Star Trek: Voyager
Star Trek: Voyager is an American science fiction television series created by Rick Berman, Michael Piller, Jeri Taylor. It aired between January 16, 1995 and May 23, 2001 on UPN, lasting for 172 episodes over seven seasons; the fifth series in the Star Trek franchise, it served as the fourth sequel to Star Trek: The Original Series. Set in the 24th century, when Earth is part of a United Federation of Planets, it follows the adventures of the Starfleet vessel USS Voyager, as it attempts to return home after being stranded in the Delta Quadrant on the far side of the Milky Way galaxy. Paramount Pictures commissioned the series following the termination of Star Trek: The Next Generation to accompany their ongoing Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, they wanted it to help launch their new network, UPN. Berman and Taylor devised the series to chronologically overlap with Deep Space Nine and to continue themes—namely the complex relationship between Starfleet and ex-Federation colonists known as the Maquis—which had been introduced in The Next Generation and Deep Space Nine.
Voyager was the first Star Trek series to include CGI technology for space scenes and the first to feature a female captain, Kathryn Janeway, as the lead character. Berman served as head executive producer in charge of the overall production, assisted by a series of executive producers: Piller, Brannon Braga, Kenneth Biller. Being set in a different part of the galaxy to preceding Star Trek shows, Voyager gave the series' writers space to introduce new alien species as recurring characters, namely the Kazon, Vidiians and Species 8472. During the seasons, the Borg—a species created for The Next Generation—were introduced as the main antagonists. During Voyager's run, various episode novelisations and tie-in video games were produced; as Star Trek: The Next Generation ended, Paramount Pictures wanted to continue to have a second Star Trek TV series to accompany Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. The studio planned to start a new television network, wanted the new series to help it succeed; this was reminiscent of Paramount's earlier plans to launch its own network by showcasing Star Trek: Phase II in 1977.
Initial work on Star Trek: Voyager began in 1993, when the seventh and final season of Star Trek: The Next Generation and the second season of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine were in production. Seeds for Voyager's backstory, including the development of the Maquis, were placed in several The Next Generation and Deep Space Nine episodes. Voyager was shot on the stages The Next Generation had used, where the Voyager pilot "Caretaker" was shot in September 1994. Costume designer Robert Blackman decided that the uniforms of Voyager's crew would be the same as those on Deep Space Nine. Star Trek: Voyager was the first Star Trek series to use computer-generated imagery, rather than models, for exterior space shots. Babylon 5 and seaQuest DSV had used CGI to avoid the expense of models, but the Star Trek television department continued using models because they felt they were more realistic. Amblin Imaging won an Emmy for Voyager's opening CGI title visuals, but the weekly episode exteriors were captured with hand-built miniatures of Voyager, its shuttlecraft, other ships.
This changed when Voyager went CGI for certain types of shots midway through season three. Foundation Imaging was the studio responsible for special effects during Babylon 5's first three seasons. Season three's "The Swarm". Star Trek: Deep Space Nine began using Foundation Imaging in conjunction with Digital Muse in season six. In its seasons, Voyager featured visual effects from Foundation Imaging and Digital Muse; the digital effects were produced at television resolution and some have speculated that it cannot be re-released in HD format without re-creating the special effects. However, Enterprise has been released in HD, but the special effects were rendered in 480p and upscaled. In the pilot episode, "Caretaker", USS Voyager departs the Deep Space Nine space station on a mission into the treacherous Badlands, they are searching for a missing ship piloted by a team of Maquis rebels, which Voyager's security officer, the Vulcan Lieutenant Tuvok, has secretly infiltrated. While in the Badlands, Voyager is enveloped by a powerful energy wave that kills several of its crew, damages the ship, strands it in the galaxy's Delta Quadrant, more than 70,000 light-years from Earth.
The wave was not a natural phenomenon. In fact, it was used by an alien entity known as the Caretaker to pull Voyager into the Delta Quadrant; the Caretaker is responsible for the continued care of the Ocampa, a race of aliens native to the Delta Quadrant, has been abducting other species from around the galaxy in an effort to find a successor. The Maquis ship was pulled into the Delta Quadrant, the two crews reluctantly agree to join forces after the Caretaker space station is destroyed in a pitched space battle with another local alien species, the Kazon. Chakotay, leader of the Maquis group, becomes Voyager's first officer. B'Elanna Torres, a half-human/half-Klingon Maquis, becomes chief engineer. Tom Paris, whom Janeway released from a Federation prison to help find the Maquis ship, is made Voyager's helm officer. Due to the deaths of the ship's entire medical staff, the Doctor, an emergency medical hologram designed only for short-term use, is employed as the ship's full-time chief medical officer.
