Sri Lanka the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait; the legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo. Sri Lanka's documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years, it has a rich cultural heritage and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, the Pāli Canon, date back to the Fourth Buddhist council in 29 BC. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of great strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to the modern Maritime Silk Road. Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule as Ceylon. A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century to obtain political independence, granted in 1948.
Sri Lanka's recent history has been marred by a 26-year civil war, which decisively ended when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009. The current constitution stipulates the political system as a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system, it has had a long history of international engagement, as a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of only two South Asian countries rated "high" on the Human Development Index, with its HDI rating and per capita income the highest among South Asian nations; the Sri Lankan constitution accords Buddhism the "foremost place", although it does not identify it as a state religion. Buddhism is given special privileges in the Sri Lankan constitution; the island is home to many cultures and ethnicities. The majority of the population is from the Sinhalese ethnicity, while a large minority of Tamils have played an influential role in the island's history.
Moors, Malays and the indigenous Vedda are established groups on the island. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names. According to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni, because his followers' hands were reddened by the red soil of the area. In Hindu mythology, such as the Ramayana, the island was referred to as Lankā; the Tamil term Eelam, was used to designate the whole island in Sangam literature. The island was known under Chola rule as Mummudi Cholamandalam. Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanē from the word Tambapanni; the Persians and Arabs referred to it as Sarandīb from Cerentivu or Siṃhaladvīpaḥ. Ceilão, the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese Empire when it arrived in 1505, was transliterated into English as Ceylon; as a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon. The country is now known in Sinhala in Tamil as Ilaṅkai. In 1972, its formal name was changed to "Free and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka".
In 1978 it was changed to the "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka". As the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority; the pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years and even as far back as 500,000 years. The era spans the Palaeolithic and early Iron Ages. Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, which dates back to 37,000 BP, Batadombalena and Belilena are the most important. In these caves, archaeologists have found the remains of anatomically modern humans which they have named Balangoda Man, other evidence suggesting that they may have engaged in agriculture and kept domestic dogs for driving game. One of the first written references to the island is found in the Indian epic Ramayana, which provides details of a kingdom named Lanka, created by the divine sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera, the Lord of Wealth, it is said that Kubera was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, the powerful emperor who built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara.
The modern city of Wariyapola is described as Ravana's airport. Early inhabitants of Sri Lanka were ancestors of the Vedda people, an indigenous people numbering 2,500 living in modern-day Sri Lanka; the 19th-century Irish historian James Emerson Tennent theorized that Galle, a city in southern Sri Lanka, was the ancient seaport of Tarshish from which King Solomon is said to have drawn ivory and other valuables. According to the Mahāvamsa, a chronicle written in Pāḷi, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and Nagas. Ancient cemeteries that were used before 600 BC and other signs of advanced civilisation have been discovered in Sri Lanka. Sinhalese history traditionally starts in 543 BC with the arrival of Prince Vijaya, a semi-legendary prince who sailed with 700 followers to Sri Lanka, after being expelled from Vanga Kingdom (present-day Ben
Caspar Stoll was either a clerk or a porter at the Admiralty of Amsterdam. He is best known for the publication of most of the descriptions and plates of De Uitlandsche Kapellen, a work on butterflies, started by Pieter Cramer, he published several works of his own on other insect groups. Stoll's 1787 publication on stick insects and their relatives is well known, it was translated into French in 1813. Caspar Stoll lived most of his life in The Hague and Amsterdam. In 1746, he and his brother Georg Daniel both lived in The Hague, it looks like Caspar worked for a notary: several times he put his signature as a witness. His first wife was Maria Sardijn, her brother was a notary. On 18 January 1761, they married in a church in Scheveningen, they had four children baptized in The Hague. The godfather of the two boys was twice William V of Orange-Nassau and once baron Rengers. Before 1769 Stoll moved to Amsterdam; the couple lived on Haarlemmerdijk near Prinsengracht in a house he bought in 1778, close to Jan Christiaan Sepp, who published some of his works.
In Amsterdam, again four children were born. In 1772 two children died within a few months. After the death of his first wife, in June 1786, he married Anna Elizabeth Kaal from Hamburg, her brothers lived in the area nearby. They married with a settlement on 21 October 1791, after having a baby, born a few months before. Stoll was working hard to finish his handwritten copies. On 22 December 1791, Stoll had made up his will. Before the end of the year he died. On 2 January 1792, Stoll was buried in the Noorderkerk in the morning. With Anna Elizabeth he had a son, born after his death. A year after his death, Anna Elizabeth, a member of the Lutheran church, married A. R. van Weylik, a burgomaster of Edam. Stoll became involved with Pieter Cramer's De Uitlandsche Kapellen before 1774, he took over the entire work after the death of Cramer, on 26 September 1776. The first four volumes were finished in 1782 but Stoll kept working, at a much slower pace, caused by the lack of new material as he himself explained, on the supplement, finished in 1791.
Stoll mentioned that all the butterflies were collected in the Dutch colonies, like Surinam, Java and Sierra Leone. The work was completed "without losing sight of the all-powerful hand of the Creator". In the 18th century this was a sort of automatism, to safeguard a book from being burned. While working on the supplement, he worked on other insect groups, of which he was able to publish a volume on cicadas, one on heteroptera and a volume on mantids and related insects: Natuurlyke en naar't leeven naauwkeurig gekleurde afbeeldingen en beschryvingen der spooken etc.. On the title page of this and other works, Stoll mentioned he was a member of the "Natuuronderzoekend Genoodschap te Halle". With Pieter Cramer De Uitlandsche Kapellen, Amsterdam, it consists of 34 issues in four volumes with 400 drawings accompanied with descriptions of butterflies. Cramer, a member of the literary and patriotic society Concordia et Libertate, dedicated the work to the members of the society, he died. Stoll took over the entire responsibility for the project producing a supplement.
De Uitlandsche Kapellen is a key work in the history of entomology. Illustrated with hand-coloured engravings this was the first book on exotic Lepidoptera to use the new system by Carl Linnaeus for naming and classifying animals. Over 1,658 butterfly species are described, many illustrated for the first time. Gerrit Wartenaar is identified as the painter; the original paintings are in London. Proeve van eene rangschikkinge der donsvleugelige insecten, Lepidopterae / Caspar Stoll, 1782. De afbeeldingen der uitlandsche dag- en nagtkapellen, voorkomende in de vier deelen van het werk van wijlen den heere Peter Cramer: in orde gebragt en gevolgd naar mijne proeve van eene systematische rangschikkinge etc. Caspar Stoll / Amsterdam / 1787. Natuurlijke en naar't leven naauwkeurig gekleurde afbeeldingen en beschryvingen der spooken, wandelende bladen, zabelspringhaanen, treksprinkhaanen en kakkerlakken in alle vier deelen der waereld, Asia, Afrika en America huishoudende by een verzamelt en beschreeven door Caspar Stoll / Amsterdam / 1787.
Natuurlyke en naar't leeven naauwkeurig gekleurde afbeeldingen en beschryvingen der wantzen, in alle vier waerelds deelen Europa, Africa en America huishoudende etc. Caspar Stoll / published by Jan Christiaan Sepp / 1788. Natuurlyke en naar't leeven naauwkeurig gekleurde afbeeldingen en beschryvingen der cicaden, in alle vier waerelds deelen Europa, Africa en America huishoudende etc. Caspar Stoll / published by Jan Christiaan Sepp / 1788. Représentation exactement colorée d’après nature des Spectres ou Phasmes, des Mantes, des Sauterelles, des Grillons, des Criquets et des blattes qui se trouvent dans les quatre parties du monde / Amsterdam / 1813. Caspar Stoll lived in the fourth house on the left side Birthcertificates of five children Stoll’s illustrations of phasmatids Gaedike, R..
