Parvati or Gauri is the Hindu goddess of fertility, beauty, marriage and devotion. Known by many other names, she is the gentle and nurturing aspect of the Supreme Hindu goddess Adi Parashakti and one of the central deities of the Goddess-oriented Shakta sect, she is the Mother goddess in Hinduism, has many attributes and aspects. Each of her aspects is expressed with a different name, giving her over 100 names in regional Hindu stories of India. Along with Lakshmi and Saraswati, she forms the trinity of Hindu goddesses. Parvati is the wife of the Hindu god Shiva – the protector, the destroyer and regenerator of the universe and all life, she is the daughter of the mountain king queen Mena. Parvati is the mother of Hindu deities Ganesha, Ashokasundari; the Puranas referenced her to be the sister of the preserver god Vishnu. She is the divine energy between a woman, like the energy of Shiva and Shakti, she is one of the five equivalent deities worshipped in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta Tradition of Hinduism.
With Shiva, Parvati is a central deity in the Shaiva sect. In Hindu belief, she is the recreative energy and power of Shiva, she is the cause of a bond that connects all beings and a means of their spiritual release. In Hindu temples dedicated to her and Shiva, she is symbolically represented as the argha, she is found extensively in ancient Indian literature, her statues and iconography grace Hindu temples all over South Asia and Southeast Asia. Parvata is one of the Sanskrit words for "mountain". King Parvat is considered the personification of the Himalayas. Parvati is known by many names in Hindu literature. Other names which associate her with mountains are Shailaja, Adrija or Nagajaa or Shailaputri, Devi Maheshwari, Girija or Girirajaputri, she is called Narayani because she is the sister of Narayana. The Lalita sahasranama contains a listing of 1,000 names of Parvati. Two of Parvati's most famous epithets are Aparna; the name Uma is used for Sati in earlier texts, but in the Ramayana, it is used as a synonym for Parvati.
In the Harivamsa, Parvati is referred to as Aparna and addressed as Uma, dissuaded by her mother from severe austerity by saying u mā. She is Ambika, Mataji, Durga, Bhavani, Urvi or Renu, many hundreds of others. Parvati is the goddess of love and devotion, or Kamakshi; the apparent contradiction that Parvati is addressed as the golden one, Gauri, as well as the dark one, Kali or Shyama, as a calm and placid wife Parvati mentioned as Gauri and as a goddess who destroys evil she is Kali. Regional stories of Gauri suggest an alternate origin for Gauri's complexion. In parts of India, Gauri's skin color is golden or yellow in honor of her being the goddess of ripened corn/harvest and of fertility; the word Parvati does not explicitly appear in Vedic literature. Instead, Ambika and others are found in the Rigveda; the verse 3.12 of the Kena Upanishad dated to mid 1st millennium BCE contains a goddess called Uma-Haimavati, a common alternate name for Parvati. Sayana's commentary in Anuvaka, identifies Parvati in the Kena Upanishad, suggesting her to be the same as Uma and Ambika in the Upanishad, referring to Parvati is thus an embodiment of divine knowledge and the mother of the world.
She appears as essential power, of the Supreme Brahman. Her primary role is as a mediator who reveals the knowledge of Brahman to the Vedic trinity of Agni and Varuna, who were boasting about their recent defeat of a group of demons, but Kinsley notes: "it is little more than conjecture to identify her with the goddess Satī-Pārvatī, although texts that extol Śiva and Pārvatī retell the episode in such a way to leave no doubt that it was Śiva's spouse.." Sati-Parvati appears in the epic period, as both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata present Parvati as Shiva's wife. However, it is not until the plays of Kalidasa and the Puranas that the stories of Sati-Parvati and Shiva acquire more comprehensive details. Kinsley adds that Parvati may have emerged from legends of non-aryan goddesses that lived in mountains. While the word Uma appears in earlier Upanisads, Hopkins notes that the earliest known explicit use of the name Pārvatī occurs in late Hamsa Upanishad. Weber suggests that just like Shiva is a combination of various Vedic gods Rudra and Agni, Parvati in Puranas text is a combination of wives of Rudra and Agni.