Delta Quadrant natives Neelix, a Talaxian scavenger, Kes, a young Ocampa, are welcomed aboard as the ship's chef/morale officer and the doctor's medical assistant, respectively. Due to its great distance from Federation s
B'Elanna Torres is a main character in Star Trek: Voyager played by Roxann Dawson. She is portrayed as a half-human half-Klingon born in 2346 on the Federation colony Kessik IV, she dropped out before graduating. Torres joined the Maquis in 2370 and was serving on the Val Jean when taken to the Delta Quadrant by the Caretaker alien using his station. After being used for medical experiments she was left in an Ocampa colony maintained by the same alien that had abducted the Val Jean; that ship was destroyed in a space battle at the Array and she and what remained of that crew joined the USS Voyager. On the ship she was given field commissioned rank of Lieutenant, junior grade and posted in engineering. In 2371, she was promoted to Chief Engineer. In 2377, she married Tom Paris and gave birth to their daughter Miral at the beginning of the next year, while Voyager was returning to the Alpha Quadrant; the Star Trek: Voyager Companion describes B'Elanna as a young half-human half-Klingon in her twenties, a member of the Maquis Rebellion.
The producers wanted to hire an actress who could portray B'Elanna's inner struggle between her human and Klingon halves. After Roxann Dawson read for the role, she became the first of the Voyager actors to be cast. Dawson's makeup differed from the final design, she asked the producers and makeup artist Michael Westmore if they could make her more attractive and tone down the Klingon makeup. They came up with a design with which Roxann was happy, something she described as her "beauty monster makeup". Although B'Elanna's character was twenty-five years old when the series began, Dawson was thirty-six. Dawson's initial reaction to the script of the first-season episode "Faces" was one of doubt. However, she used the episode to learn more about her character, it became one of her favorite episodes; when the episode aired, she called her parents to ask their opinions, they replied, "You were good, but the girl that played that Klingon was great!", which Dawson took as a compliment. During the fourth season, Dawson became pregnant with her first child.
The writers decided they did not want B'Elanna to be pregnant as well, so for the duration of Dawson's pregnancy, she was given an engineering lab coat, used to help cover her growing pregnancy. During the episode "The Killing Game", the Hirogen had taken over Voyager and forced the crew to participate in holodeck recreations of various combat situations, to which B'Elanna's holodeck character is portrayed as pregnant in World War II with a Nazi officer's child. During the fifth season, Dawson had a meeting with the producers and writers to discuss her character. Roxann explained to them that she felt B'Elanna had an extreme dark side that hadn't been explored, from that discussion the episode "Extreme Risk" was created. Dawson stated that after the episode aired she received fan mail praising the issues of depression and inner conflict raised in the episode, with which many people identified. During the sixth season, Dawson got the chance to explore B'Elanna's Klingon heritage thanks to an episode conceived by Ronald D. Moore for Star Trek: Deep Space Nine.
In the episode "Barge of the Dead", B'Elanna has a near-death experience and travels to Grethor, the Klingon Hell, where she meets her mother Miral. She discovers that because of the dishonor B'Elanna has caused her family, her mother would spend eternity's in Grethor; the episode explores some aspects of B'Elanna's character, gives further insight into Klingon mythology. Dawson believed the episode had many layers to it, she believed it was a coming-of-age story for B'Elanna and her final acceptance of her Klingon heritage. During the seventh season, a pregnancy storyline was written in for B'Elanna's character. Jessica Gaona played the character's young iteration in the episode "Lineage". At the end of the series, Dawson described B'Elanna's character arc as that of an unruly young woman who matures over the course of seven years. B'Elanna is portrayed as having been born in 2346 on the Federation colony Kessik IV. Torres had a troubled childhood; when she overheard her father discussing his unhappiness in the home of two Klingons, she attempted to run away.
