Provinces of Indonesia
The Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the country and the highest tier of the local government. Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities, which are in turn subdivided into subdistricts; each province has its own local government, headed by a governor, has its own legislative body. The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms. Indonesia has 34 provinces, eight of which have been created since 1999, namely: North Maluku, West Papua, Bangka Belitung Islands, Riau Islands, West Sulawesi and North Kalimantan. Five provinces have special status: Aceh, for the use of the sharia law as the regional law of the province. Special Capital Region of Jakarta as the capital city. Special Region of Yogyakarta, has sultan Hamengkubuwono as hereditary Governor and Paku Alam as hereditary vice-governor. Papua and West Papua, for granting implementation of sustainable development; the provinces are grouped into seven geographical units.
This clickable map shows provinces of Indonesia as of 25 October 2012. Click on a province name to go to its main article. Upon the independence of Indonesia, eight provinces were established: West Java, Central Java, East Java, Maluku still exist as of today despite divisions, while Sumatra, Kalimantan and Lesser Sunda were liquidated; the province of Central Sumatra existed from 1948 to 1957, while East Timor was annexed as a province from 1976 until its independence as a country in 1999. List of Indonesian provinces by Human Development Index List of Indonesian provinces by GRP per capita List of Indonesian floral emblems List of Indonesian animal emblems Armorial of IndonesiaGeneral: Subdivisions of Indonesia List of regencies and cities of Indonesia Daftar 34 Provinsi Di Indonesia Map at Indonesian Wikipedia
Makassar is the capital of the Indonesian province of South Sulawesi. It is the largest city in the region of Eastern Indonesia and the country's fifth largest urban centre after Jakarta, Surabaya and Medan. From 1971 to 1999, the city was named after one of Ujung Pandang; the city is located on the southwest coast of the island of Sulawesi. The city's area is 199.3 square kilometres and it had a population of around 1.6 million in 2013. Its built-up area has 1,976,168 inhabitants covering 15 districts, its official metropolitan area, known as Mamminasata, with 17 additional districts, covers an area of 2,548 square kilometres and had a population of around 2.4 million according to 2010 Census. The trade in spices figured prominently in the history of Sulawesi, which involved frequent struggles between rival native and foreign powers for control of the lucrative trade during the pre-colonial and colonial period, when spices from the region were in high demand in the West. Much of South Sulawesi's early history was written in old texts that can be traced back to the 13th and 14th centuries.
Makassar is mentioned in the Nagarakretagama, a Javanese eulogy composed in 14th century during the reign of Majapahit king Hayam Wuruk. In the text, Makassar is mentioned as an island under Majapahit dominance, alongside Butun and Banggawi; the 9th King of Gowa Tumaparisi Kallonna is described in the royal chronicle as the first Gowa ruler to ally with the nearby trade-oriented polity of Tallo, a partnership which endured throughout Makassar's apogee as an independent kingdom. The centre of the dual kingdom was at Sombaopu, near the mouth of the Jeneberang River about 10 km south of the present city centre, where an international port and a fortress were developed. First Malay traders Portuguese from at least the 1540s, began to make this port their base for trading to the Spice Islands', further east; the growth of Dutch maritime power over the spice trade after 1600 made Makassar more vital as an alternative port open to all traders, as well as a source of rice to trade with rice-deficient Maluku.
The Dutch East India Company sought a monopoly of Malukan nutmeg and cloves, came close to succeeding at the expense of English and Muslims from the 1620s. The Makassar kings maintained a policy of free trade, insisting on the right of any visitor to do business in the city, rejecting the attempts of the Dutch to establish a monopoly. Makassar depended on the Muslim Malay and Catholic Portuguese Portuguese sailors communities as its two crucial economic assets; however the English East India Company established a post there in 1613, the Danish Company arrived in 1618, Chinese and Indian traders were all important. When the Dutch conquered Portuguese Melaka in 1641, Makassar became the largest Portuguese base in Southeast Asia; the Portuguese population had been in the hundreds, but rose to several thousand, served by churches of the Franciscans and Jesuits as well as the regular clergy. By the 16th century, Makassar had become Sulawesi's major port and centre of the powerful Gowa and Tallo sultanates which between them had a series of 11 fortresses and strongholds and a fortified sea wall that extended along the coast.
