Boizenburg is a municipality in the Ludwigslust-Parchim district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It is situated on the bank of the Elbe,53 km west of Ludwigslust,25 km northeast of Lüneburg and 50 km east of Hamburg. It is part of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region, Boizenburgs historical old town stretches along the Elbe, has a harbour and offers heritage baroque timberframe and brick buildings. As per the dictates of the Yalta Conference, Boizenburg was placed just a few kilometers behind the perimeter of the Iron Curtain, the German name Boyceneburg was first documented in 1158. The written form changed to Boiceneburg and Boizeneburg, the old Low German name for the town and river likely stems from the Slavic boj for war. Boizenburg suffered during the Thirty Years War and its old castle was burnt down by Swedish troops in 1628, in 1709 the church and 160 or more medieval dwellings were incinerated by a fire. The Town Hall was rebuilt in 1712 and the layout of the town was redesigned by Prussian architects sent from Schwerin and they focused on incorporating efficiency of movement with fire-resistance, better sanitation and public space.
During the Napoleonic Wars French troops were quartered in Boizenburg in 1807, a battle was fought with the retreating French army near Boizenburg in 1813. From 1815 to 1918, Boizenburg was part of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, in 1826 a highway was built, connecting Hamburg and subsequently Boizenburg. In 1846 the railway between Berlin and Hamburg was constructed, Boizenburg was included with its own train station along this important route. The shipbuilding yard Lemmsche founded in 1793 became highly industrialized in 1852 and produced many wooden, the shipbuilders Thomsen & Co supported the German war effort during World War II. In 1973 the SED reactivated the shipbuilding facilities for the production of smaller ships for the USSR. After being privatized in 1989, the yard was declared bankrupt in 1997, today smaller independent companies are active in the old ship yard. The Boizenburg Tile Factory established by Hans Duensing in 1903, became Europes largest tile manufacturer by 1937, after being re-established in 1991, it remains one of the towns main employers.
Artistic impressions of the work produced in Boizenburg—particularly in the Art Nouveau style - can be found at the Erstes Deutsches Fliesen Museum. During the communist East German era, residents of Boizenburg were kept under close scrutiny by the Stasi, many deemed politically untrustworthy had their property confiscated during a state-sponsored terror campaign code-named Operation Vermin. One of the advantages of Boizenburgs isolation during the Cold War, is the natural landscape of the Elbe Valley region stretching to the North, South. Much of the architecture and infrastructure in the old city remained perfectly untouched during the DDR regime, in addition to significant restoration projects, new installations such as the modern redesign of the harbor and the addition of a topiary garden have greatly added to the Old Towns charm
Ludwigslust-Parchim is a district in the west of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. The district seat is the town Parchim, the district was established by merging the former districts of Ludwigslust and Parchim as part of the local government reform of September 2011. The name of the district was decided by referendum on 4 September 2011, the project name for the district was Südwestmecklenburg
Saint George, according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Syrian origin and officer in the Guard of Roman emperor Diocletian, who ordered his death for failing to recant his Christian faith. As a Christian martyr, he became one of the most venerated saints in Christianity. In hagiography, as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers and one of the most prominent military saints, he is immortalised in the myth of Saint George and his memorial, Saint Georges Day, is traditionally celebrated on April 23. Numerous countries, cities and organisations claim Saint George as their patron, accounts differ regarding whether George was born in Cappadocia or Syria Palaestina, but agree that he was raised at least partly in Lydda. There is little information on the life of Saint George. Two stories tell of his possible origins, one says that he was born in the region of Cappadocia, which is now located in central Turkey. Georges parents were both Christian, and they brought him up to be a Christian and his father died when he was fourteen, and his mother took George back to her homeland of Palestine.
At seventeen, he joined the Roman army, a second story says that Georges father came from Cappadocia. His mother was from Lydda, in Palestine, and George was born in Lydda, both of his parents were from noble Syrian families and gave him the Greek name of Georgios. Georges father had been an officer in the Roman army, so George joined the Roman army as soon as he could, an earlier work by Eusebius, Church history, written in the 4th century, contributed to the legend but did not name George or provide significant detail. A critical edition of a Syriac Acta of Saint George, accompanied by an annotated English translation, was published by E. W. Brooks in 1925. Pope Gelasius I stated that George was among those whose names are justly reverenced among men. The traditional legends have offered a narration of Georges encounter with a dragon. The modern legend that follows below is synthesised from early and late hagiographical sources, chief among the legendary sources about the saint is the Golden Legend, which remains the most familiar version in English owing to William Caxtons 15th-century translation.
At the age of 14, George lost his father, a few years later, George decided to go to Nicomedia and present himself to Diocletian to apply for a career as a soldier. Diocletian welcomed him with arms, as he had known his father. By his late twenties, George was promoted to the rank of military tribune, George objected, and with the courage of his faith, approached the Emperor and ruler. Diocletian was upset, not wanting to lose his best tribune, but George loudly renounced the Emperors edict, and in front of his fellow soldiers and tribunes he claimed himself to be a Christian
Ernst Goldenbaum was an East German politician. During World War I he served in the military and he participated in the German November Revolution, in 1919 he joined the left-wing USPD and a few years the Communist Party of Germany. From 1923 to 1925 he was a member of the city council of Parchim, from 1932 to 1933 he was the editor of Volkswacht, a communist newspaper. After the Nazis seized power he became a farmer and a member of the German resistance, in 1944 he was arrested and he spent the last year of the war in concentration camp Neuengamme. In 1945, he was one of few who survived the sinking of the SS Cap Arcona. After the war he joined the Socialist Unity Party, but in 1948 he co-founded the communist-sponsored Democratic Farmers Party of Germany, the DBD was a close ally of the Socialist Unity Party. Until 1982, Goldenbaum was the Chairman of the party, from 1949 to 1990 Goldenbaum was a member of the Peoples Chamber. From 1949 to 1950 Goldenbaum was the GDRs first Minister of Agriculture, Goldenbaum supported the Socialist Unity Partys collectivisation in the 1950s and 1960s.
