned the necklaces were imported from the Near East. In the empire, following barbarian invasions and gaudy jewelry became popular. In the Byzantine era, ropes of pearls and embossed gold chains were most worn, but new techniques such as the use of niello allowed for necklaces with brighter, more predominant gemstones; the Early Byzantine Era saw a shift to distinctly Christian jewelry which displayed the new Christian iconography.
2000 B. C. E. – 400 C. E: Bronze amulets embossed with coral were common. In Celtic and Gallic Europe, the most popular necklace was the heavy metal torc, made most out of bronze, but sometimes out of silver, gold, or glass or amber beads. 400 C. E. – 1300 C. E: Early European barbarian groups favored wide, intricate gold collars not unlike the torc. Germanic tribes wore gold and silver pieces with complex detailing and inlaid with colored glass and semi-precious stones garnet. Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian groups worked in silver, due to a deficit of gold, wrought patterns and animal forms into neck-rings. In the Gothic period necklaces were uncommon, though there are a few records of diamond and pearl necklaces, it was not until the adoption of lower necklines in the Middle Ages that necklaces became common. 1400 C. E. – 1500 C. E: During the Renaissance it was fashionable for men to wear a number of chains and pendants around their necks, by the end of the 15th century the wealthiest men would wear great, shoulder covering collars inlaid with gems.
Women wore simpler pieces, such as gold chains, or strung beads or pearls. By the end of the period, more adorned pieces were common among the wealthy in Italy.1500–1600 C. E: Long pearl ropes and chains with precious stones were worn. In the latter half of the century, natural adornments, such as coral and pearl, were joined with enamel and metals to create intricate pendants. Jeweled, delicately framed cameo pendants were popular as well. Chokers, last worn in antiquity made a resurgence at this time.1600–1700: Few men in the Baroque period wore jewelry, for women necklaces were unsophisticated a simple strand of pearls or delicately linked and embellished strands of metal with small stones. In the century, after the invention of new diamond cutting techniques, priority was for the first time given to the jewels themselves, not their settings. Miniatures grew in popularity, were ofte
Syon House, its 200-acre park, Syon Park, is in west London within the parish of Isleworth, in the county of Middlesex. It is now his family's London residence; the family's traditional central London residence had been Northumberland House, now demolished. The eclectic interior of Syon House was designed by the architect Robert Adam in the 1760s. Syon House derives its name from Syon Abbey, a medieval monastery of the Bridgettine Order, founded in 1415 on a nearby site by King Henry V; the abbey moved to the site now occupied by Syon House in 1431. It was one of the wealthiest nunneries in the country and a local legend recites that the monks of Sheen had a ley tunnel running to the nunnery at Syon. In 1539, the abbey was closed by royal agents during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the monastic community was expelled. On the closure of the abbey on the dissolution of the monasteries Syon became the property of the Crown for a short time before long lease to the 1st Duke of Somerset, who had the site rebuilt as Syon House in the Italian Renaissance style before his death in 1552.
In 1541 and part of the following year Henry VIII's fifth wife Catherine Howard faced her long imprisonment at Syon. In February 1542, the King's men took her to the Tower of London and executed her on charges of adultery. Five years when King Henry VIII died, his coffin surmounted by jewelled effigy rested at Syon House for its one night rest before the procession reached his burial place in St George's Chapel, Windsor. In 1557 it was proposed to convert the new building to the earlier Catholic use but Elizabeth I of England acceded to the throne before this change was effected. Syon was acquired in 1594 by Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland since when it has remained in his family. In the late 17th century, Syon was in the possession of Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, through his wife, Elizabeth Seymour. After the future Queen Anne had a disagreement with her sister, Mary II, over her friendship with Sarah Churchill, Countess of Marlborough, Queen Mary evicted Princess Anne from her court residence at Whitehall and Hampton Court.
Princess Anne came to live at Syon with her close friends, the Somersets, in 1692. Anne gave birth to a stillborn child there. Shortly after the birth, Queen Mary came to visit her, again demanding that Anne dismiss the Countess of Marlborough and stormed out again when Anne flatly refused. In the 18th century, Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, commissioned architect and interior designer Robert Adam and landscape designer Lancelot "Capability" Brown to redesign the house and estate. Work began on the interior reconstruction project in 1762. Five large rooms on the west and east sides of the House, were completed before work ceased in 1769. A central rotunda, which Adam had intended for the interior courtyard space, was not implemented, due to cost. In 1951, Syon House was opened to the public for the first time under Duchess. In 1995 under the 12th Duke, the family rooms became open to the public as well; as the Percy family continues to live there, they continue to enhance the house. Most the Duchess added a new central courtyard with the design of Marchioness of Salisbury.
A £600K restoration was undertaken in late 2007 involving work to the roof area. In 2008 restoration work commenced on the Great Hall and a current long-term project is to restore the Adam Rooms. Syon House's exterior was erected in 1547 while under the ownership of the 1st Duke of Somerset. Syon's current interior was designed by Robert Adam in 1762 under the commission of the 1st Duke and Duchess of Northumberland; the well known "Adam style" is said to have begun with Syon House. It was commissioned to be built in the Neo-classical style, fulfilled, but Adam's eclectic style doesn't end there. Syon is filled with multiple styles and inspirations including a huge influence of Roman antiquity visible Romantic, Picturesque and Mannerist styles and a dash of Gothic. There is evidence in his decorative motifs of his influence by Pompeii that he received while studying in Italy. Adam's plan of Syon House included a complete set of rooms on the main floor, a domed rotunda with a circular inner colonnade meant for the main courtyard, five main rooms on the west and south side of the building, a pillared ante-room famous for its colour, a Great Hall, a grand staircase and a Long Gallery stretching 136 feet long.
Adam's most famous addition is the suite of state rooms and as such they remain as they were built. More specific to the interior of Adam's rooms is where the elaborate detail and colour shines through. Adam added detailed marble chimneypieces, shuttering doors and doorways in the Drawing Room, along with fluted columns with Corinthian capitals; the long gallery, about 14 feet high and 14 feet wide, contains many recesses and niches into the thick wall for books along with rich and light decoration and stucco-covered walls and ceiling. At the end of the gallery is a closet with a domed circle supported by eight columns. In the 1820s the north range of the house, not completed by Adam was redesigned by the 3rd Duke. At this time the house was refaced in Bath stone and the porch rebuilt; this remodelling is thought to have been done by the architect Thomas Cady, who had worked on other estates belonging to the Percy family. Syon House was refurbished again in the 1860s; the 4th Duke had Renaissance-style plaster ceilings p