A light-emitting diode is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it. Electrons in the semiconductor recombine with electron holes, releasing energy in the form of photons; this effect is called electroluminescence. The color of the light is determined by the energy required for electrons to cross the band gap of the semiconductor. White light is obtained by using multiple semiconductors or a layer of light-emitting phosphor on the semiconductor device. Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs are used in remote-control circuits, such as those used with a wide variety of consumer electronics; the first visible-light LEDs were of low intensity and limited to red. Modern LEDs are available across the visible and infrared wavelengths, with high light output. Early LEDs were used as indicator lamps, replacing small incandescent bulbs, in seven-segment displays. Recent developments have produced white-light LEDs suitable for room lighting.
LEDs have led to new displays and sensors, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology. LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources, including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, faster switching. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive headlamps, general lighting, traffic signals, camera flashes, lighted wallpaper and medical devices. Unlike a laser, the color of light emitted from an LED is neither coherent nor monochromatic, but the spectrum is narrow with respect to human vision, functionally monochromatic. Electroluminescence as a phenomenon was discovered in 1907 by the British experimenter H. J. Round of Marconi Labs, using a crystal of silicon carbide and a cat's-whisker detector. Russian inventor Oleg Losev reported creation of the first LED in 1927, his research was distributed in Soviet and British scientific journals, but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades.
In 1936, Georges Destriau observed that electroluminescence could be produced when zinc sulphide powder is suspended in an insulator and an alternating electrical field is applied to it. In his publications, Destriau referred to luminescence as Losev-Light. Destriau worked in the laboratories of Madame Marie Curie an early pioneer in the field of luminescence with research on radium. Hungarian Zoltán Bay together with György Szigeti pre-empted led lighting in Hungary in 1939 by patented a lighting device based on SiC, with an option on boron carbide, that emmitted white, yellowish white, or greenish white depending on impurities present. Kurt Lehovec, Carl Accardo, Edward Jamgochian explained these first light-emitting diodes in 1951 using an apparatus employing SiC crystals with a current source of battery or pulse generator and with a comparison to a variant, crystal in 1953. Rubin Braunstein of the Radio Corporation of America reported on infrared emission from gallium arsenide and other semiconductor alloys in 1955.
Braunstein observed infrared emission generated by simple diode structures using gallium antimonide, GaAs, indium phosphide, silicon-germanium alloys at room temperature and at 77 kelvins. In 1957, Braunstein further demonstrated that the rudimentary devices could be used for non-radio communication across a short distance; as noted by Kroemer Braunstein "…had set up a simple optical communications link: Music emerging from a record player was used via suitable electronics to modulate the forward current of a GaAs diode. The emitted light was detected by a PbS diode some distance away; this signal was played back by a loudspeaker. Intercepting the beam stopped the music. We had a great deal of fun playing with this setup." This setup presaged the use of LEDs for optical communication applications. In September 1961, while working at Texas Instruments in Dallas, James R. Biard and Gary Pittman discovered near-infrared light emission from a tunnel diode they had constructed on a GaAs substrate. By October 1961, they had demonstrated efficient light emission and signal coupling between a GaAs p-n junction light emitter and an electrically isolated semiconductor photodetector.
On August 8, 1962, Biard and Pittman filed a patent titled "Semiconductor Radiant Diode" based on their findings, which described a zinc-diffused p–n junction LED with a spaced cathode contact to allow for efficient emission of infrared light under forward bias. After establishing the priority of their work based on engineering notebooks predating submissions from G. E. Labs, RCA Research Labs, IBM Research Labs, Bell Labs, Lincoln Lab at MIT, the U. S. patent office issued the two inventors the patent for the GaAs infrared light-emitting diode, the first practical LED. After filing the patent, Texas Instruments began a project to manufacture infrared diodes. In October 1962, TI announced the first commercial LED product, which employed a pure GaAs crystal to emit an 890 nm light output. In October 1963, TI announced the first commercial hemispherical LED, the SNX-110; the first visible-spectrum LED was developed in 1962 by Nick Holonyak, Jr. while working at General Electric. Holonyak first reported his LED in the journal Applied Physics Letters on December 1, 1962.