Portuguese rulers called the city Macáçar. Makassar was ably led in the first half of the 17th century, when it resisted Dutch pressure to close down its trade to Maluku, made allies rather than enemies of the neighbouring Bugis states. Karaeng Matoaya was ruler of Tallo from 1593, as well as Chancellor or Chief Minister of the partner kingdom of Gowa, he managed the succession to the Gowa throne in 1593 of the 7-year-old boy known as Sultan Alaud-din, guided him through the acceptance of Islam in 1603, numerous modernizations in military and civil governance, cordial relations with the foreign traders. John Jourdain called Makassar in his day "the kindest people in all the Indias to strangers". Matoaya's eldest son succeeded him on the throne of Tallo, but as Chancellor he had evidently groomed his brilliant second son, Karaeng Pattingalloang, who exercised that position from 1639 until his death. Pattingalloang must have been educated by Portuguese, since as an adult he spoke Portuguese "as fluently as people from Lisbon itself", avidly read all the books that came his way in Portuguese, Spanish or Latin.
French Jesuit Alexandre de Rhodes described his passion for mathematics and astronomy, on which he pestered the priest endlessly, while one of his Dutch adversaries conceded he was "a man of great knowledge and understanding." After Pattingalloang's death in 1654, a new king of Gowa, Sultan Hasanuddin, rejected the alliance with Tallo by declaring he would be his own Chancellor. Conflicts within the kingdom escalated, the Bugis rebelled under the leadership of Bone, the Dutch VOC seized its long-awaited chance to conquer Makassar with the help of the Bugis, their first conquest in 1667 was the northern Makassar fort of Ujung Pandang, while in 1669 they conquered and destroyed Sombaopu in one of the greatest battles of 17th century Indonesia. The VOC moved the city centre northward, around the Ujung Pandang fort they rebuilt and renamed Fort Rotterdam. From this base they managed to destroy the strongholds of the Sultan of Gowa, forced to live on the outskirts of Makassar. Following the Java War, Prince Diponegoro was exiled to Fort Rotterdam until his death in 1855.
After the arrival
Bone Regency is a regency of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The seat of the Bone state, it joined Indonesia in 1950, its main products are seaweed and fish. The principal town is Watampone. Bone is located on the east coast of South Sulawesi, it covers an area of 4,559 square kilometres. It has a total of 88,499 hectares of rice fields. Bone is surrounded by Wajo to the north, Sinjai to the south, Maros and Barru to the west, the Gulf of Bone to the east, where it has a sea border with Sulawesi Tenggara; the climate of Bone is tropical, with the wet season from April to September and the dry season from October to March. The temperature ranges from 26 to 34 °C, with air humidity averaging 95% - 99%; the average annual rainfall varies from less than 1,750 millimetres to 3,000 millimetres. According to a 2010 census, Bone Regency has 717,268 residents, consisting 341,335 males and 375,933 females; this gives a sex 91 males for every 100 females. It displayed a population growth rate of 0.67% per annum for the 2000-2010 period.
The majority of residents of Bone Regency are Muslim, with numerous mosques and places for studying Islam. There are some churches in Watampone. Bone Regency in 2010 comprised 27 administrative Districts, tabulated below with their 2010 Census population; as of 2010, the districts are sub-divided into 335 administrative villages. The coat of arms of Bone consists of a blue shield with a harrow, unsheathed kris, cotton plant, - at the bottom of the shield - the words Kabupaten Bone in red text on a white banner; the harrow and rice stand for the agricultural history of the area. The anchor signifies Bone's nautical prowess, while its symmetry and location in the middle of the shield represents rationality; the kris and red text signify bravery, while the cotton plant represents the Bone people's struggle for independence. The white banner stands for purity and holiness. Bone Regency was home to Bone state, an adat-based Bugis kingdom, founded by ManurungngE Rimatajang in 1330, it entered an alliance with the Wajo and Soppeng kingdoms for mutual defence.
This alliance became known as LaMumpatue Ri Timurung. In 1605, during the reign of the tenth king of Bone Latenri Tuppu Matinro Ri Sidenreng, Islam entered Bone and caused a change in local culture, including a renaming of various aspects of the regal system. Bone State enjoyed a period of prosperity in the middle of the 17th century. In May 1950, the people held demonstrations in Watampone against the royalty and Bone's membership in the State of East Indonesia; this caused the sultan to join Indonesia. The majority of Bone residents are farmers, commercial gardeners, fishermen. In the area near the Gulf of Boni, crabs and milkfish are the main source of income. Seaweed production averages 3,821.5 tonnes per annum, while catches of shrimp and milkfish average 4,318 tonnes, 2,061 tonnes, 4.964 tonnes per annum each. Catches of other fish tuna, average 73,763.5 tonnes per annum. Bone's sea transportation is handled by five harbours, a larger one located in East Taneteriattang named Bajoe and four smaller ones.
Footnotes Bibliography"Arti dan Lambang Kab. Bone". Government of Bone Regency. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011. "Geografi". Government of Bone Regency. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011. "Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010: Kabupaten Bone". Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Bone. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011. "Kabupaten Bone". Departemen Dalam Negeri Republik Indonesia. Archived from the original on 28 October 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2011. "Kabupaten Bone". Konsorsium Mitra Bahari. 19 November 2010. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2011. Pamelleri, Andi. "Riwayat Kabupaten Bone". Retrieved 23 August 2011
Pangkajene and Islands Regency
Pangkajene and Islands Regency is a regency of South Sulawesi Province of Indonesia. The regency lies on the mainland of Sulawesi's southern peninsula, but includes the Spermonde Islands off the west coast of that peninsula; the principal town lies at Pangkajene, but there are a series of further towns like Lejang, Labakkang and Segeri proceeding northwards from Pangkajene along the Trans-Sulawesi Highway. The Regency in 2010 comprised thirteen administrative Districts, tabulated below with their 2010 Census population
A regency is a second level administrative division of Indonesia, directly administrated under a province. The Indonesian term kabupaten is sometimes translated as "municipality". Regencies and cities are divided into districts; the English name "regency" comes from the Dutch colonial period, when regencies were ruled by bupati and were known as regentschap in Dutch. Bupati had been regional lords under the pre-colonial monarchies of Java; when the Dutch abolished or curtailed those monarchies, the bupati were left as the most senior indigenous authority. They were not speaking "native rulers" because the Dutch claimed full sovereignty over their territory, but in practice they had many of the attributes of petty kings; the Indonesian title of bupati is a loanword from Sanskrit originating in India, a shortening of the Sanskrit title bhumi-pati. In Indonesia, bupati was used as a Javanese title for regional rulers in precolonial kingdoms, its first recorded usage being in a Telaga Batu inscription during the Sriwijaya period in which bhupati is mentioned among the titles of local rulers who paid allegiance to Sriwijaya's kings.
Related titles which were used in precolonial Indonesia are adipati and senapati. Regencies in Java territorial units were grouped together into Residencies headed by European Residents; this term hinted that the Residents had a quasi-diplomatic status in relation to the bupati, but in practice the bupati had to follow Dutch instructions on any matter of concern to the colonial authorities. The relationship between those sides was ambivalent: while legal and military power rested with the Dutch government (or, for a long time, with the Dutch East India Company under a Governor General in Batavia on Java, the regents held higher protocollary rank than the assistant-resident who advised them and held day-to-day sway over the population. After the independence of Indonesia in 1945, the terms bupati and kabupaten were applied throughout the archipelago to the administrative unit below the residency. Since the start of the Reform Era in 1998 a remarkable secession of district governments has arisen in Indonesia.
This process has become known as pemekaran. Following the surge of support for decentralisation across Indonesia which occurred following the end of the Soeharto era in 1998, key new decentralisation laws were passed in 1999. Subsequently, there was a jump in the number of regencies from around 300 at the end of 1998 to over 490 in 2008 ten years later; this secession of new regencies, welcome at first, has become controversial within Indonesia because the administrative fragmentation has proved costly and has not brought the hoped-for benefits. Senior levels of the administration have expressed a general feeling that the process of pemekaran now needs to be slowed down but local politicians at various levels across government in Indonesia continue to express strong populist support for the continued creation of new regencies. Since 1998, a large portion of governance have been delegated from central government in Jakarta to local regencies, with regencies now playing important role in providing services to Indonesian people.
Direct elections for regents and mayors began in 2005, with the leaders being elected by local legislative councils
Luwu Regency is a regency of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The administrative capital lies at Belopa, since the former capital of Palopo became an independent municipality in 2006, at which date Luwu Regency was split into Palopo city, North Luwu Regency, East Luwu Regency, with the residue remaining as the new Luwu Regency; the first Regent of the reduced Luwu Regency was H. M. Basmin Mattayang from 2004-2009 Ir. H. Andi Mudzakkar replaced him as Regent from 2009-2014 following the first direct election in Luwu. Luwu is well known for its natural resources, such as rice, coconut, sagu, rambutan and others. Luwu is named after one of the three biggest kingdoms in South Sulawesi; the name "Luwu" had been known from the 13th century when the first king of the Lontara period of Luwu was throned. In Luwu history, there are two periods; the Galigo period is matched from La Galigo or I La Galigo which founded by B. F. Matthes in 1888. By R. A. Kern, a Dutch historian, the Galigo period is described as pre-historic time.
The other historians said Galigo as pseudo-history. In I La Galigo, there are three places. Sanusi Daeng Mattata, author of Luwu dalam Revolusi, said that Luwu word is taken from riulo which means divine extended from above; this name is related to oral tradition. In that oral tradition said that this world is divinely extended from sky, paved blessed by abundant natural resources; the origin of Luwu name is taken from other words too. Turbid means always full with contents like river color. Dark interpreted as sago near to the beach. Malucca and malutu become malu and becomes luwu. C. Salombe in his book said that word ` Lu' in Luwu is taken from East. Salombe said Toraja is the way of Luwu people call the people who live in West. To Raja or To Riaja means people on the highland or people in the West. Luwu or Lu is the way of Toraja people call the people who lowland. Geographically, Luwu is located on 2°3’45” to 3°37’30” South Latitude and 119°15” to 121°43’11” West Longitude. Administrative borders are: Luwu is split into two separate areas by the city of Palopo in the middle.
The northern area comprises Walenrang, Walenrang Timur, Walenrang Utara, Walenrang Barat and Lamasi Timur districts - or Walenrang and Lamasi. The southern area comprises the remaining fifteen districts tabulated below, Luwu Regency in 2010 comprised 21 administrative Districts, tabulated below with their 2010 Census population; some 1,000 protesters expressed their anger that the House of Representatives did not include the requested Central Luwu Regency, which they wanted to be separated from Luwu regency, in the planned creation of 65 new autonomous regions, on 24 October 2014. These local residents believed. There are six districts in the planned regency: Walenrang, East Walenrang, West Walenrang, North Walenrang and East Lamasi with a total population of 91,885 in 2010; the most known culinary in Luwu is kepurung, made from sago plant. There is dange, made from sago too; the other culinary is bagea. Luwu is known as a fruit producer, such as durian, langsat and many others. Luwu is the origin of the longest epic in La Galigo that created before Mahabharata.
Some manuscript of I La Galigo is saved in European Museums, like in Leiden University Library. I La Galigo manuscript is the story about Sawerigading and known well in Central Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi and through Malaysia. On May 25, 2011, La Galigo manuscript in Leiden University Library was inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register affirming its world significance and outstanding universal value
Tana Toraja Regency
Tana Toraja Regency is a regency of South Sulawesi Province of Indonesia, home to the Toraja ethnic group. The local government seat is in Makale, but now, Tana Toraja has been divided to two regencies that consist of Tana Toraja with its capital at Makale and North toraja with its capital at Rantepao. The Tana Toraja boundary was determined by the Dutch East Indies government in 1909. In 1926, Tana Toraja was under the administration of Bugis state, Luwu; the regentschap status was given on 8 October 1946, the last regency given by the Dutch. Since 1984, Tana Toraja has been named as the second tourist destination after Bali by the Ministry of Tourism, Indonesia. Since hundreds of thousands of foreign visitors have visited this regency. In addition, numerous Western anthropologists have come to Tana Toraja to study the indigenous culture and people of Toraja. Tana Toraja is centrally placed in the island of Sulawesi, 300 km north of Makassar, the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, it lies between latitude of 2 ° -3 ° longitude 119 ° -120 ° East.
The total area is about 4.4 % of the total area of South Sulawesi province. The topography of Tana Toraja is mountainous. Tana Toraja Regency in 2010 comprised nineteen administrative Districts, tabulated below with their 2010 Census population. List of regencies and cities of Indonesia Toraja Treasures.com - Toraja online information. Official website Tana Toraja travel guide from Wikivoyage Rural Tana Toraja Region: Photo Essay