In other words, the symbolism and characteristics of Parvati evolved over time fusing Uma, Ambika in one aspect and the more ferocious, destructive Kali, Nirriti in another aspect. Tate suggests Parvati is a mixture of the Vedic goddesses Aditi and Nirriti, being a mountain goddess herself, was associated with other mountain goddesses like Durga and Kali in traditions. Parvati, the gentle aspect of Devi Shakti, is represented as fair and benevolent, she wears a red dress (
The Shvetashvatara Upanishad is an ancient Sanskrit text embedded in the Yajurveda. It is listed as number 14 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads; the Upanishad contains 113 verses in six chapters. The Upanishad is one of the 33 Upanishads from Taittiriyas, associated with the Shvetashvatara tradition within Karakas sakha of the Yajurveda, it is a part of the "black" Yajurveda, with the term "black" implying "the un-arranged, motley collection" of content in Yajurveda, in contrast to the "white" Yajurveda where Brihadaranyaka Upanishad and Isha Upanishad are embedded. The chronology of Maitrayaniya Upanishad is contested, but accepted to be a late period Upanishadic composition; the text includes a closing credit to sage Shvetashvatara, considered the author of the Upanishad. However, scholars believe that while sections of the text shows an individual stamp by its style and other sections were interpolated and expanded over time; the Shvetashvatara Upanishad opens with metaphysical questions about the primal cause of all existence, its origin, its end, what role, if any, nature, necessity and the spirit had as the primal cause.
It develops its answer, concluding that "the Universal Soul exists in every individual, it expresses itself in every creature, everything in the world is a projection of it, that there is Oneness, a unity of souls in one and only Self". The text is notable for its discussion of the concept of personal god – Ishvara, suggesting it to be a path to one's own Highest Self; the text is notable for its multiple mentions of both Rudra and Shiva, along with other Vedic deities, of crystallization of Shiva as a central theme. The Shvetashvatara Upanishad is a Principal Upanishad of Hinduism, commented by many of its ancient and medieval scholars, it is a foundational text of the philosophy of Shaivism, as well as the Yoga and Vedanta schools of Hinduism. Some 19th century scholars suggested that Shvetashvatara Upanishad is sectarian or influenced by Christianity, hypotheses that were disputed discarded by scholars; the name "Shvetashvatara" has the compound Sanskrit root Shvetashva, which means "white horse" and "drawn by white steeds".
Shvetashvatara is a bahuvrihi compound of, where tara means "crossing", "carrying beyond". The word Shvetashvatara translates to "the one carrying beyond on white horse" or "white mule that carries"; the text is sometimes spelled as Svetasvatara Upanishad. It is known as Shvetashvataropanishad or Svetasvataropanishad, as Shvetashvataranam Mantropanishad. In ancient and medieval literature, the text is referred to in the plural, as Svetasvataropanishadah; some metric poetic verses, such as Vakaspatyam refer to the text as Shvetashva. Flood as well as Gorski state that the Svetasvatara Upanishad was composed in the 5th to 4th century BCE. Paul Muller-Ortega dates the text between 6th to 5th century BCE; the chronology of Shvetashvatara Upanishad, like other Upanishads, is uncertain and contested. The chronology is difficult to resolve because all opinions rest on scanty evidence, an analysis of archaism and repetitions across texts, driven by assumptions about evolution of ideas, on presumptions about which philosophy might have influenced which other Indian philosophies.
Phillips chronologically lists Shvetashvatara Upanishad after Mandukya Upanishad, but before and about the time the Maitri Upanishad, the first Buddhist Pali and Jaina canonical texts were composed. Ranade places Shvetashvatara Upanishad's chronological composition in the fourth group of ancient Upanishads, after Katha and Mundaka Upanishads. Deussen states that Shvetashvatara Upanishad refers to and incorporates phrases from the Katha Upanishad, chronologically followed it; some sections of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad are found in its entirety, in chronologically more ancient Sanskrit texts. For example, verses 2.1 through 2.3 are found in chapter 4.1.1 of Taittiriya Samhita as well as in chapter 6.3.1 of Shatapatha Brahmana, while verses 2.4 and 2.5 are found as hymns in chapters 5.81 and 10.13 of Rig Veda respectively. Many verses in chapters 3 through 6 are found, in nearly identical form in the Samhitas of Rig Veda, Atharva Veda and Yajur Veda; the text has six Adhyaya, each with varying number of verses.