M. George Craford, a former graduate student of Holonyak, invented the first yellow LED and improved the brightness of red and red-orange LEDs by a factor of ten in 1972. In 1976, T. P. Pearsall created the first high-brightness, high-efficiency LEDs for optical fiber telecommunicat
Nirvana was an American rock band formed in Aberdeen, Washington, in 1987. It was founded by guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic. Nirvana went through a succession of drummers, the longest-lasting and best-known being Dave Grohl, who joined in 1990. Though the band dissolved in 1994 after the death of Cobain, their music maintains a popular following and continues to influence modern rock and roll culture. In the late 1980s, Nirvana established itself as part of the Seattle grunge scene, releasing its first album, for the independent record label Sub Pop in 1989, they developed a sound that relied on dynamic contrasts between quiet verses and loud, heavy choruses. After signing to major label DGC Records, Nirvana found unexpected worldwide success with "Smells Like Teen Spirit", the first single from the band's second album Nevermind, which has now been ranked as one of the greatest songs in the history of rock music. Nevermind has been called one of the greatest albums of all time and has sold over 30 million copies worldwide.
Nirvana's sudden success popularized alternative rock and grunge, Cobain found himself referred to in the media as the "spokesman of a generation", with Nirvana considered the "flagship band" of Generation X. After touring and releasing Incesticide and Hormoaning, Nirvana's third studio album, In Utero, was released to critical acclaim; the album debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 album chart and featured an abrasive, less mainstream sound and challenged the group's audience and has since sold over 15 million copies worldwide. In Utero would be Nirvana's last studio album in their active career. Nirvana's active career ended following the death of Cobain in 1994, but many various posthumous releases have been issued since, overseen by Novoselic and Cobain's widow Courtney Love; the posthumous release MTV Unplugged in New York won the Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album in 1996. Overall, Nirvana have received twelve awards from twenty-five nominations winning an American Music Award, Brit Award, Grammy Award, seven MTV Video Music Awards and two NME Awards Since its debut, the band has sold over 25 million records in the United States alone, over 75 million records worldwide, making them one of the best-selling bands of all time.
Nirvana has been ranked as one of the greatest music artists of all time with Rolling Stone placing them at number 27 on their list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" in 2004, at number 30 on their updated list in 2011. Nirvana was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in its first year of eligibility. Cobain and Novoselic met while attending Aberdeen High School, although they never connected, according to Cobain; the pair became friends while frequenting the practice space of the Melvins. Cobain wanted to form a band with Novoselic, but Novoselic did not respond for a long period of time. In persuading Novoselic to form a band, Cobain gave him a demo tape of his project Fecal Matter. Three years after the two first met, Novoselic notified Cobain that he had listened to the Fecal Matter demo and suggested they start a group; the pair recruited Bob McFadden on drums. In early 1987, Cobain and Novoselic recruited drummer Aaron Burckhard; the three practiced material from Cobain's Fecal Matter tape but started writing new material soon after forming.
During its initial months, the band went through a series of names, starting with Skid Row and including Fecal Matter and Ted Ed Fred. The group settled on Nirvana, which Cobain said was chosen because "I wanted a name, kind of beautiful or nice and pretty instead of a mean, raunchy punk name like the Angry Samoans". With Novoselic and Cobain having moved to Tacoma and Olympia, Washington the two temporarily lost contact with Burckhard; the pair instead practiced with Dale Crover of the Melvins, Nirvana recorded its first demos in January 1988. In early 1988, Crover moved to San Francisco but recommended Dave Foster to the band as his replacement on drums. Foster's tenure with Nirvana lasted only a few months. Cobain and Novoselic put an ad in Seattle music publication The Rocket seeking a replacement drummer, which only yielded unsatisfactory responses. Meanwhile, a mutual friend introduced them to Chad Channing, the three musicians agreed to jam together. Channing continued to jam with Cobain and Novoselic, although the drummer noted, "They never said'okay, you're in,'" and Channing played his first show with the group that May.
