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Pareto principle

The Pareto principle states that, for many events 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. Management consultant Joseph M. Juran suggested the principle and named it after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, who noted the 80/20 connection while at the University of Lausanne in 1896, as published in his first work: Cours d'économie politique, it is an axiom of business management that "80% of sales come from 20% of clients". Mathematically, the 80/20 rule is followed by a power law distribution for a particular set of parameters, many natural phenomena have been shown empirically to exhibit such a distribution; the Pareto principle is only tangentially related to Pareto efficiency. Pareto developed both concepts in the context of the distribution of income and wealth among the population; the original observation was in connection with population and wealth. Pareto noticed that 80% of Italy's land was owned by 20% of the population, he carried out surveys on a variety of other countries and found to his surprise that a similar distribution applied.

A chart that gave the inequality a visible and comprehensible form, the so-called "champagne glass" effect, was contained in the 1992 United Nations Development Program Report, which showed that distribution of global income is uneven, with the richest 20% of the world's population controlling 82.7% of the world's income. Still, the Gini index of the world shows that nations have wealth distributions that vary greatly; the Pareto principle could be seen as applying to taxation. In the US, the top 20% of earners have paid 80-90% of Federal income taxes in 2000 and 2006, again in 2018. However, it is important to note that while there have been associations of such with meritocracy, the principle should not be confused with further reaching implications; as Alessandro Pluchino at the University of Catania in Italy points out, other attributes do not correlate. Using talent as an example, he and other researchers state, “The maximum success never coincides with the maximum talent, vice-versa,” and that such factors are the result of chance.

In computer science the Pareto principle can be applied to optimization efforts. For example, Microsoft noted that by fixing the top 20% of the most-reported bugs, 80% of the related errors and crashes in a given system would be eliminated. Lowell Arthur expressed that "20 percent of the code has 80 percent of the errors. Find them, fix them!" It was discovered that in general the 80% of a certain piece of software can be written in 20% of the total allocated time. Conversely, the hardest 20% of the code takes 80% of the time; this factor is a part of COCOMO estimating for software coding. It has been inferred the Pareto principle applies to athletic training, where 20% of the exercises and habits have 80% of the impact and the trainee should not focus so much on a varied training; this does not mean that having a healthy diet or going to the gym are not important, but they are not as significant as the key activities. It is important to note this 80/20 rule has yet to be scientifically tested in controlled studies of athletic training.

In baseball, the Pareto principle has been perceived in Wins Above Replacement. "15% of all the players last year produced 85% of the total wins with the other 85% of the players creating 15% of the wins. The Pareto principle holds up pretty soundly when it is applied to baseball." Occupational health and safety professionals use the Pareto principle to underline the importance of hazard prioritization. Assuming 20% of the hazards account for 80% of the injuries, by categorizing hazards, safety professionals can target those 20% of the hazards that cause 80% of the injuries or accidents. Alternatively, if hazards are addressed in random order, a safety professional is more to fix one of the 80% of hazards that account only for some fraction of the remaining 20% of injuries. Aside from ensuring efficient accident prevention practices, the Pareto principle ensures hazards are addressed in an economical order, because the technique ensures the utilized resources are best used to prevent the most accidents.

In engineering control theory, such as for electromechanical energy converters, the 80/20 principle applies to optimization efforts. The law of the few can be seen in betting, where it is said that with 20% effort you can match the accuracy of 80% of the bettors. In the systems science discipline, Joshua M. Epstein and Robert Axtell created an agent-based simulation model called Sugarscape, from a decentralized modeling approach, based on individual behavior rules defined for each agent in the economy. Wealth distribution and Pareto's 80/20 principle became emergent in their results, which suggests the principle is a collective consequence of these individual rules; the Pareto principle has many applications in quality control. It is the basis for the Pareto chart, one of the key tools used in total quality control and Six Sigma techniques; the Pareto principle serves as a baseline for ABC-analysis and XYZ-analysis used in logistics and procurement for the purpose of optimizing stock of goods, as well as costs of keeping and replenishing that stock.

