1.
Decimal
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This article aims to be an accessible introduction. For the mathematical definition, see Decimal representation, the decimal numeral system has ten as its base, which, in decimal, is written 10, as is the base in every positional numeral system. It is the base most widely used by modern civilizations. Decimal fractions have terminating decimal representations and other fractions have repeating decimal representations, Decimal notation is the writing of numbers in a base-ten numeral system. Examples are Brahmi numerals, Greek numerals, Hebrew numerals, Roman numerals, Roman numerals have symbols for the decimal powers and secondary symbols for half these values. Brahmi numerals have symbols for the nine numbers 1–9, the nine decades 10–90, plus a symbol for 100, Chinese numerals have symbols for 1–9, and additional symbols for powers of ten, which in modern usage reach 1072. Positional decimal systems include a zero and use symbols for the ten values to represent any number, positional notation uses positions for each power of ten, units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. The position of each digit within a number denotes the multiplier multiplied with that position has a value ten times that of the position to its right. There were at least two independent sources of positional decimal systems in ancient civilization, the Chinese counting rod system. Ten is the number which is the count of fingers and thumbs on both hands, the English word digit as well as its translation in many languages is also the anatomical term for fingers and toes. In English, decimal means tenth, decimate means reduce by a tenth, however, the symbols used in different areas are not identical, for instance, Western Arabic numerals differ from the forms used by other Arab cultures. A decimal fraction is a fraction the denominator of which is a power of ten. g, Decimal fractions 8/10, 1489/100, 24/100000, and 58900/10000 are expressed in decimal notation as 0.8,14.89,0.00024,5.8900 respectively. In English-speaking, some Latin American and many Asian countries, a period or raised period is used as the separator, in many other countries, particularly in Europe. The integer part, or integral part of a number is the part to the left of the decimal separator. The part from the separator to the right is the fractional part. It is usual for a number that consists only of a fractional part to have a leading zero in its notation. Any rational number with a denominator whose only prime factors are 2 and/or 5 may be expressed as a decimal fraction and has a finite decimal expansion. 1/2 =0.5 1/20 =0.05 1/5 =0.2 1/50 =0.02 1/4 =0.25 1/40 =0.025 1/25 =0.04 1/8 =0.125 1/125 =0.008 1/10 =0
2.
The New York Times
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The New York Times is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B. Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond, owner and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance, continuing and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
3.
Clifford A. Pickover
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Other Fellows have included Carl Sagan and Isaac Asimov. He has been awarded over 300 United States patents, and his The Math Book was winner of the 2011 Neumann Prize. He received his Ph. D. in 1982 from Yale Universitys Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Pickover graduated first in his class from Franklin and Marshall College, after completing the four-year undergraduate program in three years. He joined IBM at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in 1982, as a member of the speech synthesis group, for much of his career, Pickover has published technical articles in the areas of scientific visualization, computer art, and recreational mathematics. Pickover is still employed at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center and he is currently an associate editor for the scientific journal Computers and Graphics and is an editorial board member for Odyssey and Leonardo. He is also the Brain-Strain columnist for Odyssey magazine, and, for many years, Pickover has received more than 100 IBM invention achievement awards, three research division awards, and four external honor awards. Pickovers primary interest is in finding new ways to expand creativity by melding art, science, mathematics, Pickover is an inventor with over 300 patents, the author of puzzle calendars, and puzzle contributor to magazines geared to children and adults. His Neoreality and Heaven Virus science-fiction series explores the fabric of reality and he also has published articles in the areas of skepticism, psychology, and technical speculation. Additional visualization work includes topics that involve breathing motions of proteins, snow-flake like patterns for speech sounds, cartoon-face representations of data, Pickover has also written extensively on the reported experiences of people on the psychotropic compound DMT. Such apparent entities as Machine Elves are described as well as Insects From A Parallel Universe, on November 4,2006, he began Wikidumper. org, a popular blog featuring articles being considered for deletion by English Wikipedia. Pickover stalks are certain kinds of details that are found in the Mandelbrot set in the study of fractal geometry. In some renditions of this behavior, the closer that the point approaches, the logarithm of the distance is taken to accentuate the details. This work grew from his work with Julia sets and Pickover biomorphs. In Frontiers of Scientific Visualization Pickover explored the art and science of making the unseen workings of nature visible, in Visualizing Biological Information Pickover considered biological data of all kinds, which is proliferating at an incredible rate. According to Pickover, if humans attempt to read data in the form of numbers and letters. If the information is rendered graphically, however, human analysts can assimilate it, the emphasis of this work is on the novel graphical and musical representation of information containing sequences, such as DNA and amino acid sequences, to help us find hidden pattern and meaning. X and y are called the fangs, as an example,1260 is a vampire number because it can be expressed as 21 ×60 =1260. Note that the digits of the factors 21 and 60 can be found, in some scrambled order, similarly,136,948 is a vampire because 136,948 =146 ×938
4.