The first chapter includes 16 verses, the second has 17, the third chapter contains 21 verses, the fourth is composed of 22, the fifth has 14, while the sixth chapter has 23 verses. The last three verses of the sixth chapter are considered as epilogue. Thus, the Upanishad has 3 epilogue verses; the epilogue verse 6.21 is a homage to sage Shvetashvatara for proclaiming Brahman-knowledge to ascetics. This closing credit is structurally notable because of its rarity in ancient Indian texts, as well as for its implication that the four-stage Ashrama system of Hinduism, with ascetic Sannyasa, was an established tradition by the time verse 6.21 of Shvetashvatara Upanishad was composed. The Shvetashvatara Upanishad has structure. However, unlike other ancient poetic Upanishads, the meter structure of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad varies is arbitrary and inconsistent within many verses in chapters, some such as verse 2.17 lack a definite poetic meter suggesting that the text congealed from the work of several authors over a period of time, or was interpolated and expanded over time.
The first chapter is the consistent one, with characteristics that makes it like
Shakti is the primordial cosmic energy and represents the dynamic forces that are thought to move through the entire universe in Hinduism and Shaktism. Shakti is the concept or personification of divine feminine creative power, sometimes referred to as "The Great Divine Mother" in Hinduism; as a mother, she is known as "Adi Shakti" or "Adi Parashakti". On the earthly plane, Shakti most manifests herself through female embodiment and creativity/fertility, though it is present in males in its potential, unmanifest form. Hindus believe that Shakti is both responsible for the agent of all change. Shakti is cosmic existence as well as liberation, its most significant form being the Kundalini Shakti, a mysterious psychospiritual force. In Shaktism, Shakti is worshipped as the Supreme Being. Shakti embodies the active feminine energy of Shiva and is synonymously identified with Tripura Sundari or Parvati. David Kinsley mentions the "shakti" of Lord Indra's as Sachi. Indrani is part of a group of seven or eight mother goddesses called the Matrikas, who are considered shaktis of major Hindu gods.
The Shakti goddess is known as Amma in south India in the states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. There are many temples devoted to various incarnations of the Shakti goddess in most of the villages in South India; the rural people believe that Shakti is the protector of the village, the punisher of evil people, the curer of diseases, the one who gives welfare to the village. They celebrate Shakti Jataras with great interest once a year; some examples of Shakti incarnations are Mahalakshmi, Parvati, Bhuvaneshwari, Meenakshi, Yellamma and Perantalamma. One of the oldest representations of the goddess in India is in a triangular form; the Baghor stone, found in a Paleolithic context in the Son River valley and dating to 9,000–8,000 years BCE, is considered an early example of a yantra. Kenoyer, part of the team that excavated the stone, considered that it was probable that the stone is associated with Shakti. Shaktism regards Devi as the Supreme Brahman itself with all other forms of divinity considered to be Her diverse manifestations.
In the details of its philosophy and practice, Shaktism resembles Shaivism. However, practitioners of Shaktism, focus most or all worship on Shakti, as the dynamic feminine aspect of the Supreme Divine. Shiva, the masculine aspect of divinity, is considered transcendent, Shiva's worship is secondary. From Devi-Mahatmya: By you this universe is borne, By you this world is created, Oh Devi, by you it is protected. From Shaktisangama Tantra: Woman is the creator of the universe, the universe is her form. In woman is the form of all things, of all that lives and moves in the world. There is no jewel rarer than woman, no condition superior to that of a woman. Adi Parashakti, whose material manifestation is Parvati and Tripura Sundari, is a Hindu concept of the Ultimate Shakti or Mahashakti, the ultimate power inherent in all Creation; this is prevalent in the Shakta denomination within Hinduism, which worships the Goddess Devi in all her manifestations. Her human or Shakti Svarūpa, was married to Shiva, while her Gyān Svarūpa, weds Brahma and her Dhan Svarūpa, becomes the consort of Vishnu.