Nirvana released its first single, a cover of Shocking Blue's "Love Buzz", in November 1988 on the Seattle independent record label Sub Pop. They did their first interview with John Robb in Sounds who made the release single of the week; the following month, the band began recording its debut album, with local producer Jack Endino. Bleach was influenced by the heavy dirge-rock of the Melvins and Mudhoney, 1980s punk rock, the 1970s heavy metal of Black Sabbath. Novoselic said in a 2001 interview with Rolling Stone that the band had played a tape in their van while on tour that had an album by The Smithereens on one side and an album by the extreme metal band Celtic Frost on the other, noted that the combination played an influence as well; the money for the recording sessions for Bleach, listed as $606.17 on the album sleeve, was supplied by Jason Everman, subsequently brought into the band as the second guitarist. Though Everman did not play on the album, he received a credit on
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Belltown is the most densely populated neighborhood in Seattle, United States, located on the city's downtown waterfront on land, artificially flattened as part of a regrading project. A low-rent, semi-industrial arts district, in recent decades it has transformed into a neighborhood of trendy restaurants, boutiques and residential towers as well as warehouses and art galleries; the area is named on whose land claim the neighborhood was built. In 2007, CNNMoney named Belltown the best place to retire in the Seattle metro area, calling it "a walkable neighborhood with everything you need."Belltown is home to the Art Institute of Seattle, Antioch University, Argosy University, City University of Seattle, the Seattle School of Theology & Psychology. It lies directly west of the Denny Triangle neighborhood, where online retailer Amazon is constructing three office towers to house its downtown headquarters, where the Cornish College of the Arts is located. Although many new businesses have eclipsed older ones, some venerated establishments still draw crowds of loyal patrons, such as the locally famous Bavarian Meat Products.
Some of the classic, old Seattle nightspots in Belltown are: The Rendezvous, Mama's Mexican Kitchen, The Lava Lounge, The Crocodile Cafe, Shorty's. At one time Alaska Airlines had its headquarters in; the neighborhood is bounded on the north by Denny Way, beyond which lies Seattle Center and Queen Anne Hill, on the southwest by Elliott Bay, on the southeast by Virginia Street, beyond which lies the Pike Place Market and the rest of Downtown, on the northeast by 5th Avenue, beyond which lies the Denny Triangle. All of its northwest- and southeast-bound streets are major thoroughfares; the Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel runs under Belltown for a number of blocks as it connects the Alaskan Freeway to Aurora Avenue N. North on Western Avenue at Vine Street is the Belltown P-Patch and the Cottage Park; these single family homes built in 1916 are the last of 11 on the 1/4 block. The Cottages mark the 1850s shoreline and are the last remaining wood framed residences in downtown Seattle; the Belltown P-Patch provides gardening opportunities through the City of Seattle P-Patch program.
The Olympic Sculpture Park, a public sculpture garden of 8.5 acres adjacent to Myrtle Edwards Park, is located on the northern edge of the Belltown waterfront. The park features contemporary pieces, various ecosystems with plants indigenous to the Pacific Northwest, a restored beach and seawall; the park's construction was funded with private donations and is operated by the Seattle Art Museum. Unlike other such parks in the United States, the Olympic Sculpture Park is unwalled, admission is free; the Pathé Theatre at 717 1st Avenue opened around 1910 and a Pathé Exchange debuted at 2113 3rd Avenue. In August 1916, the Mutual Exchange opened at Virginia in a building with an auditorium; the first building constructed for Seattle's burgeoning film industry and in what would become "Film Row" in Belltown opened in 1922 in the Pathe Building designed by Julian F. Everett at 2025 3rd Avenue. Silent-era film exchanges in Seattle serviced 470 commercial movie theaters throughout Washington, Idaho and Oregon.
Concern about the flammability of nitrocellulose film resulted in the concentration of film exchanges in this single neighborhood, as a zoning issue. Polk's 1923 Seattle City Directory shows 26 listings for "Motion Picture Machines and Supplies". All except the U. S. Army Motion Picture Service are within one block of the corner of Virginia Street and Third Avenue. From the 1920s into at least the 1960s, Second Avenue in Belltown was home to Seattle's second "Film Row." In 1928, just after the era of talkies began, the role of the Second Avenue film row was consolidated by the erection of the terra-cotta-ornamented, art deco Film Exchange Building designed by Seattle architect Earl W. Morrison. By 1930, Polk lists only 18 Seattle film exchanges; this situation was unchanged in 1948: 19 entries under "Motion Picture Distributors and Film Exchanges", 15 of them in this same two blocks, two of the others elsewhere in Belltown. Nothing remains of the FEB. Universal Studios was the last film business to pull out, in 1980.