When she confronted him, she bitterly told him to leave. He returned to Earth days leaving her to be raised by her mother. A mixture of Klingon and human genetics, Torres is shown as prone to aggressive outbursts, she once attacked her schoolmate Daniel Byrd after he taunted her, calling her "Miss Turtlehead" due to her cranial ridges. Torres retained this aggressive behavior throughout her life, but she learned to control it. While in the academy, B'Elanna was having trouble with the rules of Starfleet, resulting in her getting four disciplinary hearings and one suspension, but before dropping out, Torres was a valued member of the academy athletics team, competing as a decathlete. Torres dropped out of Starfleet Academy in 2365 at age 19. A few years she became a member of the Maquis renegade group, began developing a profound hatred of the Cardassians. Torres became associated with a Maquis captain named Chakotay, was serving as chief engineer on his
Initiations (Star Trek: Voyager)
"Initiations" is the second episode of the second season, eighteenth episode overall of the American science fiction television program Star Trek: Voyager. The episode aired on September 4, 1995, tells the story of Commander Chakotay's capture at the hands of a young Kazon. Intended to open the second season, "Initiations" was bumped to second by "The 37's". To better utilize the character, this is one of several second-season episodes that focuses on Chakotay, it was written with a mind to recall the action story of Chakotay from the pilot. Writer Kenneth Biller extensively rewrote the episode after input from series co-creators Jeri Taylor and Michael Piller; this substantial rewrite of the episode required an overhaul of production work invested in the episode. Aron Eisenberg guest starred as the young Kazon warrior. Though his performance was lauded, he was deemed too recognizable from his recurring role on Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and was a regret of the executive producers. Mixed reviews noted the shooting location of Vasquez Rocks.
On stardate 49005.3, to commemorate the anniversary of his father's death, Commander Chakotay takes a shuttlecraft to perform the pakra ceremony. Inadvertently straying into Kazon-Ogla space, he is attacked by a young Kazon on his first mission. Destroying Kar's vessel, Chakotay beams him aboard. Captured by a Kazon vessel soon thereafter, Chakotay learns from Kar that Kazon earn their titles through conquest or death, he has robbed Kar of that opportunity by saving him; the vessel's commander Razik speaks with Chakotay, explaining his disservice to Kar and that the young Kazon is scheduled for execution. When presented with a weapon to kill Kar as a lesson to other Kazon youth, Chakotay instead holds Razik hostage in exchange for his shuttle. Kar, seeing no future or opportunities with the Ogla, flees with Chakotay. Unable to elude the Kazon, Chakotay beams himself and Kar to a nearby Class-M moon, a Kazon training ground. Kar, having eschewed an opportunity to kill Chakotay in his sleep explains how he has no options open to him and admits that Chakotay may be his only friend now.
Meanwhile, having tracked the shuttle's probable course, Captain Janeway, Lieutenant Tuvok, Kes proceed to the moon's surface to rescue Chakotay. On the moon, they meet up with his men who offer to lead the away team to Chakotay; when Chakotay and Kar detect their approach, Chakotay offers to help Kar earn his name by becoming his prisoner. Coordinating with Voyager to prepare for resuscitation, Chakotay tells Kar to shoot him; the Ogla allow the Voyager crew to leave, with Kar's promise that he will kill Chakotay if they meet again. When performing his pakra ceremony aboard Voyager, Chakotay adds Kar to his prayers. "Initiations" is Kenneth Biller's first solo writing credit on Star Trek: Voyager. The Chakotay-focused episode was meant to correct what co-creator and executive producer Jeri Taylor felt was an underutilization of the character in the first season. Biller felt the character needed more action stories as shown in the pilot, wrote "Initiations" to address that. Producer Winrich Kolbe did not care for the aspects of Chakotay's character that the episode played up.
Executive producer Michael Piller was displeased with the depiction of the Kazon in Biller's first draft of the episode. In addition to Jari Taylor's extensive notes on the draft, Piller suggested Biller get in touch with actual gang members or a police officer who could better clue the writer into street gang culture for the episode. Instead, Biller picked up a copy of Monsta, a book by convicted murderer and former gang member "Monsta" Cody; the book's insight into gang life and culture was a guiding light for Biller's second draft, which he worked up with Piller, endeavoring to set the Kazon apart "from Romulans and Klingons."The final draft of the episode was submitted on July 10, 1995. Playing a recurring character on sister series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, guest star Aron Eisenberg quelled rumors that he was given the part because of his Star Trek heritage, he emphasized that he read for the part like any other actor, felt that he was chosen because the Voyager crew could not find a child actor who could meet muster, nor an adult actor who looked young enough for the part.
In an interview with Star Trek: The Official Monthly Magazine, Eisenberg felt that he worked hard on the episode, that his musculature was a boon to playing "a warrior kid." Fellow DS9 actor Max Grodénchik was his acting coach for "Initiations". On Kar, Eisenberg played the character on the other end of the spectrum from his Nog character, so much so that he wasn't worried about any of Nog's characterizations or idiosyncrasies showing through. Eisenberg fondly recalled working on "Initiations" both because of his familiarity with much of the crew who had worked on Deep Space Nine, as well as the opportunity to "goof around" with Robert Beltran on set, he would say to Cinefantastique that he "had a blast" working on the episode the opportunity to play so
A wiki is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and edited with the help of a rich-text editor. A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system, but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software, in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, wikis have little inherent structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems; some wiki engines are open source. Some permit control over different functions. Others may permit access without enforcing access control. Other rules may be imposed to organize content; the online encyclopedia project Wikipedia is the most popular wiki-based website, is one of the most viewed sites in the world, having been ranked in the top ten since 2007.