In the Smarta Advaita sect of Hinduism, Shakti is considered to be one of five equal personal forms of God in the panchadeva system advocated by Adi Shankara. According to some schools, there are four Adi Shakti Pitha and 51 Shakti centers of worship located in South Asia, they can be found in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. These are called Shakti Peethas; the list of locations varies. A accepted list of Shakti Peethas and their temple complexes includes: Hinglaj Mataji Balochistan Jwalaji Tara Tarini Katyayani Bhadrakali Kamakhya Kali at Kalighat Naina Devi Temple Guhyeshwari Temple Devi Ambaji Vishalakshi Temple Chandranath Temple Other pithas in Maharashtra are: Tuljapur Kolhapur vani-Nashik Mahurgadh There are many ancient Shakti devotional songs and vibrational chants in the Hindu and Sikh traditions; the recitation of the Sanskrit mantras is used to call upon the Divine Mother. Kundalini-Shakti-Bhakti Mantra Adi Shakti, Adi Shakti, Adi Shakti, Namo Namo! Sarab Shakti, Sarab Shakti, Sarab Shakti, Namo Namo!
Prithum Bhagvati, Prithum Bhagvati, Prithum Bhagvati, Namo Namo! Kundalini Mata Shakti, Mata Shakti, Namo Namo! Translation: Primal Shakti, I bow to Thee! All-Encompassing Shakti, I bow to Thee! That through which Divine Creates, I bow to Thee! Creative Power of the Kundalini, Mother of all Mother Power, To Thee I Bow!"Merge in the Maha Shakti. This is enough to take away your misfortune; this will carve out of you a woman. Woman needs her own Shakti, not anybody else will do it... When a woman chants the Kundalini Bhakti mantra, God clears the way; this is not a religion, it is a real
Lakulisha was a prominent Shaivite revivalist and preceptor of the doctrine of the Pashupatas, one of the oldest sects of Shaivism. According to some scholars, Lakulisha is the founder of the Pashupata sect. While, another section argues that the Pashupata doctrine was in existence before Lakulisha, he was only its first formal preceptor. According to a tradition stated in the Linga Purana, Lakulisha is considered as the 28th and the last avatar of Shiva and the propounder of Yoga system. According to the same tradition, Lakulisha had four disciples, viz. Kaurushya, Garga and Kushika. According to another tradition mentioned in the Avanti Khanda of the Skanda Purana and his four disciples while passing Mahakalavana, installed a linga at that place, known as Kayavarohaneshvara; the Kurma Purana, the Vayu Purana, the Linga Purana predicted that Shiva would appear in the form of a wandering monk called'Lakulin' or'Nakulisha', that he would have four disciples named, Garga and Kanrushya, who would re-establish the cult of Pashupati and would therefore be called Pashupata.
Lakulisha was the fruition of these divine predictions. According to Vayu Purana V. 1.23.202-214, Lakulisha was a contemporary of Vyasa and Krishna, was the 28th incarnation of Rudra. As per Alain Daniélou, Lakulisha was an ajivaka, who restored Shaivism, re-established the pre-Aryan Indus civilizational cults. Lakulisha united the different Shaivite sects that had survived in semi-secrecy for centuries under the name of the Pashupatas. Lakulisha propagated Saivism, it has been maintained that Lakulisha’s thesis conflicted with that of Gosala, Lakulisha opposed Jainism, most Buddhism. Lakulisha is said to have restored practices of Hatha Yoga and Tantrism and the cosmological theories of the Samkhya and the duality associated with Samkhya tenets. Around the 1st century CE, the Lakulisha cult was established with iconographic representation of Shiva appearing with a club. Two hundred years Lakulisha was accepted as an avatara of Shiva. A pillar erected by Chandragupta II at Mathura in 380 CE states that a ‘Guruvayatana’ was established by certain Uditacharya, 4th in descent from a teacher of Pashupata sect named Parashara, who in turn was 6th in descent from Kushika.
If this Kushika is one of the four disciples of Lakulisha as described in the Linga Purana, the latter must have existed around 125 CE. Renowned epigraphist John Faithfull Fleet contends that in the North India, the Kushana emperors like Huvishka replaced the pictures of Hercules on their coins with ones of Shiva, of Heracles with images of Lakulisha. In the 4th century CE, beginning with the reign of Chandragupta II, icons and representations of Lakulisha have been found, which portray him as a naked yogi with a staff in his left hand and a citron in his right, with his penis erect, either standing or seated in the lotus posture. At about the beginning of the 11th century, the Lakulisha cult shifted its activities to southern India. A sect of Pasupata ascetics, founded by Lakulisa, is attested by inscriptions from the 5th century and is among the earliest of the sectarian religious orders of Shaivite Hinduism. Author M. R. Sakhare argues in "The History and Philosophy of Lingayat Religion", the influence of Lakulisha was immense and spread first in the North and in the South of India.
The Shaivite revival, supported by the Bharashiva Nagas of Mathura and Vakataka dynasty in Central and Northern India spread in the south under the impetus of artisan class Shaiva mystics, the Nayanars. Lakulisha Pashupata has been identified as ‘Dualistic-cum-Non-dualistic Monism’ Shaivism, there was strong emphasis on Yoga system; the principal text of the Pashupata sect, the Pāśupata Sūtra is attributed to Lakulisha. The manuscripts of this text and a commentary of it, the Pañcārtha Bhāṣya by Kaundinya were discovered in 1930; the Pāśupata Sūtra formalizes various canons of the Pashupata sect, contains the basic theology of the sect. However, the authorship of Lakulisha over the Pashupata sutras have been a subject of debate; the Pashupata sutras do not bear the name of any author. Though certain traditions mention Lakulisha as the author, there is nothing to support this in the form of internal written evidence from the Sutras. Kaundinya’s commentary only states the following: "... Tatha shishta pramanyat kamitvad ajatatvach cha, Manushya-rupi bhagavan brahmana-kayam asthaya kayavatarane avatirna iti | Tatha padbhyam ujjayinim praptah.."
Meaning, Shiva incarnated in the form of a human being by entering the body of a deceased Brahmana in the Kayavatara, thereafter wandered to Ujjain. This account matches those narrated in the Puranas and the Karvana Mahatmya where Lakulisha incarnates in Kayavarohana village. However, unlike the latter accounts, the name Lakulisha is never mentioned though in the subsequent lines Kaundinya mentions that Shiva as the Brahmana imparted Shastra to the student Kushika. Only in subsequent Pashupata texts, Ratna Tika and Gana Karika, a clear mention of Lakulisha as the founder of the Pashupata system appears; this raises questions regarding Lakulisha being the actual composer of the Sutras. Notwithstanding, the authorship of the Sutras, the philosophica
Maya "illusion" or "magic", has multiple meanings in Indian philosophies depending on the context. In ancient Vedic literature, Māyā implies extraordinary power and wisdom. In Vedic texts and modern literature dedicated to Indian traditions, Māyā connotes a "magic show, an illusion where things appear to be present but are not what they seem". Māyā is a spiritual concept connoting "that which exists, but is changing and thus is spiritually unreal", the "power or the principle that conceals the true character of spiritual reality". In Buddhism, Maya is the name of Gautama Buddha's mother. In Hinduism, Maya is an epithet for goddess, the name of a manifestation of Lakshmi, the goddess of "wealth and love". Maya is a name for girls. Māyā is a word with unclear etymology comes from the root mā which means "to measure". According to Monier Williams, māyā meant "wisdom and extraordinary power" in an earlier older language, but from the Vedic period onwards, the word came to mean "illusion, deception, trick, sorcery and magic".
However, P. D. Shastri states that the Monier Williams' list is a "loose definition, misleading generalization", not accurate in interpreting ancient Vedic and medieval era Sanskrit texts. According to William Mahony, the root of the word may be man- or "to think", implying the role of imagination in the creation of the world. In early Vedic usage, the term implies, states Mahony, "the wondrous and mysterious power to turn an idea into a physical reality". Franklin Southworth states the word's origin is uncertain, other possible roots of māyā include may- meaning mystify, intoxicate, delude, as well as māy- which means "disappear, be lost". Jan Gonda considers the word related to mā, which means "mother", as do Tracy Pintchman and Adrian Snodgrass, serving as an epithet for goddesses such as Lakshmi. Maya here implies art, is the maker’s power, writes Zimmer, "a mother in all three worlds", a creatrix, her magic is the activity in the Will-spirit. A similar word is found in the Avestan māyā with the meaning of "magic power".
Words related to and containing Māyā, such as Mayava, occur many times in the Vedas. These words have various meanings, with interpretations that are contested, some are names of deities that do not appear in texts of 1st millennium BCE and later; the use of word Māyā in Rig veda, in the era context of "magic, power", occurs in many hymns. One titled Māyā-bheda includes hymns 10.177.1 through 10.177.3, as the battle unfolds between the good and the evil, as follows, The above Maya-bheda hymn discerns, using symbolic language, a contrast between mind influenced by light and magic. The hymn is a call to discern one's enemies, perceive artifice, distinguish, using one's mind, between that, perceived and that, unperceived. Rig veda does not connote the word Māyā as always good or always bad, it is a form of technique, mental power and means. Rig veda uses the word in two contexts, implying that there are two kinds of Māyā: divine Māyā and undivine Māyā, the former being the foundation of truth, the latter of falsehood.