The building closed in 1991 and was demolished in 1992. South, the block of Second Avenue on the other side of Battery still contains many remnants of the Film Row era; the Jewel Box theater of the Rendezvous bar is the one remaining screening room in the neighborhood, but several other buildings remain. The McGraw-Kittenger-Case building on the southwest corner of Second and Battery was once the MGM building, is now a bar and restaurant. Just south of it is the former William Tell Hotel, once the film industry favorite low-income housing, now a traveler's hostel. Farther down the block, the former National Theater Building now houses several small businesses. At 2332 First Avenue, Paramount's former film exchange building has housed the Catholic Seaman's Club since 1955. William Arnold and developer
Exodus (American band)
Exodus is an American thrash metal band formed in 1979 in Richmond, California. They have gone through numerous lineup changes, two extended hiatuses, the deaths of two former band members, their current lineup consists of guitarists Gary Holt and Lee Altus, bassist Jack Gibson, drummer Tom Hunting, lead vocalist Steve "Zetro" Souza. Hunting is one of the original members, departed from Exodus twice, in 1989 and 2004, but rejoined in 2007. Holt joined the band about two years after its formation, is the only member of Exodus to appear on all their releases. Since its formation, Exodus has released ten studio albums, two live albums, one compilation album, a re-recording of their first album. Along with Metallica, Testament, Death Angel, Vio-Lence, Forbidden and Lȧȧz Rockit, they are credited as pioneers of the Bay Area thrash metal scene, have sold over five million albums worldwide. Exodus had particular success in the mid-to-late 1980s with their first three studio albums: Bonded by Blood, Pleasures of the Flesh and Fabulous Disaster.
The critical praise given to Fabulous Disaster garnered attention from major labels, including Capitol Records, with whom Exodus signed in 1989. The band released two more studio albums before disbanding in 1994. After temporarily reuniting in 1997–1998, Exodus reformed once again in 2001, since they have released five more studio albums, the most recent being Blood In, Blood Out; the band is writing a follow-up album, tentatively due for release in late 2019 or early 2020. The initial lineup of Exodus was formed in the late 1970s by guitarists Kirk Hammett and Tim Agnello, drummer/vocalist Tom Hunting, vocalist Keith Stewart, while they attended high school together; the band added bass guitarist Carlton Melson in 1980, the quintet began making a name for themselves playing backyard parties and various school functions. They played cover songs in the vein of 1970s hard rock and New wave of British heavy metal acts but developed some of their own original songs. Stewart soon left Hunting became the band's sole vocalist for some time.
Carlton Melson was replaced in 1981 by bass guitarist Geoff Andrews. Tim Agnello would leave the group, moving to New York City and staying involved in the music industry as a guitar player and writer; this left Exodus to perform as a power trio until a replacement was found in Hammett's friend and Exodus roadie Gary Holt. In 1981, Hammett met El Cerrito resident Paul Baloff at a North Berkeley house party, a friendship, started – according to Hammett – by their shared admiration for punk rock and 1970s heavy metal music. Baloff became the band's lead vocalist and the quintet recorded a 3-track demo tape in 1982 consisting of the songs "Whipping Queen", "Death and Domination" and "Warlord", a release which would be Hammett's only recording with Exodus; the band's music began to incorporate elements of hardcore punk into their NWOBHM roots, Exodus were considered the pioneers of the Bay Area thrash metal scene. In November 1982, Exodus opened a show at San Francisco's Old Waldorf venue for Metallica, a then-relatively unknown band from Los Angeles.
As the band began playing more shows in Bay Area clubs, they gained a large, fervent fan base known for their violent concert behavior. In early 1983, Hammett left Exodus to join Metallica on the recommendation of manager / producer Mark Whitaker, leaving Gary Holt to take creative control of the band. Hammett was replaced short term by Mike Maung, followed by Evan McCaskey, before the band found a permanent replacement in guitarist Rick Hunolt. Geoff Andrews left to start an early incarnation of pioneering death metal band Possessed, was replaced by bass guitarist Rob McKillop. In the spring of 1984, Exodus entered Turk Street Studios with producer Doug Piercy to record demos of songs that would appear on their debut album; the band was signed to New York-based Torrid Records and Exodus prepared to enter Prairie Sun Recording Studios that summer. The band recorded their first album, Bonded by Blood, in the summer of 1984 with the band's manager Mark Whitaker producing. 1984 concert photos from Exodus shows at Aquatic Park's Eastern Front Metal Festival and Ruthie's Inn were included on the album sleeve inserts.