Wikipedia is not a single wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis, with each one pertaining to a specific language. In addition to Wikipedia, there are tens of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including wikis functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites, intranets; the English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles. Ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb described wiki as "the simplest online database that could work". "Wiki" is a Hawaiian word meaning "quick". Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows: A wiki invites all users—not just experts—to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a standard "plain-vanilla" Web browser without any extra add-ons. Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a crafted site created by experts and professional writers, designed for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the typical visitor/user in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that changes the website landscape. A wiki enables communities of contributors to write documents collaboratively. All that people require to contribute is a computer, Internet access, a web browser, a basic understanding of a simple markup language. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are well-interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is a database for creating and searching through information. A wiki allows non-linear, evolving and networked text, while allowing for editor argument and interaction regarding the content and formatting. A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. There is no review by a moderator or gatekeeper before modifications are accepted and thus lead to changes on the website.
Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear instantly online, but this feature facilitates abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, sometimes to read them. Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba, Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. "'Unfit' sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled and replaced if they are not considered'fit', which results in the evolution of a higher quality and more relevant page. While such openness may invite'vandalism' and the posting of untrue information, this same openness makes it possible to correct or restore a'quality' wiki page." Some wikis have an Edit button or link directly on the page being viewed, if the user has permission to edit the page. This can lead to a text-based editing page where participants can structure and format wiki pages with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as Wikitext, Wiki markup or Wikicode.
An example of this is the VisualEditor on Wikipedia. WYSIWYG controls do not, always provide
Brannon Braga is an American television producer and screenwriter. He served as an executive producer on the Fox primetime series, Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, a re-launch of the 1980 miniseries hosted by Carl Sagan for which Braga won a Peabody Award, Critics Choice Award, Producers Guild Award. In addition, Braga has been nominated for three Emmy Awards. Braga served as writer, executive producer, co-creator of the drama series Salem, WGN America's first original series. Best known for his work in the Star Trek franchise, Braga was a key creative force behind three of the franchise's five modern series, he became an executive producer and writer on several Fox shows including 24, Terra Nova, The Orville. His film credits include Star Trek Generations and Star Trek: First Contact. Braga started out as an intern on Star Trek: The Next Generation in 1990 becoming an executive producer, he was part of the creative team nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award in 1994 for Outstanding Drama Series, won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation in 1995 for his work on the series finale, "All Good Things..." along with longtime collaborator Ronald D. Moore.
His credits on that series include a number of popular episodes including "Cause and Effect", "Frame of Mind" and "Parallels". He joined Star Trek: Voyager as a producer and was tapped to serve as executive producer the following year, he served as showrunner for Voyager until the end of the sixth season when he moved to Star Trek: Enterprise. He teamed up with Moore to write two Star Trek feature films – Star Trek Generations and Star Trek: First Contact, they would later develop the Mission: Impossible 2 screenplay. He went on to co-create Star Trek: Enterprise and led that series as executive producer until its fourth and final season. Before the cancellation of Star Trek: Enterprise Braga co-created the CBS science fiction drama series Threshold, he was brought on as an executive producer and writer on the Fox series, 24, penning episodes in the seventh and eight seasons, he was an executive producer and writer on the 2009 ABC science fiction series FlashForward. While at the helm of Terra Nova, Braga was approached to co-write a four-part comic book series Star Trek: The Next Generation: Hive for IDW, which made its debut in 2012.
Braga was the producer and one of the directors of the 2014 science education series Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, a sequel to the 1980 series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, hosted by Carl Sagan. The project saw Braga collaborating with the original series' writer and Sagan's widow, Ann Druyan, executive producer Seth MacFarlane and host Neil DeGrasse Tyson; the 13-episode series premiered March 9, 2014, received positive reaction from critics and viewers. Braga was nominated for an Emmy for his work on the show; the following month saw the premiere of the historical fantasy drama television series Salem, which Braga co-created with Adam Simon, on which he serves as one of the executive producers. In 2014, he directed the Marilyn Manson music video "Cupid Carries a Gun" off The Pale Emperor album. Braga is one of the producers of The Orville, a 2017 science fiction comedy-drama inspired by Star Trek, he directed several episodes of the series. During production of Star Trek: Voyager, Braga dated star Jeri Ryan for a couple of years after she joined the cast in the fourth season.
