Paralysis is a loss of motor function in one or more muscles. Paralysis can be accompanied by a loss of feeling in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as motor. In the United States 1 in 50 people have been diagnosed with some form of permanent or transient paralysis; the word comes from the Greek παράλυσις, "disabling of the nerves", itself from παρά, "beside, by" and λύσις, "making loose". A paralysis accompanied by involuntary tremors is called "palsy". Paralysis is most caused by damage in the nervous system the spinal cord. Other major causes are stroke, trauma with nerve injury, cerebral palsy, peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson's disease, ALS, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, Guillain–Barré syndrome. Temporary paralysis occurs during REM sleep, dysregulation of this system can lead to episodes of waking paralysis. Drugs that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can cause paralysis. Pseudoparalysis is voluntary restriction or inhibition of motion because of pain, orgasm, or other cause, is not due to actual muscular paralysis.
In an infant, it may be a symptom of congenital syphilis. Pseudoparalysis can be caused by extreme mental stresses, is a common feature of mental disorders such as panic anxiety disorder. Paralysis can occur in localised or generalised forms. Most paralyses caused by nervous-system damage are constant in nature. Paralysis can occur in newborns due to a congenital defect known as spina bifida. Spina bifida causes one or more of the vertebrae to fail to form vertebral arches within the infant, which allows the spinal cord to protrude from the rest of the spine. In extreme cases, this can cause spinal cord function inferior to the missing vertebral arches to cease; this cessation of spinal cord function can result in paralysis of lower extremities. Documented cases of paralysis of the anal sphincter in newborns have been observed when spina bifida has gone untreated. While life-threatening, many cases of spina bifida can be corrected surgically if operated on within 72 hours of birth. Ascending paralysis presents in the lower limbs before the upper limbs.
It can be associated with: Guillain–Barré syndrome Tick paralysisAscending paralysis contrasts with descending paralysis, which occurs in conditions such as botulism. Many animal species use paralysing toxins to capture evade predation, or both, it was shown that in stimulated muscles the decrease in frequency of the miniature potentials runs parallel to the decrease in postsynaptic potential as well as to the decrease in muscle contraction. In invertebrates, this indicates that, e.g. Microbracon venom causes paralysis of the neuromuscular system by acting at a presynaptic site. Philanthus venom inhibits the fast as well as the slow neuromuscular system at identical concentrations, it causes a decrease in the frequency of the miniature potentials without affecting their amplitude significantly. Some species of wasp, to complete the reproductive cycle, the female wasp paralyses a prey item such as a grasshopper and places it in her nest. In the species Philanthus gibbosus, the paralysed insect is coated in a thick layer of pollen.
The adult P. gibbosus lays eggs in the paralysed insect, devoured by the larvae when they hatch. A well-known example is the tetrodotoxin of fish species such as Takifugu rubripes, the famously lethal pufferfish of Japanese fugu; this toxin works by binding to sodium channels in nerve cells, preventing the cells' proper function. A non-lethal dose of this toxin results in temporary paralysis; this toxin is present in many other species ranging from toads to nemerteans. Paralysis can be seen in breeds of dogs; these dogs have short legs, may have short muzzles. Their intervertebral disc material can become more brittle. In such cases, the disc may rupture, with disc material ending up in the spinal canal, or rupturing more laterally to press on spinal nerves. A minor rupture may only result in paresis, but a major rupture can cause enough damage to cut off circulation. If no signs of pain can be elicited, surgery should be performed within 24 hours of the incident, to remove the disc material and relieve pressure on the spinal cord.
After 24 hours, the chance of recovery declines since with continued pressure, the spinal cord tissue deteriorates and dies. Another type of paralysis is caused by a fibrocartilaginous embolism; this is a microscopic piece of disc material that becomes lodged in a spinal artery. Nerves served by the artery will die; the German Shepherd Dog is prone to developing degenerative myelopathy. This is a deterioration of nerves in the spinal cord, starting in the posterior part of the cord. Dogs so affected will become weaker in the hind legs as nerves die off, their hind legs become useless. They also exhibit faecal and urinary incontinence; as the disease progresses, the paresis and paralysis move forward. This disease affects other large breeds of dogs, it is suspected to be an autoimmune problem. Cats with a heart murmur may develop blood clots. If a clot is large enough to block one or both femoral arteries, there may be hind leg paralysis because the major source of blood flow to the hind leg is blocked.
Many snakes exhibit powerful neurotoxins that can cause non-permanent paralysis
The Nun's Island gas station was a modernist-style filling station attributes to Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in 1969. It is Joe Fujikawa, who worked for Mies, the project architect. Closed for several years, it was converted to a community centre, it was the first gas station on the island, commissioned by Imperial Oil. The borough of Verdun transformed the building into La Station. Eric Gauthier was the lead architect on the project, which saw the two glass pavilions rebuilt to their original 3,000- and 1,000-square-foot sizes. La Station is a community centre for people over 50 years of age; the two main buildings are called the salle salle noire, after their floor colours. The original glass-enclosed attendant's booth serves as a display case of Mies' and the building's history, with the former fuel dispensers marked by ventilation shafts; the centre uses geothermal energy. Westmount Square Construction underway to transform famed Nuns’ Island gas station, May 10, 2011 at the Wayback Machine Montreal Architects Rescue Mies Van Der Rohe Gas Station from Obscurity, The Architizer Blog Conversion of Mies van der Rohe gas station on Nuns Island, e-architect.co.uk, Feb 21, 2012, updated March 6, 2014
Kévin Koubemba is a Congolese international footballer who plays as a striker for Azerbaijani club Sabah. Born in Coulommiers, Koubemba has played for Amiens, Lille and Sint-Truiden. On 31 January 2017, Koubemba signed contract with Bulgarian club CSKA Sofia, he left the club in January 2018. On 23 July 2018, Koubemba signed contract with Azerbaijan Premier League side Sabail FK. On 7 June 2019, Koubemba signed a two-year contract with Azerbaijan Premier League side Sabah FK, he made his international debut for Congo in 2014. He was part of Congo's 38-man provisional squad for the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations, but was dropped from the list after a week