Jayanti is a small forest village within Buxa Tiger Reserve in Alipurduar district of West Bengal, India. It is located along the Jayanti River, it is popular with hikers for its views of wild fountains. A 13 km trek from Buxaduar to Jayanti passes through the dense forest of the Buxa Tiger Reserve. Jayanti features a stalactite cave known as the Mahakal cave; the nearest railway station is Rajabhatkhawa on the New Jalpaiguri-Alipurduar-Samuktala Road Line. Media related to Birds of Jayanti at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Butterflies of Jayanti & Samsing at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Flora of Jayanti & Samsing at Wikimedia Commons
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies, 10 per cent of the total described species of living organisms, it is one of the most widespread and recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera and Coleoptera. Lepidopteran species are characterized by more than three derived features; the most apparent is the presence of scales that cover the bodies, a proboscis. The scales are modified, flattened "hairs", give butterflies and moths their wide variety of colors and patterns. All species have some form of membranous wings, except for a few that have reduced wings or are wingless. Mating and the laying of eggs are carried out by adults near or on host plants for the larvae.
Like most other insects and moths are holometabolous, meaning they undergo complete metamorphosis. The larvae are called caterpillars, are different from their adult moth or butterfly forms, having a cylindrical body with a well-developed head, mandible mouth parts, three pairs of thoracic legs and from none up to five pairs of prolegs; as they grow, these larvae change in appearance, going through a series of stages called instars. Once matured, the larva develops into a pupa. A few butterflies and many moth species spin a silk case or cocoon prior to pupating, while others do not, instead going underground. A butterfly pupa, called a chrysalis, has a hard skin with no cocoon. Once the pupa has completed its metamorphosis, a sexually mature adult emerges; the Lepidoptera have, over millions of years, evolved a wide range of wing patterns and coloration ranging from drab moths akin to the related order Trichoptera, to the brightly colored and complex-patterned butterflies. Accordingly, this is the most recognized and popular of insect orders with many people involved in the observation, collection, rearing of, commerce in these insects.
A person who collects or studies this order is referred to as a lepidopterist. Butterflies and moths play an important role in the natural ecosystem as pollinators and as food in the food chain. In many species, the female may produce from 200 to 600 eggs, while in others, the number may approach 30,000 eggs in one day; the caterpillars hatching from these eggs can cause damage to large quantities of crops. Many moth and butterfly species are of economic interest by virtue of their role as pollinators, the silk they produce, or as pest species; the term was coined by Linnaeus in 1735 and is derived from Greek λεπίς, gen. λεπίδος and πτερόν. Sometimes, the term Rhopalocera is used for the clade of all butterfly species, derived from the Ancient Greek ῥόπαλον and κέρας meaning "club" and "horn" coming from the shape of the antennae of butterflies; the origins of the common names "butterfly" and "moth" are varied and obscure. The English word butterfly is with many variations in spelling. Other than that, the origin is unknown, although it could be derived from the pale yellow color of many species' wings suggesting the color of butter.
The species of Heterocera are called moths. The origins of the English word moth are more clear, deriving from the Old English moððe" from Common Germanic, its origins are related to Old English maða meaning "maggot" or from the root of "midge", which until the 16th century was used to indicate the larva in reference to devouring clothes. The etymological origins of the word "caterpillar", the larval form of butterflies and moths, are from the early 16th century, from Middle English catirpel, catirpeller an alteration of Old North French catepelose: cate, cat + pelose, hairy; the Lepidoptera are among the most successful groups of insects. They are found on all continents, except Antarctica, inhabit all terrestrial habitats ranging from desert to rainforest, from lowland grasslands to mountain plateaus, but always associated with higher plants angiosperms. Among the most northern dwelling species of butterflies and moths is the Arctic Apollo, found in the Arctic Circle in northeastern Yakutia, at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level.
In the Himalayas, various Apollo species such as Parnassius epaphus have been recorded to occur up to an altitude of 6,000 m above sea level. Some lepidopteran species exhibit symbiotic, phoretic, or parasitic lifestyles, inhabiting the bodies of organisms rather than the environment. Coprophagous pyralid moth species, called sloth moths, such as Bradipodicola hahneli and Cryptoses choloepi, are unusual in that they are found inhabiting the fur of sloths, mammals found in Central and South America. Two species of Tinea moths have been recorded as feeding on horny tissue and have been bred from the horns of cattle; the larva of Zenodochium coccivorella is an internal parasite of the coccid Kermes species. Many species have been recorded as breeding in natural materials or refuse such as owl pellets, bat caves, honeycombs or diseased fruit; as of 2007, there was 174,250 lepi
The Nymphalidae are the largest family of butterflies with more than 6,000 species distributed throughout most of the world, belonging to the superfamily Papilionoidea. These are medium-sized to large butterflies. Most species have a reduced pair of forelegs and many hold their colourful wings flat when resting, they are called brush-footed butterflies or four-footed butterflies, because they are known to stand on only four legs while the other two are curled up. Many species are brightly coloured and include popular species such as the emperors, monarch butterfly, admirals and fritillaries. However, the under wings are, in contrast dull and in some species look remarkably like dead leaves, or are much paler, producing a cryptic effect that helps the butterflies blend into their surroundings. Rafinesque introduced the name Nymphalia as a subfamily name in diurnal Lepidoptera. Rafinesque did not include Nymphalis among the listed genera, but Nymphalis was unequivocally implied in the formation of the name.
The attribution of the Nymphalidae to Rafinesque has now been adopted. For terms see External morphology of Lepidoptera. In the adult butterflies, the first pair of legs is small or reduced, giving the family the other names of four-footed or brush-footed butterflies; the caterpillars are hairy or spiky with projections on the head, the chrysalids have shiny spots. The forewings have the submedial vein unbranched and in one subfamily forked near the base; the hindwings have precostal veins. The cell in both wings is closed or open closed in the fore, open in the hindwing; the dorsal margin of the hindwing is channelled to receive the abdomen in many of the forms. The antennae always have two grooves on the underside. Throughout the family, the front pair of legs in the male, with three exceptions in the female is reduced in size and functionally impotent. In many of the forms of these subfamilies, the forelegs are kept pressed against the underside of the thorax, are in the male very inconspicuous.
The phylogeny of the Nymphalidae is complex. Several taxa are of unclear position, reflecting the fact that some subfamilies were well-recognized as distinct families due to insufficient study; the five main clades within the family are:The libytheine clade Libytheinae The danaine clade Danainae Host plant families include Apocynaceae and Moraceae. Ithomiini Most species have long wings, some have transparent wings. Host plants are in the families Apocynaceae and Solanaceae. Tellervini Caterpillars resemble those of the feed on Apocynaceae; the satyrine clade Calinaginae Mimics of the Danainae, they are restricted to host plants in the family Moraceae. CharaxinaeTropical canopy butterflies, the caterpillars have head spines or projections. Edible species, have some Batesian mimics. Host plants are in the families Annonaceae, Convolvulaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae, Piperaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae and Sapindaceae. Morphinae Include the spectacular neotropical Morpho, its food plants include the Arecaceae, Fabaceae, Menispermaceae and Sapindaceae.
Brassolini Host plants in the families Arecaceae, Heliconiaceae and Poaceae. Satyrinae Host plants are in the families Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, Heliconiaceae and Selaginellaceae; the heliconiine clade Heliconiinae Colourful tropical butterflies, they are noted for Müllerian mimicry. All species use host plants in the family Passifloraceae. Acraeini Host plants are in the families Asteraceae, Sterculiaceae and Urticaceae. LimenitidinaeThe nymphaline clade Apaturinae Host plants are in the family Ulmaceae. Caterpillars are smooth with bifid horns on the head. Biblidinae Cyrestinae Nymphalinae Some species migrate. Caterpillars are sometimes covered in spines. Host plants include Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fa
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.