Oxford University Press
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Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUPs chief executive, Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century. The university became involved in the print trade around 1480, and grew into a printer of Bibles, prayer books. OUP took on the project became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, by contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year. OUP was first exempted from United States corporation tax in 1972, as a department of a charity, OUP is exempt from income tax and corporate tax in most countries, but may pay sales and other commercial taxes on its products. The OUP today transfers 30% of its surplus to the rest of the university. OUP is the largest university press in the world by the number of publications, publishing more than 6,000 new books every year, the Oxford University Press Museum is located on Great Clarendon Street, Oxford. Visits must be booked in advance and are led by a member of the archive staff, displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, and the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary. The first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood, the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinuss Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, anonymous, printer. Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as 1468, thus apparently pre-dating Caxton, roods printing included John Ankywylls Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century, the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxfords case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, Oxfords chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the universitys printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute, Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, and benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers Company and the Kings Printer and these were brought together in Oxfords Great Charter in 1636, which gave the university the right to print all manner of books. Laud also obtained the privilege from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford and this privilege created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although initially it was held in abeyance. The Stationers Company was deeply alarmed by the threat to its trade, under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes
5.
Recursion
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Recursion occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type. Recursion is used in a variety of disciplines ranging from linguistics to logic, the most common application of recursion is in mathematics and computer science, where a function being defined is applied within its own definition. While this apparently defines a number of instances, it is often done in such a way that no loop or infinite chain of references can occur. The ancestors of ones ancestors are also ones ancestors, the Fibonacci sequence is a classic example of recursion, Fib =0 as base case 1, Fib =1 as base case 2, For all integers n >1, Fib, = Fib + Fib. Many mathematical axioms are based upon recursive rules, for example, the formal definition of the natural numbers by the Peano axioms can be described as,0 is a natural number, and each natural number has a successor, which is also a natural number. By this base case and recursive rule, one can generate the set of all natural numbers, recursively defined mathematical objects include functions, sets, and especially fractals. There are various more tongue-in-cheek definitions of recursion, see recursive humor, Recursion is the process a procedure goes through when one of the steps of the procedure involves invoking the procedure itself. A procedure that goes through recursion is said to be recursive, to understand recursion, one must recognize the distinction between a procedure and the running of a procedure. A procedure is a set of steps based on a set of rules, the running of a procedure involves actually following the rules and performing the steps. An analogy, a procedure is like a recipe, running a procedure is like actually preparing the meal. Recursion is related to, but not the same as, a reference within the specification of a procedure to the execution of some other procedure. For instance, a recipe might refer to cooking vegetables, which is another procedure that in turn requires heating water, for this reason recursive definitions are very rare in everyday situations. An example could be the procedure to find a way through a maze. Proceed forward until reaching either an exit or a branching point, If the point reached is an exit, terminate. Otherwise try each branch in turn, using the procedure recursively, if every trial fails by reaching only dead ends, return on the path led to this branching point. Whether this actually defines a terminating procedure depends on the nature of the maze, in any case, executing the procedure requires carefully recording all currently explored branching points, and which of their branches have already been exhaustively tried. This can be understood in terms of a definition of a syntactic category. A sentence can have a structure in which what follows the verb is another sentence, Dorothy thinks witches are dangerous, so a sentence can be defined recursively as something with a structure that includes a noun phrase, a verb, and optionally another sentence
6.
Freeman Dyson
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Freeman John Dyson FRS is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician, known for his work in quantum electrodynamics, solid-state physics, astronomy and nuclear engineering. He is professor emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study, a Visitor of Ralston College, born on 15 December 1923, at Crowthorne in Berkshire, Dyson is the son of the English composer George Dyson, who was later knighted. His mother had a law degree, and after Dyson was born she worked as a social worker, at the age of five he calculated the number of atoms in the sun. As a child, he showed an interest in numbers and in the solar system. Politically, Dyson says he was brought up as a socialist, from 1936 to 1941, Dyson was a Scholar at Winchester College, where his father was Director of Music. After the war, Dyson was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1946 to 1949, he was a Fellow of his college, occupying rooms just below those of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, who resigned his professorship in 1947. In 1947, he published two papers in number theory, in 1947, Dyson moved to the United States as a Commonwealth Fellow to earn a physics doctorate with Hans Bethe at Cornell University. Within a week, however, he had made the acquaintance of Richard Feynman, the budding English physicist recognized the brilliance of the flamboyant American, and attached himself as quickly as possible. He then moved to the Institute for Advanced Study, before returning to England and he was the first person after their creator to appreciate the power of Feynman diagrams, and his paper written in 1948 and published in 1949 was the first to make use of them. He said in paper that Feynman diagrams were not just a computational tool, but a physical theory. Dysons paper and also his lectures presented Feynmans theories of QED in a form that other physicists could understand, Robert Oppenheimer, in particular, was persuaded by Dyson that Feynmans new theory was as valid as Schwingers and Tomonagas. Oppenheimer rewarded Dyson with an appointment at the Institute for Advanced Study, for proving me wrong. Also in 1949, in related work, Dyson invented the Dyson series and it was this paper that inspired John Ward to derive his celebrated Ward identity. In 1957, he became a citizen of the United States. One reason he gave decades later is that his children born in the US had not been recognized as British subjects, from 1957 to 1961, he worked on the Orion Project, which proposed the possibility of space-flight using nuclear pulse propulsion. A prototype was demonstrated using conventional explosives, but the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty permitted only underground nuclear testing, so the project was abandoned. In 1958, he led the team for the TRIGA. In condensed matter physics, Dyson also analysed the phase transition of the Ising model in 1 dimension, Dyson also did work in a variety of topics in mathematics, such as topology, analysis, number theory and random matrices