The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Paruresis is a type of phobia in which the sufferer is unable to urinate in the real or imaginary presence of others, such as in a public restroom. The analogous condition that affects bowel movement is called shy bowel, it appears that paruresis involves a tightening of the sphincter and/or bladder neck due to a sympathetic nervous system response. The adrenaline rush that produces the involuntary nervous system response has peripheral and central nervous system involvement; the internal urethral sphincter or the external urethral sphincter, levator ani muscle area, or some combination of the above, may be involved. It is possible; the pontine micturition center may be involved, as its inhibition results in relaxation of the detrusor and prevents the relaxation of the internal sphincter. Some people have brief, isolated episodes of urinary difficulty in situations where other people are in close proximity. Paruresis, goes beyond simple shyness, fear of exposure, or fear of being judged for not being able to urinate.
Other people may find that they are unable to urinate while in moving vehicles, or are fixated on the sounds of their urination in quiet restrooms or residential settings. In severe cases, a person with paruresis can urinate only when alone at home or through the process of catheterization. Although most sufferers report that they developed the condition in their teenage years, it can strike at any age; because of the differing levels of severity from one person to another, some people first experience the problem when they "lock up" for the first time attempting to produce a sample for a drug test or alcohol test. Many women are unaware that they, are subject to paruresis; some people cope by deliberately holding in their urine, by refraining from drinking liquids, or locating unoccupied or single-occupancy public bathrooms. Severe cases of this disorder can have restricting effects on a person's life. In moderate to severe cases, overcoming paruresis can be difficult without the help of a psychologist, therapist or support groups.
Severe sufferers may not be willing to travel far from their home or be able to form intimate relationships. Others cannot urinate in their own home if someone else can be heard to be there. Sometimes paruresis can be overcome by someone nearby turning a water tap/faucet on and letting the water run noisily. A possible cause of paruresis is undergoing a voiding cystourethrography in the past. "Complications that can occur in both sexes include UTI, cystitis as well as urinary dysfunction following a catheterization, phobia of urination and stopping urination. In the literature, psychological trauma resulting from VCUG was considered the same as from a violent rape in girls." There is growing recognition of the condition by government. The condition is catered for in the rules for mandatory urine testing for drugs in UK prisons, UK Incapacity Benefit tribunals recognise it, it is listed in the NHS on-line encyclopaedia of disorders. It is now reported to have been accepted as a valid reason for jury service excusal.
From 1 August 2005, the guidance on the rules relating to the testing of those on probation in the UK explicitly cites paruresis as a valid reason for inability to produce a sample, not to be construed as a refusal. The condition is recognised by the American Urological Association, who include it in their on-line directory of conditions, it has, from time to time been the topic of advice columns such as Ann Landers, to which sufferers have written in and been counselled on their problem. Paruresis was described in section 300.23 of the DSM-IV-TR as "performance fears... using a public restroom" but it was not mentioned by name. The current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders mentions paruresis by name. Kaplan & Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry states, "Persons with social phobias have excessive fears of humiliation or embarrassment in various social settings, such as in speaking in public, urinating in a public rest room, speaking to a date." The Synopsis describes shy bladder as "inability to void in a public bathroom" and notes that relaxation exercises are an application of behavior therapy for dealing with this disorder.
Some paruretics experience delayed urination and must wait for their need to void to overcome their anxiety, while others are unable to urinate at all. There can be serious difficulties with workplace drug testing where observed urine samples are insisted upon, if the testing regime does not recognise and cater for the condition. In the UK, employees have a general right not to be unfairly dismissed, so have an arguable defence if this arises, but this is not the case everywhere. There is growing evidence to suggest that some drug testing authorities find paruresis a nuisance, some implement "shy bladder procedures" which pay no more than lip service to the condition, where there is no evidence that they have conducted any real research into the matter. In the U. S. Bureau of Prisons, the Code of Federal Regulations provides that "An inmate is presumed to be unwilling if the inmate fails to provide a urine sample within the allotted time period. An inmate may rebut this presumption during the disciplinary process."
