A bracket is a tall punctuation mark used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text. The matched pair is best described as closing. Less formally, in a left-to-right context, it may be described as left and right, in a right-to-left context, as right and left. Forms include round, square and angle brackets, as well as various other pairs of symbols. In addition to referring to the class of all types of brackets, the unqualified word bracket is most used to refer to a specific type of bracket. Chevrons, ⟨ ⟩, were the earliest type of bracket to appear in written English. Desiderius Erasmus coined the term lunula to refer to the rounded parentheses, recalling the shape of the crescent moon; some of the following names are contextual. – parentheses, parens, round brackets, first brackets, or circle brackets – braces are "two connecting marks used in printing". – square brackets, closed brackets, hard brackets, third brackets, crotchets, or brackets ⟨ ⟩ – pointy brackets, angle brackets, triangular brackets, diamond brackets, tuples, or chevrons < > – guillemets, inequality signs, pointy brackets, or brackets.
Sometimes referred to as angle brackets, in such cases as HTML markup. Known as broken brackets or "brokets". ⸤ ⸥. The characters ‹ › and « », known as guillemets or angular quote brackets, are quotation mark glyphs used in several European languages. Which one of each pair is the opening quote mark and, the closing quote varies between languages; the corner-brackets ｢ ｣ are quotation marks used in East Asian languages. In English, typographers prefer not to set brackets in italics when the enclosed text is italic. However, in other languages like German, if brackets enclose text in italics, they are also set in italics. Parentheses contain material, aside from the main point. A milder effect may be obtained by using a pair of commas as the delimiter, though if the sentence contains commas for other purposes, visual confusion may result. In American usage, parentheses are considered separate from other brackets, calling them "brackets" is unusual. Parentheses may be used in formal writing to add supplementary information, such as "Sen. John McCain spoke at length".
They can indicate shorthand for "either singular or plural" for nouns, e.g. "the claim". It can be used for gender neutral language in languages with grammatical gender, e.g. "he agreed with his physician". Parenthetical phrases have been used extensively in informal writing and stream of consciousness literature. Examples include the southern American author William Faulkner as well as poet E. E. Cummings. Parentheses have been used where the dash is used in alternatives, such as "parenthesis) educational testing, b) technical writing and diagrams, c) market research, d) elections. Parentheses are used in mathematical notation to indicate grouping inducing a different order of operations. For example: in the usual order of algebraic operations, 4 x 3 + 2 equals 14, since the multiplication is done before the addi
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
The vocative case is the case used for a noun that identifies a person being addressed or the determiners of that noun. A vocative expression is an expression of direct address by which the identity of the party spoken to is set forth expressly within a sentence. For example, in the sentence "I don't know, John," John is a vocative expression that indicates the party being addressed, as opposed to the sentence "I don't know John" in which "John" is the direct object of the verb "know." The vocative case was an element of the Indo-European case system and existed in Latin and Classical Greek. Many modern Indo-European languages have lost the vocative case, but others retain it, including the Baltic languages, some Celtic languages and most Slavic languages; some linguists, such as Albert Thumb, argue that the vocative form is not a case but a special form of nouns not belonging to any case, as vocative expressions are not related syntactically to other words in sentences. Distinct vocative forms are assumed to have existed in all early Indo-European languages and survive in some.
Here is, for example, the Indo-European word for "wolf" in various languages: The elements separated with hyphens denote the stem, the so-called thematic vowel of the case and the actual suffix. In Latin, for example, the nominative case is lupus and the vocative case is lupe, but the accusative case is lupum; the asterisk before the Proto-Indo-European words means that they are theoretical reconstructions and are not attested in a written source. The symbol ◌̩ indicates a consonant serving as a vowel. All final consonants have been lost in Proto-Slavic so both the nominative and vocative Old Church Slavonic forms do not have true endings, only reflexes of the old thematic vowels; the vocative ending changes the stem consonant in Old Church Slavonic because of the so-called First Palatalization. Most modern Slavic languages that retain the vocative case have altered the ending to avoid the change: Bulgarian вълко occurs far more than вълче. In Lithuanian, the form that a given noun takes depends on its declension class and, sometimes, on its gender.
There have been several changes in history, the last being the -ai ending formed between the 18th and 19th centuries. The older forms are listed under "other forms"; some nouns of the e- and a- stems declensions are stressed differently: "aikštė": "aikšte!". In addition, nouns of e-stems have an ablaut of long vowel ė in nominative and short vowel e /ɛ/ in vocative. In pronunciation, ė is close-mid vowel, e is open-mid vowel /ɛ/; the vocative case in Irish operates in a similar fashion to Scottish Gaelic. The principal marker is the vocative particle a. In the singular there is no special form, except for first declension nouns; these are masculine nouns that end in a broad consonant, made slender to build the singular vocative. Adjectives are lenited. In many cases this means that masculine vocative expressions resemble the genitive and feminine vocative expressions resemble the nominative; the vocative plural is the same as the nominative plural except, for first declension nouns. In the standard language first declension nouns show the vocative plural by adding -a.
In the spoken dialects the vocative plural is has the same form as the nominative plural or the dative plural The vocative case in Scottish Gaelic follows the same basic pattern as Irish. The use of the vocative, aside from literary usage, is confined to personal names; the vocative case causes lenition of the initial consonant of nouns. In addition, masculine nouns are slenderized; the particle a is placed before the noun unless it begins with a vowel. Examples of the use of the vocative personal names: The name "Hamish" is just the English spelling of "Sheumais", thus is a Gaelic vocative; the name "Vairi" is an English spelling of "Mhàiri". The basic pattern is similar to Scottish; the vocative is confined to personal names. Foreign names are not used in the vocative; the vocative case causes lenition of the initial consonant of names. It can be used with the particle "y"; the name "Voirrey" is the Manx vocative of "Moirrey". Welsh lacks case declension but marks vocative constructions by lenition of the initial consonant of the word, with no obligatory particle.
Despite its use being less common, it is still used in formal address: the common phrase foneddigion a boneddigesau means "gentlemen and ladies", with the initial consonant of boneddigion undergoing a soft mutation. It is used to draw attention to at public notices orally and written - teachers will say "Blant" and signage such as one right show mutation of "myfyrwyr" to draw attention to the importance of the notice. Modern English lacks a formal vocative case. English uses the nominative case for vocative expressions but sets them off from the rest of the sentences with pauses as interje
Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. Along with grammar and logic, it is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the capacities of writers or speakers needed to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. Aristotle defines rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" and since mastery of the art was necessary for victory in a case at law or for passage of proposals in the assembly or for fame as a speaker in civic ceremonies, calls it "a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics". Rhetoric provides heuristics for understanding and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals: logos and ethos; the five canons of rhetoric or phases of developing a persuasive speech were first codified in classical Rome: invention, style and delivery. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric played a central role in Western education in training orators, counsellors, historians and poets.
Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a much more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times. While classical rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions such as courtrooms and assemblies, contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse writ large. Rhetoricians have studied the discourses of a wide variety of domains, including the natural and social sciences, fine art, journalism, digital media, history and architecture, along with the more traditional domains of politics and the law; because the ancient Greeks valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. Rhetoric remains associated with its political origins; however the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric.
According to the Sophists, such as Gorgias, a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic, regardless of his experience in that field. This method suggested. In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his negative opinions of the art, he criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth. In "Gorgias", one of his Socratic Dialogues, Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric, in Plato's opinion, is a form of flattery and functions to cookery, which masks the undesirability of unhealthy food by making it taste good. Thus, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, epideictic.
Yet as he provided order to existing rhetorical theories, Aristotle extended the definition of rhetoric, calling it the ability to identify the appropriate means of persuasion in a given situation, thereby making rhetoric applicable to all fields, not just politics. When one considers that rhetoric included torture, it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. However, the enthymeme based upon logic was viewed as the basis of rhetoric. However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that modifies rhetoric. Yet, Aristotle outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice, he restricted rhetoric to the domain of the contingent or probable: those matters that admit multiple legitimate opinions or arguments. The contemporary neo-Aristotelian and neo-Sophistic positions on rhetoric mirror the division between the Sophists and Aristotle. Neo-Aristotelians study rhetoric as political discourse, while the neo-Sophistic view contends that rhetoric cannot be so limited.
Rhetorical scholar Michael Leff characterizes the conflict between these positions as viewing rhetoric as a "thing contained" versus a "container". The neo-Aristotelian view threatens the study of rhetoric by restraining it to such a limited field, ignoring many critical applications of rhetorical theory and practice; the neo-Sophists threaten to expand rhetoric beyond a point of coherent theoretical value. Over the past century, people studying rhetoric have tended to enlarge its object domain beyond speech texts. Kenneth Burke asserted humans use rhetoric to resolve conflicts by identifying shared characteristics and interests in symbols. By nature, humans engage in identification, either to identify themselves or another individual with a group; this definition of rhetoric as identification broadened the scope from strategic and overt political persuasion to the more implicit tactics of identification found in an immense range of sources. Among the many scholars who have since pursued Burke's line of thought, James Boyd White sees rhetoric as a broader domain of social experience in his notion of constitutive rhet