The Frontier Constabulary is the 2nd largest and one of the most vital paramilitary forces in Pakistan, responsible for maintaining law and order in Pakistan and dealing with situations out of the capabilities of Normal Police Force of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It was founded in the British Indian Empire, in 1913 it was named after the former North-West Frontier Province; the current Commandant FC/Inspector General FC is Moazzam Jah Ansari The Frontier Constabulary is a federal paramilitary police force of Pakistan, drawn from the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province, but operates in all the provinces of Pakistan. The Frontier Constabulary was created by amalgamating Border Military Police and Samana Rifles in 1913. Both of the forces were guarding the border between the settled areas of NWFP and Tribal areas. Frontier Constabulary’s main function is to police the border of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Tribal areas against tribal incursions, criminal gangs operating across the border and to check the smuggling of contraband items.
The Frontier Constabulary is commanded by senior police officers. It settled districts; this used to be known as Border Militia and this is now known as militia by the common people. They are liable to home services only and in case of emergency, assist the regular army in operations. Frontier Constabulary was created as an independent Civil Armed Force, under the provisions of Frontier Constabulary Act, 1915. Under this Act, Frontier Constabulary Rules 1958 were framed; this force is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Interior. From an operational point of view, the functioning of this force is supervised by the Home departments of the respective provincial governments; the Frontier Constabulary, an armed police force operates in a small area bordering FATA and the settled districts. The KPK police does not have jurisdiction over the Frontier Regions, it was aimed at stopping incursions and raids from the tribal areas. Now, its original function has been overshadowed by an increasing involvement in the internal security duties and protection of vital installation as well as embassies.
The Frontier Constabulary is headed by the Commandant, the equivalent of Inspector General of Police and is popularly referred to as the CFC. The Deputy Commandant is equivalent of Deputy Inspector General of Police; the senior hierarchy of FC is drawn from the Police Service of Pakistan. FC accomplishes its basic function by dividing the area of responsibility into F. C districts which in turn have an intricate network of Forts and Pickets located strategically along the tribal settled border. With the passage of time, additional duties assigned to FC, the geographical area covered by FC increased. At present there are 17 FC districts stretching from Gilgit in the extreme north to Karachi in the extreme South of the country, thus in all the provinces of Pakistan, except Punjab, FC is performing its duties. However, various FC platoons have been deployed in Punjab for the security of sensitive installations and VVIPs. Following are some major duties which are assigned to Frontier Constabulary: To guard the border between tribal and settled area.
To stop tribal incursions in individual cases or in the form of gangs. To check outlaws and their evil designs in the area. To stop kidnapping and checking on tribal disputes on the administrative borders. To act as a second line of defense in times of grave emergency. To assist the local administration in times of need. To control and eliminate poppy cultivation and growth. To check trafficking of narcotics, illegal weapons and smuggling. To perform any other duties assigned by the government. FC Shabqadar. Located 40 km North of Peshawar created in 1922. Capacity 700 recruits. FC Hayatabad. Located 15 km West of Peshawar. Created in 1985 but Training facility started in 2009 due to occupation of FC Training Centre Swat at Kanju by Army. Capacity 500 recruits. R. C Boyle ESQ C. I. E E. C Handyside ESQ, C. I. E OBE A. F Perrott ESQ, LP AV Short ESQ, CIE B. C. A Lawather ESQ. I. P H. Lillie ESQ AV Short ESQ, CIE K. B. T Mohammad Khan B. A. I. P G. Gilbert Grace, ESQ, C. I. E. OBE. H. F Scroggie ESQ, OBE S. A Rashid OBE, P.
S. C. A. B Awan Esq, PSP Nawabzada Mohammad Farid Khan PSP Mohammad Anwar Afridi PSP Pir Sarwar Shah B. A. LLB. P. S. C. Muzaffar Khan Bangash, TQA, PPM, PSC Shafi Ullah Khan PSP Mohammad Jaseem Khan Dil Jan Khan S. B. T Syed Saadat Ali Shah Muhammad Abbas Khan Gohar Zaman Khan Mohmand Muhammad Aziz Khan M. Saeed Khan Afzal Ali Shigri Syed Kamal Shah Muhammad Aziz Khan M. Saeed Khan Syed Kamal Shah Israr Mohammad Khan Shinwari Sikandar Mohammadzai Malik Naveed Khan Zafarullah Khan PSP, PPM Safwat Ghayur PSP, SJ Akbar Khan Hoti PSP Abdul Majeed Khan Marwat PSP Liaqat Ali Khan PSP, Moazzam Jah Ansari PSP, QPM, UNPM Mr. A B Awan Mr. Mohammad Anwar Khan Afridi Safwat Ghayur Mr. Dil Jan Khan Mr. Muhammad Abbas Khan Mr. Moazzam Jah Ansari Frontier Constabulary official page National Police Academy, Government of Pakistan PSP Association
The Kargil War known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control. In India, the conflict is referred to as Operation Vijay, the name of the Indian operation to clear the Kargil sector; the cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers disguised as Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the LOC, which serves as the de facto border between the two states. During the initial stages of the war, Pakistan blamed the fighting on independent Kashmiri insurgents, but documents left behind by casualties and statements by Pakistan's Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff showed involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces, led by General Ashraf Rashid; the Indian Army supported by the Indian Air Force, recaptured a majority of the positions on the Indian side of the LOC infiltrated by the Pakistani troops and militants. Facing international diplomatic opposition, the Pakistani forces withdrew from the remaining Indian positions along the LOC.
The war is one of the most recent examples of high-altitude warfare in mountainous terrain, which posed significant logistical problems for the combating sides. It is one of the few instances of direct, conventional warfare between nuclear states. India had conducted its first successful test in 1974. Before the Partition of India in 1947, Kargil was a tehsil of the Ladakh district, a sparsely populated region with diverse linguistic and religious groups, living in isolated valleys separated by some of the world's highest mountains; the First Kashmir War concluded with the LOC bisecting the Ladakh district, with the Skardu tehsil going to Pakistan. After Pakistan's defeat in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the two nations signed the Simla Agreement promising not to engage in armed conflict with respect to that boundary; the town of Kargil is located 205 km from Srinagar, facing the Northern Areas across the LOC. Like other areas in the Himalayas, Kargil has a continental climate. Summers are cool with frigid nights, while winters are long and chilly with temperatures dropping to −48 °C.
An Indian national highway connecting Srinagar to Leh cuts through Kargil. The area that witnessed the infiltration and fighting is a 160-kilometre long stretch of ridges overlooking this only road linking Srinagar and Leh; the military outposts on the ridges above the highway were around 5,000 m high, with a few as high as 5,485 m. Apart from the district capital, the populated areas near the front line in the conflict included the Mushko Valley and the town of Drass, southwest of Kargil, as well as the Batalik sector and other areas, northeast of Kargil. Kargil was targeted because the terrain was conducive to the preemptive seizure of several unoccupied military positions. With tactically vital features and well-prepared defensive posts atop the peaks, a defender on the high ground would enjoy advantages akin to a fortress. Any attack to dislodge a defender from high ground in mountain warfare requires a far higher ratio of attackers to defenders, the difficulties would be exacerbated by the high altitude and freezing temperatures.
Kargil is just 173 km from the Pakistani-controlled town of Skardu, capable of providing logistical and artillery support to Pakistani combatants. A road between Kargil and Skardu exists, closed in 1949. After the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, there had been a long period with few direct armed conflicts involving the military forces of the two neighbours – notwithstanding the efforts of both nations to control the Siachen Glacier by establishing military outposts on the surrounding mountains ridges and the resulting military skirmishes in the 1980s. During the 1990s, escalating tensions and conflict due to separatist activities in Kashmir, some of which were supported by Pakistan, as well as the conducting of nuclear tests by both countries in 1998, led to an belligerent atmosphere. In an attempt to defuse the situation, both countries signed the Lahore Declaration in February 1999, promising to provide a peaceful and bilateral solution to the Kashmir conflict. During the winter of 1998–1999, some elements of the Pakistani Armed Forces were covertly training and sending Pakistani troops and paramilitary forces, some in the guise of mujahideen, into territory on the Indian side of the LOC.
The infiltration was codenamed "Operation Badr". Pakistan believed that any tension in the region would internationalise the Kashmir issue, helping it to secure a speedy resolution, yet another goal may have been to boost the morale of the decade-long rebellion in Indian Administered Kashmir by taking a proactive role. Pakistani Lieutenant general Shahid Aziz, head of ISI analysis wing, has confirmed there were no mujahideen but only regular Pakistan Army soldiers who took part in the Kargil War. "There were only taped wireless messages, which fooled no one. Our soldiers were made to occupy barren ridges, with hand held weapons and ammunition", Lt Gen Aziz wrote in his article in The Nation daily in January 2013; some writers have spe
Peshawar is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Situated in the broad Valley of Peshawar near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan, Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 BCE, making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest cities in the world. Peshawar was the capital of the ancient Kushan Empire, was home to what may have been the tallest building in the ancient world, the Kanishka stupa. Peshawar was sacked by the White Huns, before the arrival of Muslim empires; the city was an important trading centre during the Mughal era before serving as the winter capital of the Afghan Durrani Empire from 1757 until the city was captured by the Sikhs in 1818, who were followed by the British in 1849. The city of Peshawar has a population of 1,970,042 according to the 2017 census, making it the largest city in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the sixth-largest in Pakistan, while Peshawar District has a population of 4,269,079.
The current name "Peshawar" is derived from the former Sanskrit name of Purushapura. The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi noted that by the mid 10th century, the city had become known as Parashāwar. After the Ghaznavid invasion, the name was again noted to be Parashāwar by Al-Biruni; the city began to be known as Peshāwar by the era of Emperor Akbar. The current name is said by some to have been based upon the Persian for "frontier town" or, more "forward city," though transcription errors and linguistic shifts may account for the city's new name. Akbar's bibliographer, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, lists the city's name by both its former name Parashāwar, transcribed in Persian as پَرَشَاوَر, Peshāwar. Peshawar was founded as the ancient city of Puruṣapura, on the Gandhara Plains in the broad Valley of Peshawar; the city first existed as a small village in the 5th century BCE, within the cultural sphere of eastern ancient Persia. Puruṣapura was founded near the ancient Gandharan capital city of Pushkalavati, near present-day Charsadda.
In the winter of 327–26 BCE, Alexander the Great subdued the Valley of Peshawar during his invasion of ancient India, as well as the nearby Swat and Buner valleys. Following Alexander's conquest, the Valley of Peshawar came under suzerainty of Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Empire. A locally-made vase fragment, found in Peshawar depicts a scene from Sophocles' play Antigone. Following the Seleucid–Mauryan war, the region was ceded to the Mauryan Empire in 303 BCE. Around 300 BCE, the Greek diplomat and historian Megasthenes noted that ancient Peshawar was the western terminus of a Mauryan road that connected the city to the empire's capital at Pataliputra, near the city of Patna in the modern-day Indian state of Bihar; as Mauryan power declined, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom based in modern Afghanistan declared its independence from the Seleucid Empire, seized ancient Peshawar around 190 BCE. The city was ruled by several Iranic Parthian kingdoms; the city was captured by Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom.
Gondophares established the nearby Takht-i-Bahi monastery in 46 CE. In the first century of the Common era, ancient Peshawar came under control of Kujula Kadphises, founder of the Kushan Empire; the city was made the empire's winter capital. The Kushan's summer capital at Kapisi was seen as the secondary capital of the empire, while Puruṣapura was considered to be the empire's primary capital. Ancient Peshawar's population was estimated to be 120,000, which would make it the seventh-most populous city in the world at the time. Around 128 CE, ancient Peshawar was made sole capital of the Kushan Empire under the rule of Kanishka; as a devout Buddhist, the emperor built the grand Kanishka Mahavihara monastery. After his death the magnificent Kanishka stupa was built in Peshawar to house Buddhist relics; the golden age of the Kushan empire in Peshawar ended in 232 CE with the death of the last great Kushan king, Vasudeva I. Around 260 CE, the armies of the Sasanid Emperor Shapur I launched an attack against Peshawar, damage Buddhist monuments and monasteries throughout the Valley of Peshawar.
Shapur's campaign resulted in damage to the city's monumental stupa and monastery. The Kushans were made subordinate to the Sasanids, their power dwindled, as the Sasanids blocked lucrative trade routes westward out of Puruṣapura. Kushan Emperor Kanishka III was able to temporarily reestablish control over the entire Valley of Peshawar after Shapur's invasion, but the city was captured by the Central Asian Kidarite kingdom in the early 400s CE; the White Huns devastated ancient Peshawar in the 460s CE, ravaged the entire region of Gandhara, destroying its numerous monasteries. The Kanishka stupa was rebuilt during the White Hun era with the construction of a tall wooden superstructure, built atop a stone base, crowned with a 13-layer copper-gilded chatra. In the 400s CE, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian visited the structure and described it as "the highest of all the towers" in the "terrestrial world", which ancient travelers claimed was up to 560 feet tall, though modern estimates suggest a height of 400 feet.
In 520 CE the Chinese monk Song Yun visited Gandhara and ancient Peshawar during the White Hun era, noted that it was in conflict with nearby Kapisa. The Chinese monk and traveler Xuanzang visited ancient Peshawar around 630 CE, after Kapisa victory, expressed lament that the city and its great Buddhist monuments had decayed to ruin—although some monks studying Hinayana Buddhism continued to study at the monastery's ruins
Quetta is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan. Quetta was destroyed in the 1935 Quetta earthquake, but was rebuilt and now has a population of 1,001,205 as of 2017, while the Quetta District has a population of 2,275,699. Quetta is at an average elevation of 1,680 metres above sea level, making it Pakistan's only high-altitude major city; the city is known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan," due to the numerous fruit orchards in and around it, the large variety of fruits and dry fruits produced there. Located in northern Balochistan near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, Quetta is a trade and communication centre between the two countries; the city is near the Bolan Pass route, once one of the major gateways from Central Asia to South Asia. Quetta played an important role militarily for the Pakistani Armed Forces in the intermittent Afghanistan conflict. Quetta, a variation of Kōṭ, is a Pashto word meaning "fortress"; the immediate area has long been one of pastures and mountains, with varied plants and animals relative to the dry plains to the west.
The first record of Quetta is from 11th century CE, when it was captured by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi during his invasion of South Asia. In 1543, Mughal emperor Humayun came to Quetta en route to Safavid Persia, leaving his son and future Mughal emperor Akbar here. In 1709, the region was a part of Afghan Hotak dynasty and stayed a part until 1747 when Ahmed Shah Durrani conquered it and made it a part of Durrani Empire. First European visited Quetta in 1828, describing it as mud-walled fort surrounded by three hundred mud houses. In 1876 Quetta subsequently incorporated into British India. British General John Jacob in 1856 had urged his government to occupy Quetta given its strategic position on the western frontier. British Troops constructed the infrastructure for their establishment as it was a strategic location. By the time of the earthquake on 31 May 1935, Quetta had developed into a bustling city with a number of multistory buildings and was known as "Little London" because of that; the epicenter of the earthquake was close to the city and destroyed most of the city's infrastructure, killing an estimated 40,000 people.
Quetta has a semi-arid climate with a significant variation between winter temperatures. Summer starts about late May and goes on until early September with average temperatures ranging from 24–26 °C; the highest temperature in Quetta is 42 °C, recorded on 10 July 1998. Autumn starts in late September and continues until mid-November with average temperatures in the 12–18 °C range. Winter starts in late November and ends in late March, with average temperatures near 4–5 °C; the lowest temperature in Quetta is −18.3 °C, recorded on 8 January 1970. Spring starts in early April and ends in late May, with average temperatures close to 15 °C. Unlike more easterly parts of Pakistan, Quetta does not have a monsoon season of heavy rainfall. Highest rainfall during 24 hours in Quetta is 113 millimetres, recorded on 17 December 2000, Highest monthly rainfall is 232.4 millimetres, recorded in March 1982 the year of the highest annual rainfall, at 949.8 millimetres. In the winter, snowfall has become quite erratic.
The city saw a severe drought from 1999 to 2001, during which the city did not receive snowfall and below normal rains. In 2003 the city received snowfall after a hiatus of five years. In 2004, 2005 the city received normal rains after three years without snowfall while in 2006, 2007 and 2009 the city received no snow except in 2008 when Quetta received a snowfall of 10 centimetres in four hours on 29 January, followed on 2 February by 25.4 centimetres in 10 hours – the city's heaviest snowfall in a decade. During the winter of 2010 it received no snow and saw below normal rains due to the presence of El-Nino over Pakistan; the population of the city is around one million. In 2016, it was estimated at 1,140,000, but the 2017 Census revealed a total of 1,001,205; this makes it the largest city in Balochistan one of the major cities of Pakistan. The scholars disagree about the demographics of the city. According to some, the city has a Pashtun plurality followed by Baloch people, other indigenous people of Balochistan, lastly the settlers from other areas of Pakistan.
Others think the city has a Pashtun majority followed by Balochs, Hazaras and Muhajir people. Urdu being national language is used and understood by all the residents and serves as a lingua franca. According to Reuters and the BBC, there are as many as 500,000-600,000 Shia Hazaras living in Quetta and its surrounding areas. At the local government level, the city is governed by a municipal corporation consisting of 66 ward members which elects a mayor and a deputy mayor. Quetta is on the western side of Pakistan and is connected to the rest of the country by a network of roads and its international airport close to its center. At an altitude of 1,605 metres above sea level, Quetta Airport is the second highest airport in Pakistan. Pakistan International Airlines has regular flights to and from the other major cities of Pakistan including Islamabad, Karachi and Peshawar. Quetta Railway Station is one of the highest railway stations in Pakistan at 1,676 metres above sea level; the railway track was laid in the 1890s during the British era to link Quetta with rest of the country.
The extensive network of Pakistan Railways connects Quetta to Karachi in th
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, training and function are similar to those of a professional military, but, formally not part of a government's armed forces. Under the law of war, a state may incorporate a paramilitary organization or armed agency into its combatant armed forces; the other parties to a conflict have to be notified thereof. Though a paramilitary is not a military force, it is equivalent to a military's light infantry force in terms of intensity and organizational structure. A paramilitary may commonly fall under the command of a military despite not being part of the military or play an assisting role for the military in times of war. Depending on the definition adopted, "paramilitaries" may include: Irregular military forces: militias, insurgents, etc; the auxiliary forces of a state's military: national guard, presidential guard, republican guard, state defense force, home guard, royal guard, imperial guard Some police forces or auxiliary police: Indonesia's Mobile Brigade Corps, Detachment 88, India's Assam Rifles, Central Reserve Police Force, Border Security Force, etc.
Semi-militarized law enforcement personnel within normal police forces, such as SWAT teams in the United States and a number of other countries Gendarmeries, such as Egyptian Central Security Forces and Russia's National Guard Border guards, such as Russia's Border Guard Service, Australian Border Force, India's Border Security Force The United States' Federal Protective Forces Security forces of ambiguous military status: internal troops, railroad guards, or railway troops Volunteer Defence Corps, such as Volunteer Defence Corps in Thailand, Volunteer Defence Corps in Australia, Shanghai Volunteer Corps, Royal Hong Kong Regiment The fire departments of many countries and locales, although unarmed, are organized in a manner similar to military or police forces. List of paramilitary organizations List of defunct paramilitary organizations Category:Rebel militia groups Weimar paramilitary groups List of Serbian paramilitary formations Militarization of police Panamanian Public Forces Fourth-generation warfare Private army Private Military Companies Death squad Violent non-state actor List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel Golkar, Saeid.
Paramilitarization of the Economy: the Case of Iran's Basij Militia, Armed Forces & Society, Vol. 38, No. 4 Golkar, Saeid.. Organization of the Oppressed or Organization for Oppressing: Analysing the Role of the Basij Militia of Iran. Politics, Religion & Ideology, Dec. 37–41. Doi:10.1080/21567689.2012.725661 Mexico's Plan to Create a Paramilitary Force Global Security
Islamabad is the capital city of Pakistan, is federally administered as part of the Islamabad Capital Territory. Built as a planned city in the 1960s to replace Karachi as Pakistan's capital, Islamabad is noted for its high standards of living and abundant greenery. With a population of 1,014,825 as per the 2017 Census, Islamabad is the 9th largest city in Pakistan, while the larger Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area is the country's third largest with a population exceeding four million; the city is the political seat of Pakistan and is administered by the Islamabad Metropolitan Corporation, supported by the Capital Development Authority. Islamabad is located in the Pothohar Plateau in the northeastern part of the country, between Rawalpindi District and the Margalla Hills National Park to the north; the region has been a part of the crossroads of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with the Margalla Pass acting as the gateway between the two regions. The city's master-plan, designed by Greek architect Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis, divides the city into eight zones, including administrative, diplomatic enclave, residential areas, educational sectors, industrial sectors, commercial areas, rural and green areas.
The city is known for the presence of several parks and forests, including the Margalla Hills National Park and Shakarparian Park. The city is home to several landmarks, including the Faisal Mosque, the largest mosque in South Asia and the fourth largest in the world. Other landmarks include Democracy Square. Islamabad is a beta-world city; the city has the highest cost of living in Pakistan, its population is dominated by middle and upper middle class citizens. The city is home to twenty universities, including the Quaid-e-Azam University, PIEAS, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology and NUST; the city is one of the safest in Pakistan, has an expansive surveillance system with 1,900 CCTV cameras. The name of the city, Islamabad, is derived from two words and abad, meaning "City of Islam". Islam is an urdu word which refers to the religion of Islam and -abad is a Persian suffix indicating an inhabited place or city; the name is influenced from the Mughal name for the port city of Chittagong known as Islamabad.
Islamabad Capital Territory, located on the Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab region, is considered one of the earliest sites of human settlement in Asia. Some of the earliest Stone Age artefacts in the world have been found on the plateau, dating from 100,000 to 500,000 years ago. Rudimentary stones recovered from the terraces of the Soan River testify to the endeavours of early man in the inter-glacial period. Items of pottery and utensils dating back to prehistory have been found. Excavations by Dr. Abdul Ghafoor Lone reveal evidence of a prehistoric culture in the area. Relics and human skulls have been found dating back to 5000 BCE that indicate the region was home to Neolithic peoples who settled on the banks of the Swaan River, who developed small communities in the region around 3000 BCE; the Indus Valley Civilization flourished in the region between the 23rd and 18th centuries BCE. The area was an early settlement of the Aryan community which migrated into the region from Central Asia. Many great armies such as those of Zahiruddin Babur, Genghis Khan and Ahmad Shah Durrani crossed the region during their invasions of the Indian Subcontinent.
In 2015-16, the Federal Department of Archaeology and Museums, with the financial support of National Fund for Cultural Heritage, carried out initial archaeological excavations in which unearthed the remains of a Buddhist stupa at Ban Faqiran, near the Shah Allah Ditta caves, dated to the 2nd to the 5th century CE. When Pakistan gained independence in 1947, the southern port city of Karachi was its first national capital. In the 1960s, Islamabad was constructed as a forward capital for several reasons. Traditionally, development in Pakistan was focused on the colonial centre of Karachi - a tradition which President Ayub Khan wished to abolish. Karachi was located at the southern end of the country, exposed to attacks from the Arabian Sea. Pakistan needed a capital, accessible from all parts of the country. Karachi, a business centre, was considered unsuitable because of intervention of business interests in government affairs; the newly selected location of Islamabad was closer to the army headquarters in Rawalpindi and the disputed territory of Kashmir in the north.