Although U. S. courts have ruled that failure to treat prope
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure. As a sense organ, the mammalian eye allows vision. Human eyes help to provide a three dimensional, moving image coloured in daylight. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth; the human eye can differentiate between about 10 million colors and is capable of detecting a single photon. Similar to the eyes of other mammals, the human eye's non-image-forming photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina receive light signals which affect adjustment of the size of the pupil and suppression of the hormone melatonin and entrainment of the body clock; the eye is not shaped like a perfect sphere, rather it is a fused two-piece unit, composed of the anterior segment and the posterior segment. The anterior segment is made up of the cornea and lens; the cornea is transparent and more curved, is linked to the larger posterior segment, composed of the vitreous, retina and the outer white shell called the sclera.
The cornea is about 11.5 mm in diameter, 1/2 mm in thickness near its center. The posterior chamber constitutes the remaining five-sixths; the cornea and sclera are connected by an area termed the limbus. The iris is the pigmented circular structure concentrically surrounding the center of the eye, the pupil, which appears to be black; the size of the pupil, which controls the amount of light entering the eye, is adjusted by the iris' dilator and sphincter muscles. Light energy enters the eye through the cornea, through the pupil and through the lens; the lens shape is controlled by the ciliary muscle. Photons of light falling on the light-sensitive cells of the retina are converted into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain by the optic nerve and interpreted as sight and vision. Dimensions differ among adults by only one or two millimetres, remarkably consistent across different ethnicities; the vertical measure less than the horizontal, is about 24 mm. The transverse size of a human adult eye is 24.2 mm and the sagittal size is 23.7 mm with no significant difference between sexes and age groups.
Strong correlation has been found between the width of the orbit. The typical adult eye has an anterior to posterior diameter of 24 millimetres, a volume of six cubic centimetres, a mass of 7.5 grams.. The eyeball grows increasing from about 16–17 millimetres at birth to 22.5–23 mm by three years of age. By age 12, the eye attains its full size; the eye is made up of layers, enclosing various anatomical structures. The outermost layer, known as the fibrous tunic, is composed of the sclera; the middle layer, known as the vascular tunic or uvea, consists of the choroid, ciliary body, pigmented epithelium and iris. The innermost is the retina, which gets its oxygenation from the blood vessels of the choroid as well as the retinal vessels; the spaces of the eye are filled with the aqueous humour anteriorly, between the cornea and lens, the vitreous body, a jelly-like substance, behind the lens, filling the entire posterior cavity. The aqueous humour is a clear watery fluid, contained in two areas: the anterior chamber between the cornea and the iris, the posterior chamber between the iris and the lens.
The lens is suspended to the ciliary body by the suspensory ligament, made up of hundreds of fine transparent fibers which transmit muscular forces to change the shape of the lens for accommodation. The vitreous body is a clear substance composed of water and proteins, which give it a jelly-like and sticky composition; the approximate field of view of an individual human eye varies by facial anatomy, but is 30° superior, 45° nasal, 70° inferior, 100° temporal. For both eyes combined visual field is 200 ° horizontal, it is 13700 square degrees for binocular vision. When viewed at large angles from the side, the iris and pupil may still be visible by the viewer, indicating the person has peripheral vision possible at that angle. About 15° temporal and 1.5° below the horizontal is the blind spot created by the optic nerve nasally, 7.5° high and 5.5° wide. The retina has a static contrast ratio of around 100:1; as soon as the eye moves to acquire a target, it re-adjusts its exposure by adjusting the iris, which adjusts the size of the pupil.
Initial dark adaptation takes place in four seconds of profound, uninterrupted darkness. The process is nonlinear and multifaceted, so an interruption by light exposure requires restarting the dark adaptation process over again. Full adaptation is dependent on good blood flow; the human eye can detect a luminance range of 1014, or one hundred trillion, from 10−6 cd/m2, or one millionth of a candela per square meter to 108 cd/m2 or one hundred million candelas per square meter. This range does not include looking at the midday lightning discharge. At the low end o