Elsewhere in Vedic mythology, Indra uses Maya to conquer Vritra. Varuna's supernatural power is called Maya. Māyā, in such examples, connotes powerful magic, which both devas and asuras use against each other. In the Yajurveda, māyā is an unfathomable plan. In the Aitareya Brahmana Maya is referred to as Dirghajihvi, hostile to gods and sacrifices; the hymns in Book 8, Chapter 10 of Atharvaveda describe the primordial woman Virāj and how she willingly gave the knowledge of food, agriculture, water, knowledge, inspiration, charm, vice to gods, demons and living creatures, despite all of them making her life miserable. In hymns of 8.10.22, Virāj is used by Asuras who call her as Māyā, as follows, The contextual meaning of Maya in Atharvaveda is "power of creation", not illusion. Gonda suggests the central meaning of Maya in Vedic literature is, "wisdom and power enabling its possessor, or being able itself, to create, contrive, effect, or do something". Maya stands for anything that has real, material form, human or non-human, but that does not reveal the hidden principles and implicit knowledge that creates it.
An illustrative example of this in Rig veda VII.104.24 and Atharva veda VIII.4.24 where Indra is invoked against the Maya of sorcerers appearing in the illusory form – like a fata morgana – of animals to trick a person. The Upanishads describe the universe, the human experience, as an interplay of Purusha and Prakṛti; the former manifests itself as Ātman, the latter as Māyā. The Upanishads refer to the knowledge of Atman as "true knowledge", the knowledge of Maya as "not true knowledge". Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, states Ben-Ami Scharfstein, describes Maya as "the tendency to imagine something where it does not exist, for example, atman with the body". To the Upanishads, knowledge includes empirical knowledge and spiritual knowledge, complete knowing includes understanding the hidden principles that work, the realization of the soul of things. Hendrick Vroom explains, "The term Maya has been translated as'illusion,' but it does not concern normal illusion. Here'illusion' does not mean that the world is not real and a figment of t
Tantras refers to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. The religious culture of the Tantras is Hindu, Buddhist Tantric material can be shown to have been derived from Hindu sources, and although Hindu and Buddhist Tantra have many similarities from the outside, they do have some clear distinctions. The rest of this article deals with Hindu Tantra. Buddhist Tantra is described in the article on Vajrayana; the word tantra is made up by the joining of two Sanskrit words: rayati. Tantra means liberation of expansion of consciousness from its gross form, it is a method to expand the mind and liberate the dormant potential energy, its principles form the basis of all yogic practices. Hence, the Hindu Tantra scriptures refer to techniques for achieving a result; the Hindu Tantras total ninety-two scriptures. The latter two are used by the Śaiva Siddhāntins, thus are sometimes referred to as Shaiva Siddhanta Tantras, or Śaiva Siddhānta Āgamas.
In the Nāth Tradition, legend ascribes the origin of Tantra to Dattatreya, a semi-mythological yogi and the assumed author of the Jivanmukta Gita. Matsyendranath is credited with authorship of the Kaulajñāna-nirnāya, a voluminous ninth-century tantra dealing with a host of mystical and magical subjects; this work occupies an important position in the Hindu tantric lineage, as well as in Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism. In contradistinction to the Vaidik ritual, traditionally performed out-of-doors without any idols nor emblems, the Tantrik ritual is a matter of temples and idols; the Tantras are descriptions and specifications for the construction and maintenance of temple-structures together with their enclosed idols and lingas—an example of type of text is the Ajita Māhātantra. Another function was the conservation as state-secrets of texts for use by royalty to maintain their authority through rituals directed to deities controlling the political affairs-of-state—an example of this is the Śārada-tilaka Tantra.
Tantric texts are associated with a particular tradition and deity. The different types of Tantric literature are tantra, Āgama, saṃhitā, sūtra, upaniṣad, purāṇa, tīkā, prakaraṇa, paddhati texts, kavaca, nighaṇṭu, koṣa and hagiographical literature, they are written in regional languages. The major textual Tantra traditions with some key exemplary texts is as follows: Śaiva – Sadaśiva, Vāma or Tumburu, Dakṣiṇa or Bhairava Kularnava Tantra Amṛteṣaṭantra or Netratantra Netragyanarṇava tantra Niḥśvāsatattvasaṃhitā Kālottārā tantra Sarvajñānottārā Ṣaivāgamas Raudrāgamas Bhairavāgamas Vāma Āgamas Dakṣiṇāgamas Śivaśakti traditions – Yāmala Brahma yāmala Rudra yāmala Skanda yāmala Viṣṇu yāmala Yama yāmala Yāyu yāmala Kubera yāmala Indra yāmala Śākta – Kālī traditions, Śrīkula tradition Shakta Agamas Muṇḍamālātantra Toḍalatantra Cāmuṇḍatantra Devīyāmala Mādhavakula Yonigahavara, Kālīkulārṇava tantra Kaṇkālamālinī tantra Jhaṃkārakaravīra, Mahākālasaṃhitā Kālī tantra Kālajñāna tantra Kumārī tantra Toḍala tantra Siddhalaharī tantra Niruttārā tantra Kālīvilāsa tantra Utpatti tantra Kāmadhenu tantra Nirvāṇa tantra Kāmākhyā tantra Tārā tantra Kaula tantra Matsya Sūkta / Tārā Kalpa Samayā tantra Vāmakeshvara tantra Tantrajā tantra Yoginī tantra Kula - Kulamārga and Other tantras Kulārṇava tantra Mahānirvāṇa tantra Kulacūḍāmaṇitantra Kulārṇavatantra Guptasādhanatantra Mātṛkābhedatantra.
Vaiṣṇava – Vaikhanasas, bhakti-oriented tantras of Kṛṣṇa and Rāma Pāñcarātra saṃhitā texts Ahirbudhnya Saṃhitā Jayākhya saṃhitā Pārameśvara saṃhitā Pauśkara saṃhitā Pādma saṃhitā Nāradīya saṃhitā Haṃsaparameśvara saṃhitā Vaihāyasa saṃhitā Śrīkālapraā saṃhitā Vaikhānasa Āgamas Gautamīya tantra Bṛhadbrahmasaṃhitā Māheśvaratantra Sātvatatantra Rādhātantra Agastyasaṃhitā and Dāśarathīyatantra Īśānasaṃhitā and Ūrdhvāṃnāyasaṃhitā Mantra-śāstra - textbooks on Mantras, metaphysics of mantric sound, related practices and rituals Prapañcasāra tantra and its commentaries and Ṭīkās Śāradatilaka tantra by Lakṣmaṇa Deśikendra Mantramuktāvali of Paramahaṃsa Pūrṇaprakāśa Mantramahodadhi of Mahīdhara Mantradevaprakāśikā of Viṣṇudeva Mantrakamalākara of Kamalākara Bhaṭṭa Mantraratnākara of Yadunātha Cakravartin Mantramahārṇava of Mādhava Rāya Vaidya Tantrasāra of Kṛṣṇānanda āgamvāgiśa Nibandha - handbooks on ritual worship and puja Kriyākalpataru of śaktinātha Kalyānakara Kaulāvalīnirṇaya of Jñānānandagiri Paramahaṃsa śāktanandataraṃgiṇī of Brahmānanda Giri śāktakrama of Pūrṇānanda śrītattvacintāmaṇi of Pūrṇānanda āgamakalpadruma of Govinda āgamakalpalatikā of Yadunātha āgamatattvavilāsa of Raghunātha Tarkavāgīśa, āgamachandrikā of Rāmakṛṣṇa Tantrachintāmaṇi of Navamīsiṃha Prāṇatoṣiṇī of Rāmatoṣaṇa Vidyālaṃkāra Śhivarahasya Śaivakalpadruma Saura Tantras Ganapatya Tantras Others – supernatural, astrology, etc.