In health care in the United States, in one instance 20% of patients have been found to use 80% of health care resources. Some cases of super-spreading conform to the 20/80 rule, where 20% of infected individuals are responsible for 80% of transmissi

Aliens: Colonial Marines Technical Manual

Aliens: Colonial Marines Technical Manual, written by Lee Brimmicombe-Wood and published by HarperPrism is a guide to the fictional United States Colonial Marines depicted in the film Aliens. It describes the equipment of the Colonial Marines in great detail and contains expansive descriptions of the UD4L Cheyenne dropship and the'Conestoga'-class spaceships, both featured in the film; the manual contains information about the organization of the Colonial Marines, while it attempts to stay faithful to the films it adds and expands upon a number of topics not depicted in the film, such as artillery and tanks. These are commented on in-character by Colonial Marines; the manual ends with a series of transcripts between Weyland-Yutani employees as they discuss their theories on Xenomorphic Endoparasitoid biology and its possible exploitation. Many elements introduced in the book weapons including the M83 SADAR, have since been featured in expanded universe Alien and Alien vs. Predator media, including comic books and video games.

Titan Books released a revised edition of the book on May 29, 2012 to promote the video game Aliens: Colonial Marines, a direct sequel to the second film


Alausí is a town in the Chimborazo province of Ecuador. During the Spanish conquest of Ecuador, the city was named by Sebastián de Belalcázar as San Pedro de Alausí, giving the city the name of the saint of the day, coinciding with the founding of the city of Quito; the founding of the city was legalized by Benálcazar with the name "Alausí". After the creation of the Government of Quito, Alausí formed part of that province as a lesser political and administrative entity. In 1810, when Quito launched its movement for independence, Alausí recognized the new government and named Captain José Antonio Pontón as its voice and member of the Junta; when the first assembly of the free towns took place in 1811, Captain José Antonio Pontón served as Representative for the Province of Alausí, in which capacity he signed the Carta de Estado de Quito in 1812. In recognition of its patriotism and honor of its inhabitants, the Bishop Cuero y Caicedo resolved that the town's political and administrative status be raised to "Villa".

Alausí is served by bus to many destinations in Ecuador. Alausi's bus station is located three blocks down from the train station, on 5 de Junio along the town’s main street. Buses to and from smaller towns run regularly. There are set schedules for more popular destinations, such as Quito and Guayaquil, it is the starting-off point for the Nariz del Diablo train. This engineering work is among the most audacious projects realized in the Andean mountain range. Nariz del Diablo was the tomb of many Jamaican slaves contracted to dynamite the mountain. Tourists visiting the Ingapirca ruins in Cañar can board a bus heading for Cuenca; the ruins are about a half outside of Cañar. Alausí is known for its architecture, most of its houses are more than 100 years old. In Alausí, one finds various monuments located in important places in the city. Without doubt the most important is the Monument to Saint Peter, the patron saint of the city, built by the Ecuadorian artist Eddie Crespo; this monument is located in Loma de Lluglli, can be seen from any point in the city due to its large size and strategic location.

The most important church in the city is "la Matriz", located in front of 13 November park. The church was constructed in the 18th Century with stone extracted from the mines of Chiripungo, located about 2 kilometers outside of the city. Carnaval is the traditional festival of Alausí, is celebrated with a special parade, in which the neighborhoods of the city and special invitees participate; the most important festival is the running of the bulls. Non-professional bullfighting and other festivals are celebrated here. A testament to the Spanish influence in South America, the Festival of San Pedro is celebrated from June 22 to July 2, has been celebrated since the colonial era. Traditional dance, folklore, cockfights and other activities attract Ecuadorians and international tourists to the celebration

Jim Hawkins (politician)

James K. Hawkins is an American politician from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. A member of the Democratic Party, Hawkins serves in the Massachusetts House of Representatives, representing the 2nd Bristol District since 2018, which includes all but one precinct of Attleboro. Hawkins was raised in Walpole, Massachusetts, he has lived there for over 35 years. He graduated from Colby College and went on to earn an MBA from Providence College School of Business. Hawkins sold auto parts before getting his master's degree and working as a math teacher at Attleboro High School. Hawkins won a special election on April 2018, to succeed Paul Heroux in the Massachusetts House. Hawkins bested Republican Julie Hall in the special election. Hawkins took 3,927 votes to Hall’s 3,633. On Hawkins' first day in office, he filed an amendment to fund the Massachusetts Consortium for Innovative Education Assessment, a collaboration of school officials and teachers finding ways to evaluate student performance, better, more fair, less punitive, less disruptive than what is used in Massachusetts schools.