Titled A Lesson in Violence, the album was not released until April 1985 amidst creative and business setbacks. Whilst Bonded By Blood is considered a influential thrash metal album today, critics have regarded the delay in its release as having hindered the impact the album could have had; as Allmusic reviewer Eduardo Rivadavia would write in his review for the album: "Had it been released after it was recorded in 1984, Exodus' Bonded by Blood might be regarded today alongside Metallica's Kill'Em All as one of the landmark albums responsible for launching the thrash metal wave." Exodus promoted the album by going on tour with Slayer. Four songs from their performance of April 5, 1985 at Studio 54 in New York City were filmed and released on home video as Combat Tour Live: The Ultimate Revenge; the band subsequently toured or played selected shows with bands like Exciter, Anthrax, King Diamond, Possessed, D. R. I. Nuclear Assault and Hirax. Shortly after touring for Bonded by Blood was complete, Paul Baloff was fired from the band due to his behavior related to alcohol and substance abuse, was replaced by Steve "Zetro" Souza, the lead vocalist for Legacy, an early incarnation of
Anthrax (American band)
Anthrax is an American heavy metal band from New York City, formed in 1981 by rhythm guitarist Scott Ian and bassist Dan Lilker. The group is considered one of the leaders of the thrash metal scene from the 1980s and is one of the "Big Four" thrash metal bands with Metallica and Slayer; as of April 2017, the band has released 11 studio albums, several other albums, 26 singles, including collaborating on a single with American hip hop group Public Enemy. According to Nielsen SoundScan, Anthrax sold 2.5 million records in the United States from 1991 to 2004, with worldwide sales of 10 million. Noted for its live performances, Anthrax signed with the independent label Megaforce Records, which released the band's debut studio album in 1984. Lilker soon left the band to form Nuclear Assault, was replaced by roadie Frank Bello. Lead vocalist Neil Turbin was replaced after two years by Matt Fallon, subsequently replaced in 1984 by Joey Belladonna. With a new lineup, the band recorded Spreading the Disease in 1985.
Anthrax's third album, Among the Living, was released in 1987 to critical praise. The band experienced another lineup change in 1992, when John Bush from Armored Saint replaced Belladonna as lead vocalist. Sound of White Noise was released the following year, peaking at number seven on the Billboard 200. Studio recordings during the 1990s saw the band, influenced by other genres, experimenting with its sound. Anthrax's lineup has changed several times over their career; the band has had a number of vocalists including Neil Turbin, Joey Belladonna, Dan Nelson and John Bush. Founding member Scott Ian and early arrival Charlie Benante, who joined Anthrax in 1983, are the only band members to appear on every album. Bassist Frank Bello has played on every album, except for the band's debut Fistful of Metal, which featured Dan Lilker. After rejoining the band from 2005 to 2007, Belladonna returned to Anthrax once again in 2010, the band has since recorded two more studio albums with him: Worship Music and For All Kings.
Anthrax was formed in Queens, New York City, on July 18, 1981 by guitarists Scott Ian and Dan Lilker. The band was named after the disease of the same name which Ian saw in a biology textbook, chosen because it sounded "sufficiently evil". Anthrax's initial line-up was completed by singer John Connelly, drummer Dave Weiss and bassist Paul Kahn. Kahn was replaced by bassist Kenny Kushner before Lilker took over on bass and Greg Walls joined as lead guitarist. Weiss was replaced early on by Greg D'Angelo, recommended to the band by Greg Walls. Scott Ian's younger brother Jason Rosenfeld was a temporary vocalist until Ian's former schoolmate Neil Turbin joined the band in late August 1982; the band recorded its first demo tape during this time. The band's first performance with Neil Turbin was at Great Gildersleeves, a New York club, in September 1982; this line-up played in the New York-New Jersey area over the next several months. Anthrax were on the same bill as the up-and-coming Metallica for several shows in the spring of 1983.
Guitarist Greg Walls left Anthrax that summer and was replaced by Bob Berry, recommended to Turbin by Rhett Forrester of Riot. Berry was in turn soon replaced by Dan Spitz, a member of the New Jersey thrash band Overkill. A second demo was recorded soon after. Drummer Charlie Benante replaced D'Angelo in September 1983 after a several-month courtship by Ian. By this time and Lilker had befriended New Jersey record store owner Jon Zazula, to whom they had given their demo tapes to critique. Zazula's new record label Megaforce Records had released Metallica's debut album Kill'Em All to great success. In late 1983, Zazula agreed to sign Anthrax and the band recorded the "Soldiers of Metal" single, produced by Ross the Boss of Manowar; the B-side was the song "Howling Furies", taken from a previous demo with Greg D'Angelo on drums. Anthrax released their debut album Fistful of Metal in January 1984. However, tensions were building between Lilker and the rest of the band for various reasons leading to the band firing Lilker.