Between February and November 2000, they were stalked by Marlon Estacio Pagtakhan, convicted for harassment and threats in May 2001. Brannon Braga – profile on the official Star Trek site Brannon Braga on IMDb Brannon Braga – profile on TV.com Brannon Braga – on Star Trek as atheist mythology
Maquis (Star Trek)
In the Star Trek science fiction franchise, the Maquis are a 24th-century paramilitary organization/terrorist group first introduced in the 1994 episode "The Maquis" of the television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, subsequently appeared in Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek: Voyager. The Maquis story debuted when three Star Trek television shows running from the late 1980s to 2001 took place in the same fictional science-fiction universe at the same time in the future; as a result, the Maquis story was told across dozens of episodes with many more shows providing the context in the wider Star Trek narrative. The Maquis are featured in the comic book saga The Maquis: Soldier of Peace by Malibu Comics, who held the rights to Deep Space Nine comics in the 1990s; the Maquis are an important part of Star Trek: Voyager, as the formative plot for the series is that a Federation and a Maquis crew are stranded together on the opposite side of the Galaxy. The Maquis are in the book series The Badlands by Susan Wright, who has written many other non-canon trekiverse novels published by Pocket Books.
The concept of the Maquis was intentionally introduced by the creators of Deep Space Nine so that it could play a role in the upcoming Voyager, scheduled to begin airing in 1995. As Jeri Taylor commented, "we knew that we wanted to include a renegade element in Voyager, that the show would involve a ship housing both Starfleet people and those idealistic freedom fighters that the Federation felt were outlaws." Therefore, the creators of Star Trek decided to create a backstory for the Maquis in several episodes of Deep Space Nine and The Next Generation, they named them after the French guerrilla fighters of the Second World War. The recurring characters of Michael Eddington in Deep Space Nine and Ro Laren in The Next Generation became members of the Maquis, Voyager contained three regular former Maquis characters: Chakotay, B'Elanna Torres, Tom Paris. In, "Caretaker", the pilot episode of Star Trek: Voyager, the titular starship pursues a Maquis ship into the Badlands before being teleported to the Delta Quadrant.
According to the fictional storyline of the Star Trek universe, the Maquis were formed in the 24th century after a peace treaty was enacted between the United Federation of Planets and the Cardassian Union, redesignating the demilitarized zone between the two powers, which resulted in the Federation ceding several of their colony worlds to the Cardassians. Although the colonists were offered free relocation to elsewhere in Federation territory, some insisted on remaining on the ceded worlds becoming Cardassian Union citizens; some of these colonists subsequently formed the Maquis to protect themselves from Cardassian aggression, although they received no official support from the Federation, who feared breaking the peace treaty with the Cardassians, which would lead to war. Nonetheless, various Federation members supported the Maquis' cause, illegally helped to supply them with weapons and other technology that they could use in their struggle. In several cases, the Federation intervened in the war between the Maquis and the Cardassians, aiding the latter in recognition of the peace treaty.
In one case, the Federation ship USS Voyager tracked a Maquis vessel to the Badlands with the intention of apprehending it, but an alien force transported both to the Delta Quadrant, on the opposite side of the Milky Way Galaxy. The two crews were forced to unite to survive against alien threats such as the Borg. In years, when the Cardassians joined the Dominion to fight in the Dominion War against the Federation, the Dominion aided the Cardassian military in wiping out the Maquis, a prelude to their war against the Federation and its allies; the Maquis provide moral challenges to existing characters such as Quark and Sisko on Deep Space Nine station. Quark is lured into selling weapons to the Maquis by an attractive Vulcan woman, showing how his desire for money unwittingly turned him into an illegal arms dealer. Sisko must navigate the internal politics of the Cardassians and Federation as he tries to uphold the peace treaty, in addition to being tested by his old friend trying to recruit him into the rebellion.
Background: The Cardassians were introduced on Star Trek The Next Generation in January 1991 with the episode "The Wounded" which lays some of the foundation for the Maquis story as does the story arc of Ensign Ro, introduced on The Next Generation in the fall of 1991 "The Wounded" introduces the Cardassians and the Federation-Cardassian peace treaty "Ensign Ro" Introduces Bajoran character Ro Laren "Chain of Command" further develops Cardassian-Federation relationship "Duet" further develops Cardassian-Bajor story "Journey's End" background on the Federation-Cardassian peace treatyMaquis-focussed episodes: "The Maquis, Part I and Part II" "Preemptive Strike" "Tribunal" "Defiant" "Caretaker" "Heart of Stone" "Learning Curve" "Dreadnought" Aftermath of Maquis-Cardassian war "For the Cause" "For the Uniform "Worst Case Scenario" (Airdate - May 14
A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually