Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, snakes, lizards and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders combined with that of modern amphibians, is called herpetology; because some reptiles are more related to birds than they are to other reptiles, the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping or clade. For this reason, many modern scientists prefer to consider the birds part of Reptilia as well, thereby making Reptilia a monophyletic class, including all living Diapsids; the earliest known proto-reptiles originated around 312 million years ago during the Carboniferous period, having evolved from advanced reptiliomorph tetrapods that became adapted to life on dry land. Some early examples include Casineria. In addition to the living reptiles, there are many diverse groups that are now extinct, in some cases due to mass extinction events. In particular, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event wiped out the pterosaurs, plesiosaurs and sauropods, as well as many species of theropods, including troodontids, dromaeosaurids and abelisaurids, along with many Crocodyliformes, squamates.
Modern non-avian reptiles inhabit all the continents except Antarctica, although some birds are found on the periphery of Antarctica. Several living subgroups are recognized: Testudines, 350 species. Reptiles are tetrapod vertebrates, creatures that either have four limbs or, like snakes, are descended from four-limbed ancestors. Unlike amphibians, reptiles do not have an aquatic larval stage. Most reptiles are oviparous, although several species of squamates are viviparous, as were some extinct aquatic clades – the fetus develops within the mother, contained in a placenta rather than an eggshell; as amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry land. Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals, with some providing initial care for their hatchlings. Extant reptiles range in size from a tiny gecko, Sphaerodactylus ariasae, which can grow up to 17 mm to the saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, which can reach 6 m in length and weigh over 1,000 kg.
In the 13th century the category of reptile was recognized in Europe as consisting of a miscellany of egg-laying creatures, including "snakes, various fantastic monsters, assorted amphibians, worms", as recorded by Vincent of Beauvais in his Mirror of Nature. In the 18th century, the reptiles were, from the outset of classification, grouped with the amphibians. Linnaeus, working from species-poor Sweden, where the common adder and grass snake are found hunting in water, included all reptiles and amphibians in class "III – Amphibia" in his Systema Naturæ; the terms "reptile" and "amphibian" were interchangeable, "reptile" being preferred by the French. Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti was the first to formally use the term "Reptilia" for an expanded selection of reptiles and amphibians similar to that of Linnaeus. Today, the two groups are still treated under the same heading as herptiles, it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that it became clear that reptiles and amphibians are, in fact, quite different animals, Pierre André Latreille erected the class Batracia for the latter, dividing the tetrapods into the four familiar classes of reptiles, amphibians and mammals.
The British anatomist Thomas Henry Huxley made Latreille's definition popular and, together with Richard Owen, expanded Reptilia to include the various fossil "antediluvian monsters", including dinosaurs and the mammal-like Dicynodon he helped describe. This was not the only possible classification scheme: In the Hunterian lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1863, Huxley grouped the vertebrates into mammals and ichthyoids, he subsequently proposed the names of Ichthyopsida for the latter two groups. In 1866, Haeckel demonstrated that vertebrates could be divided based on their reproductive strategies, that reptiles and mammals were united by the amniotic egg; the terms "Sauropsida" and "Theropsida" were used again in 1916 by E. S. Goodrich to distinguish between lizards and their relatives on the one hand and mammals and their extinct relatives on the other. Goodrich supported this division by the nature of the hearts and blood vessels in each group, other features, such as the structure of the forebrain.
According to Goodrich, both lineages evolved from an earlier stem group, Protosauria in which he included some animals today considered reptile-like amphibians, as well as early reptiles. In 1956, D. M. S. Watson observed that the first two groups diverged early in reptilian history, so he divided Goodrich's Protosauria between them, he reinterpreted Sauropsida and Theropsida to exclude birds and mammals, respectively. Thus his Sauropsida included Procolophonia, Millerosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechanisms underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non-living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system.
See branches of biology. The term biology is derived from the Greek word βίος, bios, "life" and the suffix -λογία, -logia, "study of." The Latin-language form of the term first appeared in 1736 when Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus used biologi in his Bibliotheca botanica. It was used again in 1766 in a work entitled Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae: tomus III, continens geologian, phytologian generalis, by Michael Christoph Hanov, a disciple of Christian Wolff; the first German use, was in a 1771 translation of Linnaeus' work. In 1797, Theodor Georg August Roose used the term in the preface of a book, Grundzüge der Lehre van der Lebenskraft. Karl Friedrich Burdach used the term in 1800 in a more restricted sense of the study of human beings from a morphological and psychological perspective; the term came into its modern usage with the six-volume treatise Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus, who announced: The objects of our research will be the different forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which these phenomena occur, the causes through which they have been effected.
The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology or the doctrine of life. Although modern biology is a recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent, China. However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most traced back to ancient Greece. While the formal study of medicine dates back to Hippocrates, it was Aristotle who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life. Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences into the Middle Ages. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz, Al-Dīnawarī, who wrote on botany, Rhazes who wrote on anatomy and physiology.
Medicine was well studied by Islamic scholars working in Greek philosopher traditions, while natural history drew on Aristotelian thought in upholding a fixed hierarchy of life. Biology began to develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's dramatic improvement of the microscope, it was that scholars discovered spermatozoa, bacteria and the diversity of microscopic life. Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. Advances in microscopy had a profound impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell. In 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that the basic unit of organisms is the cell and that individual cells have all the characteristics of life, although they opposed the idea that all cells come from the division of other cells. Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, by the 1860s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory.
Meanwhile and classification became the focus of natural historians. Carl Linnaeus published a basic taxonomy for the natural world in 1735, in the 1750s introduced scientific names for all his species. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, treated species as artificial categories and living forms as malleable—even suggesting the possibility of common descent. Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought. Serious evolutionary thinking originated with the works of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, the first to present a coherent theory of evolution, he posited that evolution was the result of environmental stress on properties of animals, meaning that the more and rigorously an organ was used, the more complex and efficient it would become, thus adapting the animal to its environment. Lamarck believed that these acquired traits could be passed on to the animal's offspring, who would
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes Amphisbaenia. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 meter long Komodo dragon. Most lizards are quadrupedal. Others are legless, have long snake-like bodies; some such as the forest-dwelling Draco lizards are able to glide. They are territorial, the males fighting off other males and signalling with brightly colours, to attract mates and to intimidate rivals. Lizards are carnivorous being sit-and-wait predators. Lizards make use of a variety of antipredator adaptations, including venom, reflex bleeding, the ability to sacrifice and regrow their tails; the adult length of species within the suborder ranges from a few centimeters for chameleons such as Brookesia micra and geckos such as Sphaerodactylus ariasae to nearly 3 m in the case of the largest living varanid lizard, the Komodo dragon.
Most lizards are small animals. Lizards have four legs and external ears, though some are legless, while snakes lack these characteristics. Lizards and snakes share a movable quadrate bone, distinguishing them from the rhynchocephalians, which have more rigid diapsid skulls; some lizards such as chameleons have prehensile tails. As in other reptiles, the skin of lizards is covered in overlapping scales made of keratin; this reduces water loss through evaporation. This adaptation enables lizards to thrive in some of the driest deserts on earth; the skin is tough and leathery, is shed as the animal grows. Unlike snakes which shed the skin in a single piece, lizards slough their skin in several pieces; the scales may be modified into spines for display or protection, some species have bone osteoderms underneath the scales. The dentitions of lizards reflect their wide range of diets, including carnivorous, omnivorous, herbivorous and molluscivorous. Species have uniform teeth suited to their diet, but several species have variable teeth, such as cutting teeth in the front of the jaws and crushing teeth in the rear.
Most species are pleurodont, though chameleons are acrodont. The tongue can be extended outside the mouth, is long. In the beaded lizards and monitor lizards, the tongue is forked and used or to sense the environment, continually flicking out to sample the environment, back to transfer molecules to the vomeronasal organ responsible for chemosensation, analogous to but different from smell or taste. In geckos, the tongue is used to lick the eyes clean: they have no eyelids. Chameleons have long sticky tongues which can be extended to catch their insect prey. Three lineages, the geckos and chameleons, have modified the scales under their toes to form adhesive pads prominent in the first two groups; the pads are composed of millions of tiny setae which fit to the substrate to adhere using van der Waals forces. In addition, the toes of chameleons are divided into two opposed groups on each foot, enabling them to perch on branches as birds do. Aside from legless lizards, most lizards are quadrupedal and move using gaits with alternating movement of the right and left limbs with substantial body bending.
This body bending prevents significant respiration during movement, limiting their endurance, in a mechanism called Carrier's constraint. Several species can run bipedally, a few can prop themselves up on their hindlimbs and tail while stationary. Several small species such as those in the genus Draco can glide: some can attain a distance of 60 metres, losing 10 metres in height; some species, like chameleons, adhere to vertical surfaces including glass and ceilings. Some species, like the common basilisk, can run across water. Lizards make use of their senses of sight, touch and hearing like other vertebrates; the balance of these varies with the habitat of different species. Monitor lizards have acute vision and olfactory senses; some lizards make unusual use of their sense organs: chameleons can steer their eyes in different directions, sometimes providing non-overlapping fields of view, such as forwards and backwards at once. Lizards lack external ears, having instead a circular opening in which the tympanic membrane can be seen.
Many species rely on hearing for early warning of predators, flee at the slightest sound. As in snakes and many mammals, all lizards have a specialised olfactory system, the vomeronasal organ, used to detect pheromones. Monitor lizards transfer scent from the tip of their tongue to the organ; some lizards iguanas, have retained a photosensory organ on the top of their heads called the parietal eye, a basal feature present in the tuatara. This "eye" has only a rudimentary retina and lens and cannot form images, but is sensitive to changes in light and dark and can detect movemen
In biology, phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms. These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits; the result of these analyses is a phylogeny – a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, represent the "end", or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. Phylogenetic analyses have become central to understanding biodiversity, evolution and genomes. Taxonomy is the identification and classification of organisms, it is richly informed by phylogenetics, but remains a methodologically and logically distinct discipline. The degree to which taxonomies depend on phylogenies differs depending on the school of taxonomy: phenetics ignores phylogeny altogether, trying to represent the similarity between organisms instead.
Usual methods of phylogenetic inference involve computational approaches implementing the optimality criteria and methods of parsimony, maximum likelihood, MCMC-based Bayesian inference. All these depend upon an implicit or explicit mathematical model describing the evolution of characters observed. Phenetics, popular in the mid-20th century but now obsolete, used distance matrix-based methods to construct trees based on overall similarity in morphology or other observable traits, assumed to approximate phylogenetic relationships. Prior to 1950, phylogenetic inferences were presented as narrative scenarios; such methods are ambiguous and lack explicit criteria for evaluating alternative hypotheses. The term "phylogeny" derives from the German Phylogenie, introduced by Haeckel in 1866, the Darwinian approach to classification became known as the "phyletic" approach. During the late 19th century, Ernst Haeckel's recapitulation theory, or "biogenetic fundamental law", was accepted, it was expressed as "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny", i.e. the development of a single organism during its lifetime, from germ to adult, successively mirrors the adult stages of successive ancestors of the species to which it belongs.
But this theory has long been rejected. Instead, ontogeny evolves – the phylogenetic history of a species cannot be read directly from its ontogeny, as Haeckel thought would be possible, but characters from ontogeny can be used as data for phylogenetic analyses. 14th century, lex parsimoniae, William of Ockam, English philosopher and Franciscan friar, but the idea goes back to Aristotle, precursor concept 1763, Bayesian probability, Rev. Thomas Bayes, precursor concept 18th century, Pierre Simon first to use ML, precursor concept 1809, evolutionary theory, Philosophie Zoologique, Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck, precursor concept, foreshadowed in the 17th century and 18th century by Voltaire and Leibniz, with Leibniz proposing evolutionary changes to account for observed gaps suggesting that many species had become extinct, others transformed, different species that share common traits may have at one time been a single race foreshadowed by some early Greek philosophers such as Anaximander in the 6th century BC and the atomists of the 5th century BC, who proposed rudimentary theories of evolution 1837, Darwin's notebooks show an evolutionary tree 1843, distinction between homology and analogy, Richard Owen, precursor concept 1858, Paleontologist Heinrich Georg Bronn published a hypothetical tree to illustrating the paleontological "arrival" of new, similar species following the extinction of an older species.
Bronn did not propose a mechanism responsible for precursor concept. 1858, elaboration of evolutionary theory and Wallace in Origin of Species by Darwin the following year, precursor concept 1866, Ernst Haeckel, first publishes his phylogeny-based evolutionary tree, precursor concept 1893, Dollo's Law of Character State Irreversibility, precursor concept 1912, ML recommended and popularized by Ronald Fisher, precursor concept 1921, Tillyard uses term "phylogenetic" and distinguishes between archaic and specialized characters in his classification system 1940, term "clade" coined by Lucien Cuénot 1949, Jackknife resampling, Maurice Quenouille, precursor concept 1950, Willi Hennig's classic formalization 1952, William Wagner's groundplan divergence method 1953, "cladogenesis" coined 1960, "cladistic" coined by Cain and Harrison 1963, first attempt to use ML for phylogenetics and Cavalli-Sforza 1965 Camin-Sokal parsimony, first parsimony criterion and first computer program/algorithm for cladistic analysis both by Camin and Sokal character compatibility method called clique analysis, introduced independently by Camin and Sokal and E. O. Wilson 1966 English translation of Hennig "cladistics" and "cladogram" coined 1969 dynamic and successive wei
Archaea constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms. These microbes are prokaryotes. Archaea were classified as bacteria, receiving the name archaebacteria, but this classification is outdated. Archaeal cells have unique properties separating them from the other two domains of life and Eukarya. Archaea are further divided into multiple recognized phyla. Classification is difficult because most have not been isolated in the laboratory and were only detected by analysis of their nucleic acids in samples from their environment. Archaea and bacteria are similar in size and shape, although a few archaea have shapes quite unlike that of bacteria, such as the flat and square-shaped cells of Haloquadratum walsbyi. Despite this morphological similarity to bacteria, archaea possess genes and several metabolic pathways that are more related to those of eukaryotes, notably for the enzymes involved in transcription and translation. Other aspects of archaeal biochemistry are unique, such as their reliance on ether lipids in their cell membranes, including archaeols.
Archaea use more energy sources than eukaryotes: these range from organic compounds, such as sugars, to ammonia, metal ions or hydrogen gas. Salt-tolerant archaea use sunlight as an energy source, other species of archaea fix carbon, but unlike plants and cyanobacteria, no known species of archaea does both. Archaea reproduce asexually by budding; the first observed archaea were extremophiles, living in harsh environments, such as hot springs and salt lakes with no other organisms, but improved detection tools led to the discovery of archaea in every habitat, including soil and marshlands. They are part of the microbiota of all organisms, in the human microbiota they are important in the gut, on the skin. Archaea are numerous in the oceans, the archaea in plankton may be one of the most abundant groups of organisms on the planet. Archaea are a major part of Earth's life, may play roles in the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle. No clear examples of archaeal pathogens or parasites are known. Instead they are mutualists or commensals, such as the methanogens that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract in humans and ruminants, where their vast numbers aid digestion.
Methanogens are used in biogas production and sewage treatment, biotechnology exploits enzymes from extremophile archaea that can endure high temperatures and organic solvents. For much of the 20th century, prokaryotes were regarded as a single group of organisms and classified based on their biochemistry and metabolism. For example, microbiologists tried to classify microorganisms based on the structures of their cell walls, their shapes, the substances they consume. In 1965, Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling proposed instead using the sequences of the genes in different prokaryotes to work out how they are related to each other; this phylogenetic approach is the main method used today. Archaea – at that time only the methanogens were known – were first classified separately from bacteria in 1977 by Carl Woese and George E. Fox based on their ribosomal RNA genes, they called these groups the Urkingdoms of Archaebacteria and Eubacteria, though other researchers treated them as kingdoms or subkingdoms.
Woese and Fox gave the first evidence for Archaebacteria as a separate "line of descent": 1. Lack of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, 2. Two unusual coenzymes, 3. Results of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. To emphasize this difference, Otto Kandler and Mark Wheelis proposed reclassifying organisms into three natural domains known as the three-domain system: the Eukarya, the Bacteria and the Archaea, in what is now known as "The Woesian Revolution"; the word archaea comes from the Ancient Greek ἀρχαῖα, meaning "ancient things", as the first representatives of the domain Archaea were methanogens and it was assumed that their metabolism reflected Earth's primitive atmosphere and the organisms' antiquity, but as new habitats were studied, more organisms were discovered. Extreme halophilic and hyperthermophilic microbes were included in Archaea. For a long time, archaea were seen as extremophiles that only exist in extreme habitats such as hot springs and salt lakes, but by the end of the 20th century, archaea had been identified in non-extreme environments as well.
Today, they are known to be a large and diverse group of organisms abundantly distributed throughout nature. This new appreciation of the importance and ubiquity of archaea came from using polymerase chain reaction to detect prokaryotes from environmental samples by multiplying their ribosomal genes; this allows the detection and identification of organisms that have not been cultured in the laboratory. The classification of archaea, of prokaryotes in general, is a moving and contentious field. Current classification systems aim to organize archaea into groups of organisms that share structural features and common ancestors; these classifications rely on the use of the sequence of ribosomal RNA genes to reveal relationships between organisms. Most of the culturable and well-investigated species of archaea are members of two main phyla, the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Other groups have been tentatively created. For example, the peculiar species Nanoarchaeum equitans, discovered in 2003, has been given its own phylum, the Nanoarchaeota.
A new phylum Korarchaeota has been proposed. It contains a sm
The Apocrita are a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera. It includes wasps and ants, consists of many families, it contains the most advanced hymenopterans and is distinguished from Symphyta by the narrow "waist" formed between the first two segments of the actual abdomen. Therefore, it is general practice, when discussing the body of an apocritan in a technical sense, to refer to the mesosoma and metasoma rather than the "thorax" and "abdomen", respectively; the evolution of a constricted waist was an important adaption for the parasitoid lifestyle of the ancestral apocritan, allowing more maneuverability of the female's ovipositor. The ovipositor either extends or is retracted, may be developed into a stinger for both defense and paralyzing prey. Larvae are legless and blind, either feed inside a host or in a nest cell provisioned by their mothers; the Apocrita have been split into two groups, "Parasitica" and Aculeata, but these are rankless groupings in present classifications, if they appear at all.
The term Parasitica is an artificial group comprising the majority of hymenopteran insects, with respective members living as parasitoids on what amounts to nearly half of all insects, many noninsects. Most species are small, with the ovipositor adapted for piercing. In some hosts, the parasitoids induce metamorphosis prematurely, in others it is prolonged. There are species that are hyperparasites, parasitoids on other parasitoids; the Parasitica lay their eggs inside or on another insect and their larvae grow and develop within or on that host. The host is nearly always killed. Many parasitic hymenopterans are used as biological control agents to control pests, such as caterpillars, true bugs and hoppers and weevils; the Aculeata are a monophyletic group that includes those species in which the female's ovipositor is modified into a stinger to inject venom. Groups include the familiar ants and various types of parasitic and predatory wasps. Among the nonparasitic and nonsocial Aculeata, larvae are fed with captured prey or may be fed pollen and nectar.
The social Aculeata feed their young prey, or pollen and nectar, or seeds, fungi, or nonviable eggs. The Apocrita contains a large number of families; some traditional taxa such as the Parasitica have been found on molecular analysis to be paraphyletic. Parasitoidism evolved once, it is found today across most Apocritan families, though it has been secondarily lost several times; the phylogenetic tree gives a condensed overview of the phylogeny, illustrated with major groups. The tree is not resolved. Suborder Apocrita Aculeata Superfamily Apoidea Family Ampulicidae Family Andrenidae Family Apidae Family Colletidae Family Crabronidae Family Halictidae Family Heterogynaidae Family Megachilidae Family Melittidae Family Stenotritidae Family Sphecidae Superfamily Chrysidoidea Family Bethylidae Family Chrysididae Family Dryinidae Family Embolemidae Family Plumariidae Family Sclerogibbidae Family Scolebythidae Superfamily Vespoidea Family Bradynobaenidae Family Mutillidae Family Pompilidae Family Rhopalosomatidae Family Sapygidae Family Scoliidae Family Sierolomorphidae Family Tiphiidae Family Vespidae Superfamily Formicoidea Family Formicidae Parasitica Superfamily Ceraphronoidea Family Ceraphronidae Family Megaspilidae Superfamily Chalcidoidea Family Agaonidae Family Aphelinidae Family Chalcididae Family Encyrtidae Family Eucharitidae Family Eulophidae Family Eupelmidae Family Eurytomidae Family Leucospidae Family Mymaridae – the smallest of all insects Family Ormyridae Family Perilampidae Family Pteromalidae Family Rotoitidae Family Signiphoridae Family Tanaostigmatidae Family Tetracampidae Family Torymidae Family Trichogrammatidae Superfamily Cynipoidea Family Austrocynipidae Family Cynipidae Family Figitidae Family Ibaliidae Family Liopteridae Superfamily Diaprioidea Family Austroniidae Family Diapriidae Family Maamingidae Family Monomachidae Superfamily Evanioidea Family Aulacidae Family Evaniidae Family Gasteruptiidae Superfamily Ichneumonoidea Family Braconidae Family Ichneumonidae Superfamily Megalyroidea Family Megalyridae Superfamily Mymarommatoidea – sometimes called Serphitoidea Family Mymarommatidae Superfamily Platygastroidea Family Platygastridae Family Scelionidae Superfamily Proctotrupoidea Family Heloridae Family Pelecinidae Family Peradeniidae Family Proctorenyxidae Family Proctotrupidae Family Roproniidae Family Vanhorniidae Superfamily Stephanoidea Family Stephanidae Superfamily Trigonaloidea Family Trigonalidae Grimaldi, D. & Engel, M.
S.. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0. Suborder Apocrita – Ants and Wasps – BugGuide. Net — images and other information Science Direct — Apocrita. An Overview Tree of Life Balades Entomologiques — "entomological walks" with images
Monkey is a common name that may refer to groups or species of mammals, in part, the simians of infraorder Simiiformes. The term is applied descriptively to groups of primates, such as families of new world monkeys and old world monkeys. Many monkey species are tree-dwelling, although there are species that live on the ground, such as baboons. Most species are active during the day. Monkeys are considered to be intelligent the old world monkeys of Catarrhini. Simians and tarsiers emerged within haplorrhines some 60 million years ago. New World monkeys and catarrhine monkeys emerged within the simians some 35 million years ago. Old World monkeys and Hominoidea emerged within the catarrhine monkeys some 25 million years ago. Extinct basal simians such as Aegyptopithecus or Parapithecus and sometimes the Catarrhini group are considered monkeys by primatologists. Lemurs and galagos are not monkeys. Like monkeys, tarsiers are haplorhine primates. Apes emerged within "monkeys" as sister of the Cercopithecidae in the Catarrhini, so cladistically they are monkeys as well.
There has been some resistance to directly designate apes as monkeys despite the scientific evidence, so "Old World monkey" may be taken to mean the Cercopithecoidea or the Catarrhini. That apes are monkeys was realized by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon in the 18th century. Monkeys can be distinguished from other primates by having only two pectoral nipples, a pendulous penis, the lack of sensory whiskers. According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word "monkey" may originate in a German version of the Reynard the Fox fable, published circa 1580. In this version of the fable, a character named. In English, no clear distinction was made between "ape" and "monkey". Colloquially, the terms "monkey" and "ape" are used interchangeably. A few monkey species have the word "ape" in their common name, such as the Barbary ape. In the first half of the 20th century, the idea developed that there were trends in primate evolution and that the living members of the order could be arranged in a series, leading through "monkeys" and "apes" to humans.
Monkeys thus constituted a "grade" on the path to humans and were distinguished from "apes". Scientific classifications are now more based on monophyletic groups, groups consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor; the New World monkeys and the Old World monkeys are each monophyletic groups, but their combination was not, since it excluded hominoids. Thus the term "monkey" no longer referred to a recognized scientific taxon; the smallest accepted taxon which contains all the monkeys is the infraorder Simiiformes, or simians. However this contains the hominoids, so that monkeys are, in terms of recognized taxa, non-hominoid simians. Colloquially and pop-culturally, the term is ambiguous and sometimes monkey includes non-human hominoids. In addition, frequent arguments are made for a monophyletic usage of the word "monkey" from the perspective that usage should reflect cladistics. A group of monkeys may be referred to as a tribe or a troop. Two separate groups of primates are referred to as "monkeys": New World monkeys from South and Central America and Old World monkeys from Africa and Asia.
Apes —consisting of gibbons, gorillas and humans—are catarrhines but were classically distinguished from monkeys. Monkeys range in size from the pygmy marmoset, which can be as small as 117 millimetres with a 172-millimetre tail and just over 100 grams in weight, to the male mandrill 1 metre long and weighing up to 36 kilograms; some are arboreal. Some characteristics are shared among the groups. Old World monkeys have trichromatic color vision like that of humans, while New World monkeys may be trichromatic, dichromatic, or—as in the owl monkeys and greater galagos—monochromatic. Although both the New and Old World monkeys, like the apes, have forward-facing eyes, the faces of Old World and New World monkeys look different, though again, each group shares some features such as the types of noses and rumps; the following list shows where the various monkey families are placed in the classification of living primates. ORDER PRIMATES Suborder Strepsirrhini: lemurs and galagos Suborder Haplorhini: tarsiers and apes Infraorder Tarsiiformes Family Tarsiidae: tarsiers Infraorder Simiiformes: simians Parvorder Platyrrhini: New World monkeys Family Callitrichidae: marmosets and tamarins Family Cebidae: capuchins and squirrel monkeys Family Aotidae: night monkeys Family Pitheciidae: titis and uakaris Family Atelidae: howler and woolly monkeys Parvorder Catarrhini Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Family Cercopithec