DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
S. D. Bob "Snake" Plissken is an anti-hero and main protagonist of the films Escape from New York and Escape from L. A.. He is portrayed by Kurt Russell, created by director John Carpenter and screenwriter Nick Castle. An anti-hero, he is a former Special Forces operator/war hero in World War III turned criminal; the movies follow his apprehension by the United States Police Force and subsequent conscription to extract top-secret material from New York City and Los Angeles — which have, in this dystopian setting, been converted into maximum-security prisons. Snake Plissken is a former U. S. Army Lieutenant, serving under Special Forces Unit "Black Light" stated by Hauk in Escape from New York, with two Purple Hearts, the youngest soldier to be decorated by the U. S. President for bravery during campaigns in Leningrad and Siberia in World War III against the Former Soviet Alliances and Eurasian United War Union; some time he turned to a life of crime due to the perceived betrayal of the United States government during the "Leningrad Ruse" and when his parents were burned alive in their home by the United States Police Force—events described in the Escape from New York novelization by Mike McQuay.
He traveled with only friend, Bill Taylor. Snake took up with partners Harold Fresno Bob. In Kansas City around 1993, Hellman let Plissken and Fresno Bob get cornered by police, at which time Fresno Bob was brutally tortured and killed by sadistic law enforcers within the United States Police Force; as a result of the Kansas City incident, it was believed in the criminal community that Plissken was dead. This is a running gag in Escape from New York: "I heard you were dead". In Escape from L. A. the recurring joke is changed to "I thought you'd be taller." Plissken has a tattoo of a cobra on his abdomen. He is a practitioner of several styles of martial arts that include Karate, Kung-Fu, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Krav Maga and Jeet Kune Do. Snake is shown as being cynical, most due to the hypocrisy of the U. S. government, appears to be willing to do anything to survive. He is stated by others to be somewhat of a misanthropist, he is terse, stern in his speech, of few words, holds nothing sacred or important.
He does however hold a loose code of honor. He shows coolness and level-headed thinking under stressful situations. Although he will kill without remorse or hesitation, he does not kill for fun or when it is unnecessary, he is known for his quick wit and gallows humor. Snake was arrested in 1997 after breaking into the U. S. Federal Reserve in Denver, Colorado, he was sentenced to life in New York maximum security prison —that is, the entire island of Manhattan, surrounded by an impenetrable wall, abandoned to fall into anarchy. At this time, Air Force One was hijacked and crashed into Manhattan, the President, played by Donald Pleasence, was captured by the "Duke of New York", the de facto leader of the prisoners. Bob Hauk, the New York Police Commissioner, offered Snake a full pardon for every criminal action he had committed in the United States if he would go in and rescue the President; the President carried technical information that would allow the United States to be the dominant world power, but in 24 hours it would become useless.
Hauk enforced the time limit by implanting microscopic explosive capsules in Plissken's carotid arteries, which would detonate at the deadline. Plissken rescued the President with the help of Harold Hellman, Brain's "squeeze" Maggie, a taxicab driver nicknamed Cabby. Only Plissken and the President survived their escape; as the President began his broadcast speech, disgusted by the President's lack of regret for the people who died to get him out, walked away, deliberately shredding the time-critical information tape. In January 1997, Marvel Comics released the one-shot The Adventures of Snake Plissken; the story takes place sometime between Escape from New York and before his famous Cleveland escape mentioned in Escape from L. A. Snake has robbed Atlanta's Center for Disease Control of some engineered metaviruses and is looking for buyers in Chicago. Finding himself in a deal that's a set-up, he makes his getaway and exacts revenge on the buyer for ratting him out to the United States Police Force.
In the meantime, a government lab has built a robot called A. T. A. C. S. that can catch criminals by imprinting their personalities upon its program in order to predict and anticipate a specific criminal's every move. The robot's first test subject is Snake Plissken. After a brief battle, the tide turns when A. T. A. C. S. Copies Snake to the point of becoming his personality. Now recognizing the government as the enemy, A. T. A. C. S. Sides with Snake. Unamused, Snake destroys it; as A. T. A. C. S. Shuts down, it can only ask him, "Why?" Snake just walks off answering, "I don't need the competition". Snake Plissken appeared in John Carpenter's Snake Plissken Chronicles, a four-part comic book miniseries released in 2003, published by CrossGen comics and Hurricane Entertainment; the story takes place the morning after the events in Escape from New York. Snake has been given a military Humvee after his presidential pardon and makes his way to Atlantic City. Despite the fact the director's cut of the New York movie shows Snake was caught after a bank job, this story has Snake finishing up a second heist, preplanned before his capture.
The job is stealing the car
Epic Comics was a creator-owned imprint of Marvel Comics started in 1982, lasting through the mid-1990s, being revived on a small scale in the mid-2000s. Launched by editor-in-chief Jim Shooter as a spin-off of the successful Epic Illustrated magazine, the Epic imprint allowed creators to retain control and ownership of their properties. Co-edited by Al Milgrom and Archie Goodwin, the imprint allowed Marvel to publish more objectionable content without needing to comply with the stringent Comics Code Authority. Epic titles were printed on higher quality paper than typical Marvel comics, were only available via the direct market; the first project was Dreadstar, a space opera by writer-artist Jim Starlin, published November 1982. Dreadstar had first appeared in the Epic Illustrated magazine in issue #3. Subsequent titles included Coyote by Steve Englehart; the line branched out with historical fiction, social commentary and fantasy. However, initial sales were disappointing, so in order to give the line a boost, popular Marvel writer-artist Frank Miller and artist Bill Sienkiewicz were commissioned to develop Elektra: Assassin, featuring the ninja assassin from the Daredevil comic book.
Although Epic was meant to be a creator-owned line, Elektra: Assassin became only the first title featuring Marvel characters published by the imprint. Others included a painted mini-series featuring Havok and Wolverine from the X-Men. Marvel commissioned writer and Marvel editor Archie Goodwin to create original characters for a Mature Readers superhero line for Epic Comics; this took the form of The Shadowline Saga, a storyline spanning four different titles in 1987. Epic was notable as one of the first American comic publishers to release material produced in other countries, such as the Moebius graphic novels Airtight Garage, The Incal and Blueberry, published here in English translations by Jean-Marc Lofficier & Randy Lofficier. Epic published Katsuhiro Otomo's manga classic Akira, with translations by Marvel staffer Mary Jo Duffy and colors by Steve Oliff; as well, now edited by Potts, licensed a variety of literary material, the best known of which were the Clive Barker novels and stories, including Hellraiser and Weaveworld.
Other adapted works included William Shatner's Tekworld, the Wild Cards anthologies, William Gibson's Neuromancer. During this decade, Epic published the four-part miniseries Atomic Age, a 1950s-style science fiction story reimagined from a contemporary perspective by writer Frank Lovece and artists Mike Okamoto and Al Williamson, the latter two of whom won the Russ Manning Award and an Eisner Award for their work there, brought out the action-oriented Heavy Hitters line with material from Peter David, Howard Chaykin, Gerard Jones, Joe Kubert, Ron Lim, Steve Purcell. A subsequent comic-book sales bust, prompted Marvel to end Epic in 1994. In late 1995, the line was temporarily brought back to complete the reprinting of the Akira manga. Epic was ended again when that series was completed in early 1996. In 2003, the Epic imprint was brought back, with two stated goals: to scout for new creator-owned projects, to offer new talent a chance to work on lesser-known Marvel properties. Marvel editors contacted industry columnists, such as Cleveland Plain Dealer and Newsarama columnist Michael San Giacomo, Ryan Scott Ottney, Comixfan's Eric J. Moreels, Sword of Dracula creator Jason Henderson, to ask for new comic pitches using existing Marvel properties.
San Giacomo created Phantom Jack. Henderson created "Strange Magic", a story about a hitherto-unknown daughter of Marvel's Doctor Strange. Moreels was creating a super-team featuring various Australian Marvel characters. An open call for submissions was issued, which prompted a huge response, resulted in months-long delays in reviewing submissions; the option of submitting creator-owned pitches was downplayed and discontinued. The new Epic received considerable attention with Trouble, a miniseries by Mark Millar that would retcon the Spider-Man mythos by revealing details from the teenage years of May Parker and Peter's mother, but although all the main characters sported names any Spider-Man fan would recognize, there was no explicit revelation that they were in any way connected to their Marvel Universe namesakes. Other comics in the line, including a Crimson Dynamo title, were produced by lesser-known talents, the line was cancelled. A number of solicitations were cancelled. Titles that were in progress when Marvel's new management ended the line were consolidated under one cover with the title Epic Anthology Presents, cancelled after the first issue.
San Giacomo requested that the rights to Phantom Jack be returned to him, it was not included in the anthology. The story was published instead by Image Comics and returned in 2007 through Atomic Pop Art Enterprises. Since 2013 the Epic brand is u
The X-Men are a team of fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by artist/co-writer Jack Kirby and writer Stan Lee, the characters first appeared in The X-Men #1, they are among the most recognizable and successful intellectual properties of Marvel Comics, appearing in numerous books, television shows and video games. Most of the X-Men are mutants, a subspecies of humans who are born with superhuman abilities activated by the "X-Gene"; the X-Men fight for peace and equality between normal humans and mutants in a world where antimutant bigotry is fierce and widespread. They are led by Charles Xavier known as Professor X, a powerful mutant telepath who can control and read minds, their archenemy is Magneto, a powerful mutant with the ability to manipulate and control magnetic fields and is the leader of the Brotherhood of Mutants. Both have opposing philosophies regarding the relationship between mutants and humans. While the former works towards peace and understanding between mutants and humans, the latter views humans as a threat and believes in taking an aggressive approach against them, though he has found himself working alongside the X-Men from time to time.
Professor X is the founder of Xavier's School for Gifted Youngsters at a location called the X-Mansion, which recruits mutants from around the world. Located in Salem Center in Westchester County, New York, the X-Mansion is the home and training site of the X-Men; the founding five members of the X-Men who appear in The X-Men #1 are Angel, Cyclops and Marvel Girl. Since dozens of mutants from various countries and diverse backgrounds, a number of non-mutants, have held membership as X-Men. In 1963, with the success of Spider-Man in Amazing Fantasy, as well as the Hulk, Iron Man, the Fantastic Four, co-creator Stan Lee wanted to create another group of superheroes but did not want to have to explain how they got their powers. In 2004, Lee recalled, "I couldn't have everybody bitten by a radioactive spider or exposed to a gamma ray explosion, and I took the cowardly way out. I said to myself, ` Why don't I just say, they were born that way.'"In a 1987 interview, Kirby said, The X-Men, I did the natural thing there.
What would you do with mutants who were just plain boys and girls and not dangerous? You school them. You develop their skills. So I gave them a teacher, Professor X. Of course, it was the natural thing to do, instead of disorienting or alienating people who were different from us, I made the X-Men part of the human race, which they were. Radiation, if it is beneficial, may create mutants that'll save us instead of doing us harm. I felt that if we train the mutants our way, they'll help us – and not only help us, but achieve a measure of growth in their own sense, and so, we could all live together. Lee devised the series title after Marvel publisher Martin Goodman turned down the initial name, "The Mutants," stating that readers would not know what a "mutant" was. Within the Marvel Universe, the X-Men are regarded to have been named after Professor Xavier himself; the original explanation for the name, as provided by Xavier in The X-Men #1, is that mutants "possess an extra power... one which ordinary humans do not!!
That is why I call my students... X-Men, for EX-tra power!" Early X-Men issues introduced the original team composed of Cyclops, Marvel Girl, Beast and Iceman, along with their archenemy Magneto and his Brotherhood of Evil Mutants featuring Mastermind, Scarlet Witch, Toad. The comic focused on a common human theme of good versus evil and included storylines and themes about prejudice and racism, all of which have persisted throughout the series in one form or another; the evil side in the fight was shown in human form and under some sympathetic beginnings via Magneto, a character, revealed to have survived Nazi concentration camps only to pursue a hatred for normal humanity. His key followers and the Scarlet Witch, were Romani. Only one new member of the X-Men was added, Mimic/Calvin Rankin, but soon left due to his temporary loss of power; the title lagged in sales behind Marvel's other comic franchises. In 1969, writer Roy Thomas and illustrator Neal Adams rejuvenated the comic book and gave regular roles to two introduced characters: Havok/Alex Summers and Lorna Dane called Polaris.
However, these X-Men issues failed to attract sales and Marvel stopped producing new stories with issue #66 reprinting a number of the older comics as issues #67–93. In Giant-Size X-Men #1, writer Len Wein and artist Dave Cockrum introduced a new team that starred in a revival of The X-Men, beginning with issue #94; this new team replaced the previous members with the exception of Cyclops. This team differed from the original. Unlike in the early issues of the original series, the new team was not made up of teenagers and they had a more diverse background; each was from a different country with varying cultural and philosophical beliefs, all were well-versed in using their mutant powers, several being experienced in combat. The "all-new, all-different X-Men" were led by Cyclops, from the original team, consisted of the newly created Colossus, Nightcrawler and Thunderbird, three introduced characters: Banshee and Wolve
Marvel 2099 is a Marvel Comics imprint, started in 1992, one possible future of the Marvel Universe, but revealed in a climax of Superior Spider-Man Goblin Nation arc and Amazing Spider-Man Vol. 3 #14 to be the Earth of the prime Marvel continuity in the distant future. It was announced by Stan Lee in his "Stan's Soapbox" column as a single series entitled The Marvel World of Tomorrow, being developed by Lee and John Byrne; this changed to a line of books under the banner Marvel 2093 before being published as Marvel 2099. The three of the initial four titles launched—Doom 2099, Punisher 2099, Spider-Man 2099—starred futuristic takes on pre-existing characters; the fourth, Ravage 2099, featured an all-new superhero, scripted for several months by Stan Lee. The 2099 line soon expanded to include 2099 Unlimited, Fantastic Four 2099, Ghost Rider 2099, Hulk 2099, X-Men 2099, X-Nation 2099. While it has been confirmed to be a possible future version of Earth-616, the mainstream Marvel Universe, the 2099 universe has been designated as Earth-928 and alternatively dubbed as Earth-616 circa 2099.
The initial universe began with Spider-Man 2099, Ravage 2099, Doom 2099, Punisher 2099 being launched in subsequent months. Peter David wrote Spider-Man for the bulk of the series, it was the most popular series, it satirized corporations, with Spider-Man clashing with Alchemax, which employed him in his secret identity. Stan Lee wrote the first eight issues of Ravage as an political story about corruption, corporate pollution, the environment. After Lee left, he was replaced by a series of writers who failed to provide consistent direction for the book. In 1993, Wizard reported that the 2099 line had "gone over well with the fans". Fans requested further titles, Marvel provided X-Men 2099, they introduced a Hulk 2099 in the series 2099 Unlimited, which featured occasional Spider-Man 2099 stories, as well as early work by Warren Ellis. The comics had a strong degree of interconnectivity, similar to comics published by Marvel in the 1960s due to the imprint's editor Joey Cavalieri; the only cross-title crossover within the 2099 universe, The Fall of the Hammer, detailed a plot by the corporations to technologically recreate the Norse pantheon, along with a new Thor, to distract attention from the anti-corporate superheroes.
The 2099 series expanded to include Ghost Rider 2099, about a hero whose consciousness had been downloaded into a robotic body. Hulk 2099 was given a brief chance at his own series; as sales began to flag on all titles besides Spider-Man and X-Men, Marvel commissioned ideas from various writers, including a proposal by Grant Morrison and Mark Millar, before accepting Warren Ellis's idea that Doom 2099, revealed to be, in fact, Victor Von Doom, would take over the United States. Each title had the modifier "A. D." added on the logo to reflect the change. The new storyline allowed Marvel to cancel several low-selling titles; the in-universe reason for the heroes' deaths was President Rogers ordered the execution of the super heroes, including Punisher, Hulk and a handful of low-tier heroes who had appeared in 2099 Unlimited. In 1996, when Marvel, during a cost-cutting exercise, fired Cavalieri, many of the 2099 creators quit the line in protest. With the line floundering, two additional titles were launched: X-Nation 2099, a spin-off of X-Men 2099, Fantastic Four 2099, which featured characters who were the present day Fantastic Four accidentally sent into the future.
Around this time, Doom 2099 became the only 2099 comic to crossover with a present-day Marvel comic when he traveled back to 1996 and met Daredevil, the Fantastic Four, Namor in a story told in Fantastic Four #413. Spider-Man 2099 met the original Spider-Man in a special one-shot issue, making them the only characters to meet their counterparts. After sales slumped, the 2099 titles were canceled and replaced by 2099: World of Tomorrow, a single title featuring the surviving characters from all the titles; the series lasted only eight issues before being canceled. The 2099 line was concluded with a one-shot, 2099: Manifest Destiny, in which Captain America was found in suspended animation and, with Miguel O'Hara, assembled various 2099 heroes into a new team of Avengers; the story summarized the years from 2099 to 3099, with humanity transforming the corporate world of 2099 into a utopia and expanding into space. The 2099 world has been seen since, most notably in Peter David's "Future Tense" storyline in Captain Marvel, which revisited both Spider-Man 2099 and the alternate future of the Maestro that David created in The Incredible Hulk: Future Imperfect, explaining a plot point, left dangling since David had abruptly left Spider-Man 2099.
In 2004, writer Robert Kirkman wrote a series of one-shot comics for the fifth anniversary of the Marvel Knights imprint, under the heading Marvel Knights 2099. The future portrayed in this series is unconnected to the original 2099 Universe, which included a different Punisher 2099. In 2005, the Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe one-shot, involving alternate universes, designated the Earth of 2099 as Earth-928, with Marvel Knights 2099 designated as Earth-2992. A cover of a second printing from the Spider-Man storyline "The Other: Evolve or Die" features the Miguel O'Hara Spider-Man. In 2006, the Exiles visited the Marvel Universe 2099 in Exiles #75-76 as part of the "World Tour" arc; this future had split
Disney Publishing Worldwide
Disney Publishing Worldwide known as The Disney Publishing Group and Buena Vista Publishing Group, is the publishing subsidiary of Disney Parks and Products, a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company. Its imprints include Disney Editions, Disney Press, Kingswell and Hyperion Books for Children, it has creative centers in Glendale, in Milan, Italy. In 1990, Disney Consumer Products discontinued its license for Topolino, an Italian Mickey Mouse magazine; this led Michael Lynton, the Disney Consumer Products business development director, to start up its own Magazine Group with the outlaid Disney Adventures. Through Walt Disney Publications, Inc. Disney Publishing launched Disney Comics in the United States; that same year, Disney began publishing Disney Adventures. In 1991, Disney Publishing purchased Discover magazine from Family Media, placing it within its Magazine Group and purchased the FamilyFun Magazine after its second issue from Jake Winebaum; the Disney Publishing Group was incorporated in January 1992, included the formed Hyperion Books, Hyperion Books for Children, Disney Press and its units.
In 1994, DPG launched the Mouse Works and Fun Works divisions in February and November in order to publish interactive children books. By April, the Magazine Group agreed with Ziff-Davis Publishing Company to a joint venture publication, Family PC, to be launched in September. In June, Lynton left his position as senior vice president of DPG to become president of Disney's Hollywood Pictures. In March 1995, with the market too crowded with Disney books, DPG merged Hyperion Books for Children with the Disney Press units. In August, Disney Magazine Publishing was reorganized into three divisions, each headed by a vice president/group publisher: Disney Family Magazines, Disney Kids Magazines, Disney Special Interest Magazines. Family Magazines and Special Interest Magazines were expected to acquire additional publications beyond their single titles, Family Fun and Discover respectively. Special Interest Magazines' publisher was assigned responsibility for the Discovery Channel TV show, Discover Magazine.
Kids Magazines included the newly developed Big Time weekly newspaper supplement to have a Fall 1996 launch. Magazine President Jake Winebaum was transferred to head up Disney Online. On May 11, 1998 Disney Publishing was renamed Buena Vista Publishing Group. In April 1999, Buena Vista Publishing Group changed its name to Disney Publishing Worldwide, Inc. with Hyperion Books transferred to Disney's ABC Television Group. Disney Publishing launched its first original comic book, W. I. T. C. H. in 2001. It was successful, selling one million copies per month by August 2004, was adapted into an animated series. In mid-2001, DPW and Baby Einstein agreed to publish a baby book line to introduce fine art, foreign languages and classical music. Gemstone Publishing licensed the rights to publish Disney comics from DPW beginning in June 2003. Following its collapse in June 2004, the CrossGen trademark and properties were purchased by DPW's educational publishing division that November for its reading aids, with additional publications based on CrossGen books.
The Disney Consumer Products' Disney Fairies franchise debuted in September 2005, when Disney Publishing unveiled the novel Fairy Dust and the Quest for the Egg paired with a virtual world. The first book in The Kingdom Keepers series, based on Disney Parks, was released August 29, 2005. In 2005, Discover Magazine was sold to Bob Guccione Jr. and the Disney magazine was shut down. In February 2006, Wondertime magazine, which focused on mothers of children up to age six, was launched. DPW licensed out CrossGen to Checker Publishing Group to reprint comic book series as trade paperback editions starting in February 2007. In February 2007, Disney merged its kids and family focused television, online and publishing businesses' advertising sales and promotion teams into Disney Media Advertising Sales and Marketing Group, all of which were overseen by the presidents of Disney Channels Worldwide, Walt Disney Internet Group, DPW. DPW canceled Disney Adventure with its November 2007 issue. By 2009, Disney Publishing Worldwide was organized into three divisions: Global Book Group, Disney English, Global Magazines with four revenue areas: Global Magazines, Global Books, U.
S. Magazines, Disney English. Disney Publishing launched Disney Digital Books on September 29 with five hundred books online. In 2009, Disney Press released Fairest of All: A Tale of the Wicked Queen, the first of the Villains book series written by Serena Valentino. Disney Publishing Worldwide, a division of Walt Disney Company, announced a licensing agreement in April 2009 with local publisher Junior Diamond to publish Disney comic books, in both English and Hindi. On December 8, 2010, DPW's India unit signed a multi-year contract with India Today Group to print and distribute Disney comics in India. With few books issued under the imprint, Marvel Worldwide and Disney Books Group relaunched the Marvel Press imprint in 2011 with the Marvel Origin Storybooks line. In November DPW announced a new publication, FamilyFun Kids, a bi-monthly magazine with kids' craft, games and recipes. In January 2012, DPW agreed to sell Family Fun Magazine to the Meredith Corporation. By September 2012, the White Plains, New York office was closed with staff being moved to Glendale.
In January 2013, DPW launched the Never Girls book series, an extension of the Disney Fairies franchise, with publishing partner Random House. With the June 2013 announcement of the Hyperion Books sale, Hyperion's adult trade book division was moved to Hachette Bo
The Marvel Universe is a fictional universe where the stories in most American comic book titles and other media published by Marvel Comics take place. Super-teams such as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Guardians of the Galaxy, the Defenders, the Inhumans, the New Warriors, the Nova Corps and other Marvel superheroes live in this universe, including characters such as Spider-Man, Iron Man, the Hulk, Captain America, Wolverine, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, Captain Marvel, Ghost Rider, the Punisher, Silver Surfer, Moon Knight and numerous others; the Marvel Universe is further depicted as existing within a "multiverse" consisting of thousands of separate universes, all of which are the creations of Marvel Comics and all of which are, in a sense, "Marvel universes". In this context, "Marvel Universe" is taken to refer to the mainstream Marvel continuity, known as Earth-616 or as Earth Prime. Though the concept of a shared universe was not new or unique to comics in 1961, writer/editor Stan Lee, together with several artists including Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko, created a series of titles where events in one book would have repercussions in another title and serialized stories would show characters' growth and change.
Headline characters in one title would make guest appearances in other books. Many of the leading heroes assembled into a team known as the Avengers; this was not the first time that Marvel's characters had interacted with one another—Namor the Sub-Mariner and the Original Human Torch had been rivals when Marvel was Timely comics —but it was the first time that the comic book publisher's characters seemed to share a world. The Marvel Universe was notable for setting its central titles in New York City. Care was taken to portray the city and the world as realistically as possible with the presence of superhumans affecting the common citizens in various ways. Over time, a few Marvel Comics writers lobbied Marvel editors to incorporate the idea of a Multiverse resembling DC's parallel worlds. What happens on Earth in the main Marvel Universe would have no effect on what happens on a parallel Earth in another Marvel-created universe. However, storywriters would have the creative ability to write stories in which people from one such universe would visit this alternative universe.
In 1982, Marvel published the mini-series Contest of Champions, in which all of the major heroes in existence at the time were gathered together to deal with one threat. This was Marvel's first miniseries; each issue contained biographical information on many major costumed characters. The Marvel Universe is based on the real world. Earth in the Marvel Universe has all the features of the real one: same countries, same personalities, same historical events, so on. H. I. E. L. D. and its enemy, HYDRA and A. I. M. In 2009 Marvel described its world's geography in a two-part miniseries, the Marvel Atlas. Most the Marvel Universe incorporates examples of all major science fiction and fantasy concepts, with writers adding more continuously. Aliens, magic, cosmic powers and advanced human-developed technology all exist prominently in the Marvel Universe. Monsters play a more prominent role with east Asian origins of magical incantation, outlandish sorcery and manifesting principle in the Marvel Universe. One such case is Fin Fang Foom arising from the ashes of tantric magic.
Thanks to these extra elements, Earth in the Marvel Universe is home to a large number of superheroes and supervillains, who have gained their powers by any of these means. Comparatively little time passes in the Marvel Universe compared to the real world, owing to the serial nature of storytelling, with the stories of certain issues picking up mere seconds after the conclusion of the previous one, while a whole month has passed by in "real time". Marvel's major heroes were created in the 1960s, but the amount of time that has passed between and now within the universe itself has most been identified as thirteen years; the settings of some events which were contemporary when written have to be updated every few years in order to "make sense" in this floating timeline. Thus, the events of previous stories are considered to have happened within a certain number of years prior to the publishing date of the current issue. For example, Spider-Man's high school graduation was published in Amazing Spider-Man #28, his college graduation in Amazing Spider-Man #185, his high school reunion in Marvel Knights: Spider-Man #7.
Because of the floating timeline, where stories refer to real-life historic events, these references are ignored or rewritten to suit current sensibilities. For instance, the origin of Iron Man was changed in a 2004 storyline to refer to armed conflict in Afghanistan, whereas the original Iron Man stories had referred to the Vietnam War. Marvel Comics itself exists as a company within the Marvel Universe, ver