Most Hindu Tantras remain untranslated. One translated exception is the Vijñāna Bhairava Tantra, which according to Christopher Wallis, is atypical of most Tantric scriptures. Sir John Woodroffe translated the Tantra of the Great Liberation into English along with other Tantric texts. Other tantras which have b
Vīrabhadra known as Veerabathira, Veeraputhiran is an fierce and fearsome form of the Hindu god Shiva. He was created by the wrath of Shiva and destroyed the Yagna of Daksha, after Daksha's daughter and Shiva's consort Sati self-immolated in the sacrificial fire, he is described as a warrior who blinded Bhaga, subdued Indra and broke, among many other countless gods, Pushan's teeth. Other gods fled the battlefield unable to sustain his power. Sati was the youngest daughter of Daksha. While growing up, she worshipped him. In the Swayamvara of Sati, Daksha invited all the princes except Shiva. Sati cast her garland into air, calling upon Shiva to receive it, behold he stood in the midst of the court with the garland about his neck. Daksha had no choice. One day, Daksha invited all the devas in order to perform a great horse sacrifice called the Ashwamegh yagna, omitting only Shiva. Sati's urge to attend the event, due to her affection towards her parents, overpowered the social etiquette of not going to an uninvited ceremony.
Angered after hearing insults against her husband, she set. The site where Sati had died on became known as "Jwalamukhi devi"; when Shiva came to know about what had happened, with deep sorrow and anger, he plucked a lock from his hair and thrashed it on the ground. Both Veerabhadra and Rudrakali were born from it; the former is believed to be the destroyer of Agnana: born with a tall, muscular body reaching the higher heavens, he was as dark as the stormy clouds, with three burning eyes and fiery hair. He wore a garland of skulls and carried terrible weapons. To provide him the power, arrived Bhadrakali, a wrathful incarnation of Devi. Maheshwara replied,'Spoil the sacrifice of Daksha'; the mighty Virabhadra, having heard the pleasure of his lord, bowed down his head to the feet of Shiva. She too in her wrath, as the fearful goddess Rudrakali, accompanied him, with all her train, to witness his deeds. Shiva directed Virabhadra: "Lead my army against Daksha and destroy his sacrifice". On this direction of Shiva, Virabhadra appeared with Shiva's ganas in the midst of Daksha's assembly like a storm and broke the sacrificial vessels, polluted the offerings, insulted the Brahmin priests, trampled on Indra, broke the staff of Yama and scattered the gods on every side.
Lord Vishnu could not let his devotee - Daksha be mortified by Virabhadra. He therefore got astride his Garuda, armed as he was with Conch and Bow and Arrows, rushed out to give battle to Veerabhadra to the great joy of all the scared assembly of victims, he rained powerful arrows at his foe from all directions. Angered all the more by this quite unexpected attack, Veerabhadra climbed a chariot and retaliated by sending fiery arrows in the direction of Vishnu, thus started, they went on exchanging many a mighty astra and sastra as though two wild and mad elephants were at war. Both used celestial weapons - one upon the other. Both were matched and both were adept and quick with their hands and weapons in offensive and defensive. Keenly watching the fierce duel and thinking that Veerabhadra might come out victorious, Brahma decided to become the charioteer of Veerabhadra. Taking charge of the chariot he steered it so skillfully that Veerabhadra, though angry at first, soon became reconciled and appreciative on beholding the expert manner in which Brahma conducted the many intricate manoeuvres of the chariot.
Continuing the duel, Veerabhadra showered multiple weapons of tremendous power at Vishnu who retaliated with equal might. Thus proceeded a long-drawn-out battle between Hari and a manifestation of Hara, filling the three worlds with amazement; the firmament reverberated with lightning. At last, discovering that it was impossible to subdue Veerabhadra by any ordinary methods, Vishnu decided to take his life once and for all by using his invincible Discus-Sudrasana - feared in all the worlds for its efficacy. So, twirling it around his right index finger, he let loose the mighty Sudarsana and it roared into the intervening space with such tremendous momentum and acceleration that it flew cleaving the air with incandescent jets of flame spouting off tangentially from its thousand revolving teeth. Seeing Vishnu's Discus approaching him thus, Veerabhadra coolly opened his vast mouth and swallowed it at one gulp. Lord Vishnu was filled with admiration for Veerabhadra, he flew to his side in great ecstasy and praised his erstwhile opponent thus: " 0 Veerabhadra Mahavira!
There is none to equal you here nor in the seven worlds! None can now stop you from punishing the wicked Daksha. You were born of the body of Shiva himself to punish these evildoers. Who is there to stand equal to you in might and strength, when my invincible discus-which is capable of powdering a diamond-hard mountain - has not made a scratch on you! It has disappeared into your body now, seems as though it had never existed! It is a wonder h