Hawkins was a regular racer at the Seekonk Speedway, where he earned the nickname "The Hawk"

Thomas Wiggin

Captain Thomas Wiggin ) known as Governor Thomas Wiggin, was the first governor of the Upper Plantation of New Hampshire, a settlement that became part of the Province of New Hampshire in 1679. He was the founder of Stratham, New Hampshire, which celebrated its 300th anniversary of incorporation in 2016; the son of a vicar in the Church of England with family ties to important and influential families of the era. A respected man in his own right who would leave his stamp on what would become American values. Three of his children survived: Andrew and Thomas, his son Andrew married the daughter of Governor Simon Bradstreet of the Massachusetts Colony. Thomas Wiggin first appears in colonial records as a signatory to the Wheelwright Deed in May 1629; this document, which some historians have claimed is a forgery, purports to transfer land along the seacoast of present-day New Hampshire from the local Indians to a group of English colonists led by Reverend John Wheelwright. Thomas Wiggin arrived in New England on the Winthrop Fleet.

By 1631 he had been appointed by the proprietors of the "Upper" or "Dover" Plantation to be their chief agent or governor. He settled in, he was the holder of the large Squamscott patent, covering land east of the mouth of the Squamscott River, was a close ally of Governor John Winthrop of the neighboring Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1632 he traveled to England, returned the following year with expanded powers and 30 Puritan settlers. Wiggin acted as governor of the plantation until its inhabitants established a more formal government in 1637 and elected George Burdett as governor. During this time the Dover plantation was divided along religious lines, with the 1633 Puritan arrivals disagreeing with the early Anglican settlers; when Massachusetts authorities asserted territorial claims over the New Hampshire plantations in the early 1640s, Wiggin represented them in the colonial assembly, rose to become a member of the Massachusetts council of assistants. During the administration of Governor Edward Cranfield in the 1680s, Wiggin and his son Thomas Wiggin Jr. joined other New Hampshire residents in signing a petition to King James II of England protesting attempts of the heirs of John Mason to reclaim territories and properties appropriated by colonists after Mason's death.

Wiggin was a Puritan and religious. He ascribed fervently to the belief that the Anglican Church had to be cleansed of Catholic theology and ritual, he was convinced that God would punish England for its heresy, believed that English Puritans needed to create a New England in a new world. In June 1659, his son Andrew Wiggin married Hannah Bradstreet, daughter of Massachusetts Governor Simon Bradstreet and Anne Dudley. Thomas Wiggin died in 1687, was buried near his home. For more information see the book "Echo Me the Life and Times of Captain Thomas Wiggin 1601-1666, the Making of American Values," by Joyce Wiggin-Robbins, published in 2016 by Exlibris Publishers. ISBN 9781514476987 Wadleigh. Notable Events in the History of Dover, New Hampshire Lewis Company. Genealogical and Family History of New Hampshire, Volume 3 More Info

John Lindsay, 20th Earl of Crawford

Lieutenant-General John Lindsay, 20th Earl of Crawford was a Scottish peer and the first colonel of the Black Watch on its formation in 1739. Lindsay was the son of Lieutenant-General John Lindsay, 19th Earl of Crawford and Emilia Stuart and inherited his titles on the death of his father in 1714, he was educated at the Vaudeuil Military Academy, Paris. The Earl of Crawford was commissioned into the 3rd Foot Guards in 1726, but served in the Austrian and Russian armies before returning to Britain and taking command of the Black Watch, he was Colonel of the 2nd Troop of Horse Grenadier Guards and Colonel of the 4th Troop of Horse Guards, fighting at the Battle of Dettingen on 16 June 1743. He gained the rank of Brigadier-General in 1744 and Major-General in 1745, he fought in the Jacobite rising of 1745 and the Battle of Fontenoy on 30 April 1745. Crawford was Colonel of the 25th Foot, he fought in the Battle of Rocoux on 11 October 1746 and gained the rank of Lieutenant-General in 1747. He was Colonel of the 2nd Dragoons.

In 1734 he was Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England. Crawford had married Lady Jean Murray, daughter of Lieutenant-General Sir James Murray, 2nd Duke of Atholl, in 1747 but she died only nine months after their marriage, he died on 26 December 1749 from a leg wound received at the Battle of Krotzka in 1739. He was the last member of the Lindsay family to be buried in the mausoleum in the cemetery at Ceres, Scotland. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages