Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Airplane! is a 1980 American satirical disaster film written and directed by David and Jerry Zucker and Jim Abrahams, produced by Jon Davison. It stars Robert Hays and Julie Hagerty and features Leslie Nielsen, Robert Stack, Lloyd Bridges, Peter Graves, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Lorna Patterson; the film is a parody of the disaster film genre the 1957 Paramount film Zero Hour!, from which it borrows the plot and the central characters, as well as many elements from Airport 1975 and other films in the Airport film series. The film is known for its use of surreal humor and its fast-paced slapstick comedy, including visual and verbal puns and obscure humor. Airplane! was a critical and financial success, grossing over $83 million in North America against a budget of $3.5 million, being released by Paramount Pictures. The film's creators received the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Adapted Comedy, nominations for the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy and for the BAFTA Award for Best Screenplay.
In the years since its release, the film's reputation has grown substantially. The film was ranked sixth on Bravo's 100 Funniest Movies. In a 2007 survey by Channel 4 in the United Kingdom, it was judged the second greatest comedy film of all time, after Monty Python's Life of Brian. In 2008, it was selected by Empire magazine as one of The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time and in 2012 was voted number one in The 50 Funniest Comedies Ever poll. In 2010, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Ex-fighter pilot Ted Striker is a traumatized war veteran turned taxi driver; because of his pathological fear of flying and "drinking problem", he has been unable to hold a responsible job. His wartime girlfriend, Elaine Dickinson, now a flight attendant, leaves him before boarding her assigned flight from Los Angeles to Chicago. Ted buys a ticket on the same flight to try to win her back.
However, she still continues to reject him during the flight. After the in-flight meal is served, several of the passengers and the flight crew fall ill, including Captain Oveur. Passenger Dr. Rumack discovers. With the flight crew incapacitated, Elaine contacts the Chicago control tower for help, is instructed by tower supervisor Steve McCroskey to activate the plane's autopilot, a large inflatable pilot doll named "Otto", which will get them to Chicago, but will not be able to land the plane. Elaine and Dr. Rumack convince Ted to take the controls; when Steve learns that Ted is piloting, he contacts Ted's former commanding officer, Rex Kramer, now serving as a commercial pilot, so that he can help talk Ted through landing the plane. Ted becomes troubled when Rex starts giving instructions, stresses out from flashbacks to the war. Both Elaine and Dr. Rumack bolster Ted's confidence and he takes the controls under Rex's guidance; as the plane nears Chicago, the weather becomes harsh. With Elaine's help as co-pilot and Rex's guidance, Ted is able to land the plane, despite shearing off the landing gear but with only minor injuries to the passengers.
Rescue vehicles arrive to help unload the plane. Impressed by Ted's display of courage, Elaine embraces and kisses him, rekindling their relationship; the two watch as "Otto" takes control of the plane, inflates a female companion, takes off. Jerry Zucker, Jim Abrahams, David Zucker, wrote Airplane! while they were performing with the Kentucky Fried Theatre, a small theatre they had founded in 1971. To obtain material for comedy routines, they recorded late night television and reviewed the tapes primarily to pull the commercials, a process Abrahams compared to "seining for fish". During one such taping process, they unintentionally recorded the 1957 film Zero Hour!, while scanning the commercials, found that the film was a "perfectly classically structured film" according to Jerry Zucker. Abrahams described Zero Hour! as "the serious version of Airplane!". It was the first film script they wrote, completed around 1975, was called The Late Show; the script stayed close to the dialog and plot of Zero Hour!, as ZAZ considered they did not have a sufficient understanding of film at the time to structure a proper script.
ZAZ's script borrowed so much from Zero Hour! that they believed they needed to negotiate the rights to create the remake of the film and ensure they remain within the allowance for parody within copyright law. They were able to obtain the rights from Warner Paramount for about $2,500 at the time; the original script contained spoofs of television commercials but people who proofread the script advised them to shorten the commercials, they removed them. When their script was finished they were unable to sell it; the trio knew director John Landis, who encouraged them to write a film based on their theatre sketches. They managed to put the film, called The Kentucky Fried Movie, in production in the late 1970s, entered a movie set for the first time. David Zucker said "It was the first time we had been on a movie set. We learned a lot. We learned that if you wanted a movie to come out the way you wanted it to, you had to direct. So on the next movie, Airplane!, we insisted on directing."Principal photography began on June 20 and wrapped on August 31, 1979, with the bulk of filming having been done in August.
Jerry Zucker stood beside the camera during shooting, while David Zucker and Jim Abrahams would be wa
CBS Corporation is an American mass media corporation focused on commercial broadcasting and television production, with most of its operations in the United States. The current President and Acting CEO is Joseph Ianniello. Sumner Redstone, owner of National Amusements, controls CBS by way of his majority ownership of the company's Class A voting stock, it is the world's eighth largest entertainment company in terms of revenue after The Walt Disney Company, NBCUniversal, WarnerMedia, Bertelsmann and Sony Corporation. The company began trading on the NYSE on January 3, 2006; until the corporation was known as Viacom, is the legal successor to said company. A new company, keeping the Viacom name, was spun off from CBS. CBS, not Viacom, retains control of over-the-air television broadcasting, TV production and distribution, pay-cable, basic cable, recording owned by the larger company. CBS has its headquarters in the CBS Building, Manhattan, New York City, United States. Viacom was created in 1971 as the television syndication division of CBS, was spun off in 1971.
However, in 1999, Viacom acquired its former parent, by this time named CBS Corporation Westinghouse Electric. The prior CBS Corporation owned CMT and The Nashville Network, which remained Viacom properties after the 2005 split, but the prior CBS did not own UPN, Paramount Television, Paramount Parks, or Simon and Schuster. In March 2005, Viacom announced plans of looking into splitting the company into two publicly traded companies, amid issues of the stock price stagnating. On June 14, 2005, the Viacom Board of Directors approved the split of the company into two firms; the CBS Corporation name would be revived for one of the companies, to be headed by longtime television executive Leslie Moonves, would include CBS, UPN, Infinity Broadcasting, Viacom Outdoor, Showtime Networks, Paramount's television studio. The split was structured such that the new Viacom was spun off from the old Viacom, renamed CBS Corporation. In a sense, this was a repeat of the 1971 spinoff. However, in this case, CBS retained all of the prior firm's broadcast TV assets, including its various syndication companies.
With the split, the two new companies began trading on the NYSE on January 3, 2006. Investors anticipated Viacom benefiting from the split, but instead, it dropped 20 percent, while CBS rose 9 percent. Announced in January 2006, CBS and DIC Entertainment signed a multi-year deal in which DIC bought the Saturday morning airtime as "CBS's Saturday Morning Secret Slumber Party". In June 2006, DiC added a production partner AOL's KOL. Thus, this block would be called "KOL's Saturday Morning Secret Slumber Party on CBS". On January 24, 2006, CBS Corporation, Warner Bros. announced that they were to create a new broadcast network, The CW Television Network. The network debuted on September 18, 2006; the network formally debuted on September 20 with the 2 hour premiere of America's Next Top Model. The network is the result of a merger of The WB and UPN. CBS Corporation and Time Warner each own 50% of the network. Tribune Broadcasting and CBS Corporation will contribute its stations as new network affiliates.
Three days after the announcement of The CW, on January 27, CBS announced that it was selling its Paramount Parks division. On May 23, 2006, CBS Corporation sold Paramount Parks to the Cedar Fair Entertainment Company. With this acquisition, Cedar Fair became the third-largest theme park operator. On June 30, 2006, Cedar Fair announced that it has completed its acquisition of Paramount Parks from CBS Corporation in a cash transaction valued at US$1.24 billion. The transaction included a 10-year license that allowed Cedar Fair to use the Paramount name in the parks through the 2017 season. On February 7, 2007, CBS announced it was selling seven stations in Providence, Rhode Island, Texas, Salt Lake City and West Palm Beach, Florida to Cerberus Capital Management for US$185 million, it sold another station, WFRV-TV in Green Bay and its satellite station, WJMN-TV in Escanaba, Michigan, to Liberty Media on February 13, 2007. News reports estimate the deal at about US$234 million. CBS is swapping the stations and US$170 million in cash for 7.59 million shares of CBS common stock held by Liberty Media.
On February 26, CBS announced that it will invest in Electric Sheep, a virtual world content developer. CBS hired Electric Sheep to develop some projects, including the creation of "The L-Word in Second Life". CBS shot a commercial within the virtual world Second Life to promote its show Two and a Half Men. Another project that Electric Sheep was working on for CBS was a Star Trek-themed area in Second Life. By investing in Electric Sheep, CBS hoped to expand its activity "beyond the living room". On March 20, CBS/CSTV had acquired an online high school sports network. On April 12, CBS Corporation announced the creation of the CBS Interactive Audience Network. On May 30, CBS Interactive bought Last.fm for £140 million. On May 15, 2008, CBS Interactive announced that it had agreed t
Meet the Parents
Meet the Parents is a 2000 American comedy written by Jim Herzfeld and John Hamburg and directed by Jay Roach. Starring Robert De Niro and Ben Stiller, the film chronicles a series of unfortunate events that befall a good-hearted but hapless nurse while visiting his girlfriend's parents. Teri Polo, Blythe Danner, Owen Wilson star. Meet the Parents is a remake of a 1992 film of the same name directed by Greg Glienna and produced by Jim Vincent. Glienna—who played the original film's main protagonist—and Mary Ruth Clarke co-wrote the screenplay. Universal Pictures purchased the rights to Glienna's film with the intent of creating a new version. Jim Herzfeld expanded. Jay Roach read the expanded script and expressed his desire to direct the film but Universal declined him. At that time, Steven Spielberg was interested in directing the film while Jim Carrey was interested in playing the lead role; the studio only offered the film to Roach once Carrey left the project. Released in the United States and Canada on October 6, 2000 and distributed by Universal Pictures, the film earned back its initial budget of $55 million in only eleven days.
It went on to become one of the highest-grossing films of 2000, earning over $160 million in North America and over $330 million worldwide. Meet the Parents was well received by film critics and viewers alike, winning several awards and earning additional nominations. Ben Stiller won two comedy awards for his performance and the film was chosen as the Favorite Comedy Motion Picture at the 2001 People's Choice Awards; the success of Meet the Parents inspired two film sequels, namely Meet the Fockers and Little Fockers released in 2004 and 2010 respectively. Meet the Parents inspired a reality television show titled Meet My Folks and a situation comedy titled In-Laws, both of them debuting on NBC in 2002. Gaylord "Greg" Focker is a nurse living in Chicago, he intends to propose to his girlfriend Pam Byrnes, but his plan is disrupted when he and Pam are invited to the wedding of Pam's sister, Debbie, at Pam's parents' house on Long Island. Greg decides to propose to Pam in front of her family but this plan is put on hold when the airline company loses his luggage which contains the engagement ring.
At the Byrnes family home, Greg meets mother Dina and their beloved cat Mr. Jinx. Jack takes an instant dislike towards Greg and criticizes Greg for his choice of career as a male nurse and anything else he sees as a difference between Greg and the Byrnes family. Greg tries to impress Jack but his efforts fail. Greg becomes more uncomfortable after he receives an impromptu lie detector test from Jack and learns from Pam that her father is a retired CIA operative. Meeting the rest of Pam's family and friends, Greg still feels like an outsider. Despite efforts to impress the family, Greg's inadvertent actions make him an easy target for ridicule and anger. During a volleyball game he causes Debbie a broken nose and a black eye, uses a malfunctioning toilet which floods the Byrnes' back yard with sewage, sets on fire the wedding altar, several misunderstandings cause Jack to believe Greg is a marijuana user. Greg loses Jinx and replaces him with a stray whose tail he spray paints to make him look like Mr. Jinx.
By now, the entire Byrnes family, including Pam, agrees that it is best for Greg to leave Long Island until the wedding concludes. Unwillingly, Greg goes to the airport where he is detained by airport security for insisting that his bag stays with him rather than be checked. Back at the Byrnes household, Jack tries to convince Pam that Greg was lying to her about everything, he claims to be unable to find proof of anyone named "Greg Focker" taking the Medical College Admission Test which Greg claimed he had passed with the initial intention of becoming a doctor. Upon learning that Greg's real first name is Gaylord, being presented with proof from Pam that he did in fact pass the test, Jack rushes to the airport, convinces airport security to release Greg and brings him back to the Byrnes household; as Greg is proposing to Pam and Dina listen in on their conversation from another room, agreeing that they should now meet Greg's parents. After Debbie's wedding, Jack views footage of Greg recorded by hidden cameras that he had placed strategically around the house.
Greg Focker is a middle-class Jewish nurse whose social and cultural position is juxtaposed against the Byrnes family of upper-class White Anglo-Saxon Protestants. With respect to Greg as a Jew and a nurse when compared to the Byrnes and Banks families, a distinct cultural gap is created and subsequently widened; the cultural differences are highlighted, Greg made aware of them. This serves to achieve comedic effect through character development and has been commented upon as being indicative of thematic portrayal of Jewish characters' roles in modern film as well as being a prime example of how male nurses are portrayed in media. Speaking about character development in Meet the Parents, director Jay Roach stated that he wanted an opportunity to "do character-driven comedy" and "to create realistic characters, but heighten the comedic situations and predicaments."Vincent Brook observes mainstream Hollywood cinema's tendency since the 1990s of incorporating Jewish liminality and "popularizing the Jew."