He would soon form the band Nuclear Assault with former Anthrax roadie John Connelly. Lilker was replaced by roadie Frank Bello; the band went on a successful US tour opening for Raven and others to support Fistful of Metal. In August 1984, Neil Turbin and Anthrax went their separate ways after long standing personal issues. In his book Eddie Trunk's Essential Hard Rock and Heavy Metal, music journalist Eddie Trunk admits pressuring Jon Zazula, Scott Ian and Anthrax into firing Turbin because of his personal taste in vocals. Singer Matt Fallon was hired in late 1984, but he and the band soon parted ways; the remaining members decided to play live shows as a four-piece billed as "The Diseased" with Scott Ian on vocals, performing hardcore punk covers until a permanent singer could be found. In 1985, Joey Belladonna was chosen as the new vocalist; the Armed and Dangerous EP marked Belladonna's recording debut though it featured two live tracks from 1984 and the two songs from the "Soldiers of Metal" single that all had Neil Turbin performing on them.
Anthrax's second album Spreading the Disease was released in October 1985. With left over studio time from the sessions for the album Ian and former bandmate Dan Lilker collaborated with vocalist Billy Milano and formed the side project Stormtroopers of Death and recorded the album Speak English or Die in three days, whic
Neptune Theatre (Seattle)
The Neptune Theatre known as U-Neptune Theatre, is a performing arts venue in the University District neighborhood of Seattle, in the U. S. state of Washington. Opened in 1921, the 800-seat venue hosts a variety of events, including dance and music performances, film screenings, arts education. Prior to a renovation in 2011, the theater was home to classic films; the Neptune Theatre is operated by the non-profit Seattle Theatre Group, which operates the Paramount Theatre and Moore Theatre. It is one of several venues; the theater and building were designated a Seattle landmark in 2014. The Neptune Building, which houses the Neptune Theatre and several small businesses, is described as a "vaguely Renaissance Revival style", three-story building with a brick facade, its north facade, facing NE 45th Street, has a prominent marquee with the word "Neptune" in neon lighting. It was designed by Henderson Ryan, a Kentucky-born architect who worked on the Moore Theatre and Ballard Carnegie Library; the interior of the Neptune Theatre features a nautical theme, with a central concession stand shaped like a boat, marble finishes, statues of Neptune.
The "U-Neptune Theatre" was opened by the Puritan Theatre Company on November 16, 1921, featuring the silent movie Serenade and seating an audience of 1,000 people. The theater was built with a Kimball orchestral theater organ, removed in 1943. By the end of the 1940s, the theater was renamed the Neptune, given a small renovation and changed ownership; the theater went through several management changes during the coming decades, suffering from erratic bookings and poor equipment. It was kept afloat in the 1970s by showings of a cult classic film. In 1981, the Neptune came under the ownership of the Landmark Theatres chain, which owned the Harvard Exit Theatre in Seattle; the company renovated the theater with a new sound and projection system, hoping to bring out the venue's "long-sought potential". Landmark renovated the theater again in 1994, replacing seating and adding a Dolby Digital and Sony Dynamic Digital Sound system, along with a 16 mm film projector. In 1991, the theater set a record by playing The Rocky Horror Picture Show every week for 14 years, longer than any other movie had played in Seattle.
By 1993, it was one of four U. S. theaters which had played the show the longest, according to the National Rocky Horror Fan Club in New York, one of several U. S. theaters playing it in a midnight movie format. Landmark lost its lease in 2010 to the Seattle Theatre Group, a non-profit organization that operates the Moore Theatre and Paramount Theatre; the Neptune was closed for a $700,000 renovation in January 2011 and re-opened on September 25, 2011, becoming a performing arts and music venue in addition to a movie theater. The 2011 renovation saved the building from demolition for the adjoining U District Link light rail station on NE 45th Street. Sound Transit was forced to re-engineer the station to avoid the theater building, to underpin the Neptune's foundation. After the theater's 2011 renovation, its first act was Pacific Northwest musician Mark Lanegan at a soft opening in June; the building was nominated to become a city landmark in 2012. The Seattle City Council passed an ordinance in 2014 designating the Neptune Building as a city landmark, levying certain protections on the property.
Clinton Street Theater, a theatre in Portland, Oregon known for screening The Rocky Horror Picture Show The Rocky Horror Picture Show cult following Media related to Neptune Theater at Wikimedia Commons