In 1958, a commission was constituted to select a suitable site for the national capital with particular emphasis on location, climate and defence requirements, along with other attributes. After extensive study, a thorough review of potential sites, the commission recommended the area northeast of Rawalpindi in 1959. A Greek firm of architects, led by Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis, designed the master plan of the city based on a grid plan, triangular in shape with its apex towards the Margalla Hills; the capital was not moved directly from Karachi to Islamabad. Islamabad has attracted people from all over Pakistan, making it one of the most cosmopolitan and urbanised cities of Pakistan; as the capital city it has hosted a number of important meetings, such as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation summit. In October 2005, the city suffered damage due to the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which had a magnitude of 7.6. Isla
Drug Enforcement Administration
The Drug Enforcement Administration is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and distribution within the United States. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act, sharing concurrent jurisdiction with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Customs Enforcement, U. S. Customs and Border Protection, the Department of Homeland Security, it has sole responsibility for coordinating and pursuing US drug investigations both domestic and abroad. The Drug Enforcement Administration was established on July 1, 1973, by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1973, signed by President Richard Nixon on July 28. It proposed the creation of a single federal agency to enforce the federal drug laws as well as consolidate and coordinate the government's drug control activities. Congress accepted the proposal; as a result, the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement.
From the early 1970s, DEA headquarters was located at 1405 I Street NW in downtown Washington, D. C. With the overall growth of the agency in the 1980s and a concurrent growth in the headquarters staff, DEA began to search for a new headquarters location. However, then-Attorney General Edwin Meese determined that the headquarters had to be located in close proximity to the Attorney General's office. Thus, in 1989, the headquarters relocated to 600–700 Army-Navy Drive in the Pentagon City area of Arlington, near the Metro station with the same name. On April 19, 1995, Timothy McVeigh attacked the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City because it housed regional offices for the FBI, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, DEA, all of which had carried out raids that he viewed as unjustified intrusions on the rights of the people. Subsequently, the DEA headquarters complex was classified as a Level IV installation under United States federal building security standards, meaning it was to be considered a high-risk law enforcement target for terrorists.
Security measures include hydraulic steel roadplates to enforce standoff distance from the building, metal detectors, guard stations. In February 2003, the DEA established a Digital Evidence Laboratory within its Office of Forensic Sciences; the DEA is headed by an Administrator of Drug Enforcement appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the U. S. Senate; the Administrator reports to the Attorney General through the Deputy Attorney General. The Administrator is assisted by a Deputy Administrator, the Chief of Operations, the Chief Inspector, three Assistant Administrators. Other senior staff include the Chief Counsel; the Administrator and Deputy Administrator are the only presidentially-appointed personnel in the DEA. DEA's headquarters is located in Virginia across from the Pentagon, it maintains its own DEA Academy located on the Marine Corps Base Quantico at Quantico, Virginia along with the FBI Academy. It maintains 21 domestic field divisions with 221 field offices and 92 foreign offices in 70 countries.
With a budget exceeding $2 billion, DEA employs over 10,800 people, including over 4,600 Special Agents and 800 Intelligence Analysts. Becoming a Special Agent or Intelligence Analyst with the DEA is a competitive process. Administrator Deputy Administrator Human Resource Division Career Board Board of Professional Conduct Office of Training Operations Division Aviation Division Office of Operations Management Special Operations Division Office of Diversion Control Office of Global Enforcement Office of Financial Operations Intelligence Division Office of National Security Intelligence Office of Strategic Intelligence Office of Special Intelligence El Paso Intelligence Center OCDETF Fusion Center Financial Management Division Office of Acquisition and Relocation Management Office of Finance Office of Resource Management Operational Support Division Office of Administration Office of Information System Office of Forensic Science Office of Investigative Technology Inspection Division Office of Inspections Office of Professional Responsibility Office of Security Programs Field Divisions and Offices As of 2017 there were 4,650 special agents employed by the Drug Enforcement Administration.
DEA agents' starting salary is $49,746–$55,483. After four years working as an agent, the salary jumps to above $92,592. After receiving a conditional offer of employment, recruits must complete a 18-week rigorous training which includes lessons in firearms proficiency, weapons safety, tactical shooting, deadly-force decision training. In order to graduate, students must maintain an academic average of 80 percent on academic examinations, pass the firearms-qualification test demonstrate leadership and sound decision-making in practical scenarios, pass rigorous physical-task tests. Upon graduation, recruits earn the title of DEA Special Agent; the DEA excludes from consideration job applicants who have a history of any use of narcotics or illicit drugs. Investigation incl