He explains the "manly Jewish triumph" of characters like Jeff Goldblum's David Levinson in Independence Day and labels it as a "certain answer to America's yearnings for a new Jewish hero." This stands in direct contrast to the schlemiel or "the Jewish fool", seen to have been revitalized in the mid-1990s after faltering since the 1960s. The sc
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the
Grease is a 1978 American musical romantic comedy film based on the 1971 musical of the same name by Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey. Written by Bronte Woodard and directed by Randal Kleiser in his theatrical feature film debut, the film depicts the lives of greaser Danny Zuko and Australian transfer student Sandy Olsson who develop an attraction for each other; the film stars John Travolta as Danny, Olivia Newton-John as Sandy, Stockard Channing as Betty Rizzo, a member of the Pink Ladies. Released on June 16, 1978, Grease was successful both commercially, its soundtrack album ended 1978 as the second-best selling album of the year in the United States, behind the soundtrack of the 1977 blockbuster Saturday Night Fever and earned the film its lone Oscar nomination for "Hopelessly Devoted to You". A sequel, Grease 2, was released in 1982, starring Maxwell Caulfield and Michelle Pfeiffer as a newer class of greasers. Few of the original cast members reprised their roles. In the summer of 1958, greaser Danny Zuko and sweet Australian girl Sandy Olsson meet at the beach and fall in love.
When the summer comes to an end, whose family is returning to Australia, worries that they might never meet again, but Danny tells her that their love is "only the beginning." At the beginning of the new school year at Rydell High School, Danny reunites with his fellow gang members, the T-Birds, of whom his best friend Kenickie, along with Doody and Putzie are members. Meanwhile, unbeknownst to Danny, Sandy arrives at school, with her family's plans having changed, with her new friend Frenchy, a member of the Pink Ladies. Other Pink Ladies Rizzo and Jan arrive, excited to be seniors, as does Patty Simcox, a high-achieving cheerleader. At lunch, Frenchy introduces Sandy to the other Pink Ladies while Danny and the T-Birds make fun of practicing football players, including the handsome Tom Chisum; each group asks Danny and Sandy about their summers and they each independently describe their romance without using the other's name, with Sandy's description far more innocent than Danny's. Headed back to class, Sandy reveals that it was Danny Zuko she met, Rizzo teases that she'll meet him again.
At a pep rally before a football game and Patty perform as cheerleaders. Kenickie arrives with a used car he plans on rebuilding so he can race it at Thunder Road, a popular street race spot. Rizzo puts surprising both of them. At first they both are trilled to see each other, but Danny instantly after acts boyish and indifferent to her in front of his friends to seem impressive, upsetting Sandy. Frenchy invites Sandy to a sleepover with the Pink Ladies to cheer her up. Rizzo and the other girls pressure Sandy into smoking a cigarette and having a drink of wine at the sleepover. Frenchy reveals that she plans to drop out of Rydell to go to beauty school and in an effort to prove herself, tries to pierce Sandy's ear, making Sandy sick. Rizzo leaves when the T-Birds arrive in Kenickie's car. Rizzo tries to make Danny jealous by flirting with Kenickie. Kenickie leaves with Rizzo, stranding Putzie and Doody. Sandy laments despite his earlier behavior. Kenickie and Rizzo, while in the midst of sex, are interrupted when Leo, along with his girlfriend Cha-Cha, deliberately crashes his own street racer into Kenickie's and insults Rizzo.
At the same time, Kenickie's condom breaks. The next day, the T-Birds look over Kenickie's car, although they are skeptical of its potential and Kenickie explain the modifications they could add to make it a hot-rodding sex machine. At the popular hangout The Frosty Palace, after brushing off an attempt by Patty to flirt with him, apologizes to Sandy for his behavior at the pep rally, but she rejects him having started dating Tom instead. Danny approaches Coach Calhoun about playing a sport. After picking fights with the jocks in basketball and baseball, Calhoun suggests cross-country running. Danny takes Sandy to the Frosty Palace for a date. Putzie and Jan, in an awkward exchange, agree to pair off for the dance. After everyone else has left, whose hair has turned bright pink, tells Vi, a waitress, that she has dropped out of beauty school and is visited by a guardian angel who advises her to return to Rydell. At the school dance and Cha-Cha show up as Rizzo's and Kenickie's respective dates.
Vince Fontaine, hosting a live telecast of the dance, flirts with Marty. All of the students take part in a dance contest. Danny and Sandy do well, but Sonny pulls Sandy off the dance floor, allowing Cha Cha to step in and win with Danny. During the last dance, Sonny and Doody moon the national TV audience. Danny tries to make it up to her by taking her to a drive-in movie theater. She's unmoved by his pleas for forgiveness until he asks her to wear his ring, which she gleefully accepts. Danny tries to make
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand, turned the company into a franchise, with the Golden Arches logo being introduced in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald's had its original headquarters in Oak Brook, but moved its global headquarters to Chicago in early 2018. McDonald's is the world's largest restaurant chain by revenue, serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries across 37,855 outlets as of 2018. Although McDonald's is best known for its hamburgers and french fries, they feature chicken products, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food, the company has added to its menu salads, fish and fruit.
The McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to two reports published in 2018, McDonald's is the world's fourth-largest private employer with 1.7 million employees. The siblings Richard and Maurice McDonald opened in 1940 the first McDonald's at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San Bernardino, California but it was not the McDonald's recognizable today; the brothers introduced the "Speedee Service System" in 1948, putting into expanded use the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant that their predecessor White Castle had put into practice more than two decades earlier. The original mascot of McDonald's was a chef hat on top of a hamburger, referred to as "Speedee". In 1962, the Golden Arches replaced Speedee as the universal mascot; the symbol, Ronald McDonald, was introduced in 1965. The clown, Ronald McDonald, appeared in advertising to target their audience of children. On May 4, 1961, McDonald's first filed for a U.
S. trademark on the name "McDonald's" with the description "Drive-In Restaurant Services", which continues to be renewed. By September 13, McDonald's, under the guidance of Ray Kroc, filed for a trademark on a new logo—an overlapping, double-arched "M" symbol, but before the double arches, McDonald's used a single arch for the architecture of their buildings. Although the "Golden Arches" logo appeared in various forms, the present version was not used until November 18, 1968, when the company was favored a U. S. trademark. The present corporation credits its founding to franchised businessman Ray Kroc in on April 15, 1955; this was in fact the ninth opened McDonald's restaurant overall, although this location was destroyed and rebuilt in 1984. Kroc purchased the McDonald brothers' equity in the company and begun the company's worldwide reach. Kroc was recorded as being an aggressive business partner, driving the McDonald brothers out of the industry. Kroc and the McDonald brothers fought for control of the business, as documented in Kroc's autobiography.
The San Bernardino restaurant was torn down and the site was sold to the Juan Pollo chain in 1976. This area now serves as headquarters for the Juan Pollo chain, a McDonald's and Route 66 museum. With the expansion of McDonald's into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life, its prominence has made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics, consumer responsibility. McDonald's restaurants are found in 120 countries and territories around the world and serve 68 million customers each day. McDonald's operates 37,855 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 210,000 people as of the end of 2018. There are a total of 2,770 company-owned locations and 35,085 franchised locations, which includes 21,685 locations franchised to conventional franchisees, 7,225 locations licensed to developmental licensees, 6,175 locations licensed to foreign affiliates. Focusing on its core brand, McDonald's began divesting itself of other chains it had acquired during the 1990s.
The company owned a majority stake in Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald's divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange. Until December 2003, it owned Donatos Pizza, it owned a small share of Aroma Cafe from 1999 to 2001. On August 27, 2007, McDonald's sold Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners. Notably, McDonald's has increased shareholder dividends for 25 consecutive years, making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats; the company is ranked 131st on the Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. In October 2012, its monthly sales fell for the first time in nine years. In 2014, its quarterly sales fell for the first time in seventeen years, when its sales dropped for the entirety of 1997. In the United States, it is reported. McDonald's closed down 184 restaurants in the United States in 2015, 59 more than what they planned to open; this move was the first time McDonald's had a net decrease in the number of locations in the United States since 1970.
For the fiscal year 2017, McDonalds reported earnings of US$5.2 billion, with an annual revenue of US$22.8 billion, an decrease of 7.3% over the previous fiscal cycle. McDonald's shares traded at over $145 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$134.5 billion in September 2018. The compa