From 1950 to 1963 he was the deputy chairman of the Peoples Chamber, after 1963 he was a member of the Presidium of the Peoples Chamber
Mecklenburg is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The largest cities of the region are Rostock, Neubrandenburg, the name Mecklenburg derives from a castle named Mikilenburg, located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. In Slavic language it was known as Veligrad which means big castle and it was the ancestral seat of the House of Mecklenburg and for a time divided into Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz among the same dynasty. Linguistically Mecklenburgers retain and use features of Low German vocabulary or phonology. The adjective for the region is Mecklenburgian, inhabitants are called Mecklenburgians, Mecklenburg is known for its mostly flat countryside. Much of the forms a morass, with ponds and fields as common features. The terrain changes as one moves north towards the Baltic Sea, under the peat of Mecklenburg are sometimes found deposits of ancient lava flows. Mecklenburg has productive farming, but the land is most suitable for grazing purposes, Mecklenburg is the site of many prehistoric dolmen tombs.
Its earliest organised inhabitants may have had Celtic origins, by no than 100 BC the area had been populated by pre-Christian Germanic peoples. The traditional symbol of Mecklenburg, the steers head, with an attached hide. It represents what early peoples would have worn, i. e. a steerss head as a hat, with the hide hanging down the back to protect the neck from the sun, and overall as a way to instill fear in the enemy. From the 7th through the 12th centuries, the area of Mecklenburg was taken over by Western Slavic peoples, most notably the Obotrites, the 11th century founder of the Mecklenburgian dynasty of Dukes and Grand Dukes, which lasted until 1918, was Nyklot of the Obotrites. In the late 12th century, Henry the Lion, Duke of the Saxons, conquered the region, subjugated its local lords, from 12th to 14th century, large numbers of Germans and Flemings settled the area, importing German law and improved agricultural techniques. However, elements of certain names and words used in Mecklenburg speak to the lingering Slavic influence, an example would be the city of Schwerin, which was originally called Zuarin in Slavic.
Another example is the town of Bresegard, the portion of the town name deriving from the Slavic word grad. Since the 12th century, the territory remained stable and relatively independent of its neighbours, during the reformation the Duke in Schwerin would convert to Protestantism and so would follow the Duchy of Mecklenburg. Like many German territories, Mecklenburg was sometimes partitioned and re-partitioned among different members of the ruling dynasty, in 1621 it was divided into the two duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Güstrow. With the extinction of the Güstrow line in 1701, the Güstrow lands were redivided, part going to the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, life in Mecklenburg could be quite harsh
Werle was a fiefdom in the Holy Roman Empire that was founded in 1235. In German it is known as a Herrschaft or Fürstentum and it was created in the partition of territories in Mecklenburg that followed the death of Henry Borwin II of Mecklenburg. The royal House of Werle was a line of the House of Mecklenburg line of the Obotrites. The Fiefdom of Werle lay in the area around Güstrow in todays Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany and it was named after the then-capital Werle, now a village in the municipality Kassow, Rostock district. The fiefdom collapsed several times into separate dominions, in 1277 it was divided among the sons of the first lord, or Herr in German, into Werle-Güstrow and Werle-Parchim. In 1307, both were reunited by Nicholas II, but they were divided again in 1316 into Werle-Güstrow, in 1337, Werle-Waren split off from the Werle-Güstrow line. With the death of the William, the last lord on September 7,1436, the title of Lord of Werle was thenceforth carried by all rulers of Mecklenburg.
Werle is represented in one of the seven fields of the coat of arms of Mecklenburg and this article was translated from the corresponding article on the German Wikipedia on February 20,2007. Corrections to the translation were made April 25,2009 to reflect the terms Herrschaft, Herr and fürstlich used in the German article
Democratic Farmers' Party of Germany
The Democratic Farmers Party of Germany was an East German political party. The DBD was founded in 1948 and it had 52 representatives in the Volkskammer, as part of the National Front. The DBD participated in all GDR cabinets, the leadership cadre came mainly from the ranks of the SED. In the late 1980s, the party had 117,000 members, after the fall of Berlin Wall, the party initially tried to find itself a niche as ecological agrarian party, but the first free Volkskammer election netted it only nine seats. In 1990 the DBD merged with the Christian Democratic Union, the DBD had friendly relations with peasants parties in other Eastern Bloc countries. It had close contacts with the Polish United Peoples Party and the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, besides that, there were some contacts with farmers associations in West Germany. They had contacts with agrarian parties in Finland and in Sweden. Ernst Goldenbaum, 1948–82 Ernst Mecklenburg, 1982–87 Günther Maleuda, 1987–90 Ulrich Junghanns,1990 Deutsche Bauernpartei from chronik der wende