Sunset Boulevard (film)
Sunset Boulevard is a 1950 American film noir directed and co-written by Billy Wilder, produced and co-written by Charles Brackett. It was named after the thoroughfare with the same name that runs through Los Angeles and Beverly Hills, California; the film stars William Holden as Joe Gillis, an unsuccessful screenwriter, Gloria Swanson as Norma Desmond, a faded silent-film star who draws him into her fantasy world, where she dreams of making a triumphant return to the screen. Erich von Stroheim plays Max von Mayerling, her devoted servant, Nancy Olson, Fred Clark, Lloyd Gough, Jack Webb play supporting roles. Director Cecil B. DeMille and gossip columnist Hedda Hopper play themselves, the film includes cameo appearances by leading silent-film actors Buster Keaton, H. B. Warner, Anna Q. Nilsson. Praised by many critics when first released, Sunset Boulevard was nominated for 11 Academy Awards and won three. Deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" by the U. S. Library of Congress in 1989, Sunset Boulevard was included in the first group of films selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.
In 1998, it was ranked number 12 on the American Film Institute's list of the 100 best American films of the 20th century, in 2007, it was 16th on their 10th Anniversary list. At a mansion on Sunset Boulevard, the body of Joe Gillis floats in the swimming pool. In a flashback, Joe relates the events leading to his death. Six months earlier, down-on-his-luck screenwriter Joe tries selling Paramount Pictures producer Sheldrake on a story he submitted. Script reader Betty Schaefer harshly critiques it, unaware. While fleeing from repossession men seeking his car, Joe turns into the driveway of a deserted mansion. After concealing the car, he hears a woman inside call to him. Ushered in by Max, the butler, Joe recognizes the woman as long-forgotten silent film star Norma Desmond. Learning Joe is a writer, Norma asks his opinion of a script she has written for a film about Salome, she plans to play the role herself in a return to the screen. Joe flatters her into hiring him as a script doctor. Moved into Norma's mansion at her insistence, Joe resents but accepts his dependent situation.
He sees that Norma refuses to face the fact that her fame has evaporated and learns that the fan letters she still receives are secretly written by Max, who explains that Norma is fragile and has attempted suicide. Norma buys him expensive clothes. At her New Year's Eve party, he discovers that he is the only guest and realizes she has fallen in love with him. Joe tries to let her down but Norma slaps him and retreats to her room. Joe visits his friend Artie Green to ask about staying at his place. At Artie's party he again meets. Betty thinks a scene in one of Joe's scripts has potential; when he phones Max to have him pack his things, Max tells. Joe returns to Norma. Norma has Max deliver the edited Salome script to her former director Cecil B. DeMille at Paramount, she starts getting calls from Paramount executive Gordon Cole, but petulantly refuses to speak to anyone except DeMille. She has Max drive her and Joe to Paramount in her 1929 Isotta Fraschini; the older studio employees warmly greet her.
DeMille receives her affectionately and treats her with great respect, tactfully evading her questions about her script. Meanwhile, Max learns that Cole wants to rent her unusual car for a film. Preparing for her imagined comeback, Norma undergoes rigorous beauty treatments. Joe secretly works nights at Betty's Paramount office, his moonlighting is found out by Max, who reveals that he was a respected film director, discovered Norma as a teenage girl, made her a star and was her first husband. After she divorced him, he found life without her unbearable and abandoned his career to become her servant. Meanwhile, despite Betty's engagement to Artie and Joe fall in love. After Norma discovers a manuscript with Joe's and Betty's names on it, she phones Betty and insinuates what sort of man Joe is. Joe, invites Betty to come see for herself; when she arrives, he pretends he is satisfied being a gigolo, but after she tearfully leaves he packs for a return to his old Ohio newspaper job. He bluntly informs Norma there will be no comeback, her fan mail comes from Max, she has been forgotten.
He disregards the gun she shows him to back it up. As Joe walks out of the house, Norma shoots him three times and he falls into the pool; the flashback ends. The house is filled with reporters. Norma, having lost touch with reality, believes. Max and the police play along. Max sets up a scene for her and calls, "Action!" As the cameras roll, Norma descends her grand staircase. She pauses and makes an impromptu speech about how happy she is to be making a film again, ending with, "All right, Mr. DeMille, I'm ready for my close-up." The street known as Sunset Boulevard has been associated with Hollywood film production since 1911, when the town's first film studio opened there. The film workers lived modestly in the growing neighborhood, but during the 1920s, profits and salaries rose to unprecedented levels. With the advent of the star system, luxurious homes noted for their incongruous grandeur were built in the area; as a young man living in Berlin in the 1920s, Billy Wilder was interested in American culture, with much of his
Margaret Rumer Godden was an English author of more than 60 fiction and nonfiction books written under the name of Rumer Godden. Nine of her works have been made into films, most notably Black Narcissus in 1947. A few of her works were co-written with her older sister, novelist Jon Godden, including Two Under the Indian Sun, a memoir of the Goddens' childhood in a region of India now part of Bangladesh. Godden was born in Eastbourne, England, she grew up with her three sisters in Narayanganj, colonial India, where her father, a shipping company executive, worked for the Brahmaputra Steam Navigation Company. Her parents sent the girls to England for schooling, as was the custom of the time, but brought them back to Narayanganj when the First World War began. Godden returned to the United Kingdom with her sisters to continue her interrupted schooling in 1920, spending time at Moira House Girls School in Eastbourne and training as a dance teacher, she opened a dance school for English and Indian children.
Godden ran the school for 20 years with the help of her sister Nancy. During this time she published the 1939 novel Black Narcissus. In 1942, after eight years in an unhappy marriage, she moved with her two daughters and Paula, to Kashmir, living first on a houseboat and in a rented house where she started a farm; the novel Kingfishers Catch Fire was based on her time in Kashmir. After a mysterious incident in which it appeared that an attempt had been made to poison both her and her daughters, she returned to Calcutta in 1944, she returned to the United Kingdom in 1945 to concentrate on her writing moving house but living in Sussex and London. She was divorced in 1948. After returning from America to oversee the script for the movie of her book The River, Godden married civil servant James Haynes Dixon on 26 November 1949. In the early 1950s Godden became interested in the Catholic Church, though she did not convert until 1968, several of her novels contain sympathetic portrayals of Catholic priests and nuns.
In addition to Black Narcissus, two of her books deal with the subject of women in religious communities. In Five for Sorrow, Ten for Joy and In This House of Brede she acutely examined the balance between the mystical, spiritual aspects of religion and the practical, human realities of religious life. A number of Godden's novels are set in India, the atmosphere of which she evokes through all the senses, her books for children her several doll stories convey the secret thoughts, confusions and aspirations of childhood. Her plots involve unusual young people not recognized for their talents by ordinary lower- or middle-class people but supported by the educated and upper-class, to the anger and puzzlement of their relatives, she won a 1972 Whitbread award for The Diddakoi, a young adult novel about Gypsies, televised by the BBC as Kizzy. In 1968 she took the tenancy of Lamb House in Rye, East Sussex, where she lived until the death of her husband in 1973, she moved to Moniaive in Dumfriesshire in 1978.
She was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1993. She visited India once more, in 1994, returning to Kashmir for the filming of a BBC Bookmark documentary about her life and books. Rumer Godden died on 8 November 1998 at the age of 90 after a series of strokes. 1936 Chinese Puzzle, her first published book-length work 1937 The Lady and the Unicorn 1939 Black Narcissus, a story about the disorientation of British Anglican nuns in India. 1940 Gypsy, Gypsy 1942 Breakfast with the Nikolides 1945 Take Three Tenses: A Fugue in Time, made into the film Enchantment in 1948, starring David Niven and Teresa Wright 1946 The River, made into a film in 1951 directed by Jean Renoir.
Baccarat Crystal is a French manufacturer of fine crystal glassware located in Baccarat, France. The company owns two museums: the Musée Baccarat in Baccarat, Meurthe-et-Moselle and the Musée Baccarat in Paris on the Place des États-Unis. Groupe du Louvre is the majority shareholder of the company and is a subsidiary of the United States company Starwood Capital Group. In 1764 King Louis XV of France gave permission to found a glassworks in the town of Baccarat in the Lorraine region in eastern France to Prince Bishop Cardinal Louis-Joseph de Laval-Montmorency. Production consisted of window panes and stemware until 1816 when the first crystal oven went into operation. By that time over 3000 workers were employed at the site. Baccarat received its first royal commission in 1823; this began a lengthy line of commissions for royalty and heads of state throughout the world. In 1855 Baccarat won its first gold medal at the Worlds Fair in Paris. Baccarat first began marking its work with a registered mark in 1860.
The mark was a label affixed to the bottom of the work. In the period 1846-1849 Baccarat signed some of their high quality glass millefiori paperweights with the letter B and the year date in a composite cane. A special paperweight dated 1853 was found under the cornerstone of a bomb damaged church in Baccarat when construction recommenced after World War 2; the crystal production expanded its scope throughout this period, Baccarat built a worldwide reputation for making quality stemware, chandeliers and perfume bottles. The Imperial Era ended in 1867 with the defeat of Napoléon III. Influences outside France began to have a stronger influence on Baccarat's work during this era imports from Japan; the world's largest chandelier and a staircase lined with a Baccarat crystal balustrade adorn the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul. Strong growth continued in Asia for Baccarat. Baccarat has become quite famous at the royal houses; the queen of Portugal, for example, commissioned for her private collection decorative pieces and tableware.
One of the strongest production areas for Baccarat was perfume bottles, by 1907 production was over 4000 bottles per day. In 1936 Baccarat began marking all of its works via sandblasting. Baccarat created an American subsidiary in 1948 in New York City, they started to produce pieces based on Cylon designs, as the famous Cylon Carrier - Napoleon Hat piece. The chairman of Baccarat from 1960 to 1992 was René de Chambrun, former Vichy France's Prime Minister Pierre Laval's son-in-law; as of 2010 there are stores in California. A retrospective was held in 1964 at the Louvre Museum to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the crystal works. In 1993, Baccarat began making jewelry and in 1997 the company expanded into perfume. In 2003, Baccarat relocated to 11. In 2005 it was acquired by Starwood Capital Group in the United States. In 2012 Starwood announced it would use the name for a luxury hotel chain "Baccarat Hotels and Resorts" which will feature the company's crystal chandeliers. Official Baccarat Crystal website
A perfumer is a term used for an expert on creating perfume compositions, sometimes referred to affectionately as a Nose due to their fine sense of smell and skill in producing olfactory compositions. The perfumer is an artist, trained in depth on the concepts of fragrance aesthetics and, capable of conveying abstract concepts and moods with fragrance compositions. At the most rudimentary level, a perfumer must have a keen knowledge of a large variety of fragrance ingredients and their smells, be able to distinguish each of the fragrance ingredients whether alone or in combination with other fragrances; as well, they must know. The job of the perfumer is similar to that of flavourists, who compose smells and flavourants for many commercial food products; the practice of perfume-making has attracted academic interest among major research funding agencies. Most past perfumers did not undergo professional training in the art and many learned their craft as apprentices under another perfumer in their employment as a perfume technician or chemist.
A direct entrance into the profession is rare and those who do enter it through family contacts. Such apprenticeships last around 3 years; until professional schools open to the public for training perfumers did not exist. In 1970 ISIPCA became the first school in perfumery; the candidates must endure a demanding entrance examination and must have taken university-level courses in organic chemistry. Since 1998 PerfumersWorld's perfumery school has offered formal and informal perfumer training through university courses at King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi Biotechnology faculty, at Chulalongkorn University Pharmacy faculty and through on-line courses and private workshops in the United States, UK, Hong Kong, New Zealand and Thailand. More in 2002, another perfumery school was born, the Grasse Institute of Perfumery. Here, the ideal candidates must have a foundation in chemistry or pharmacy in order to be accepted as student perfumer. Givaudan, International Flavors and Fragrances and Symrise have perfumery schools as part of their companies, but students must be employees of the company and must be recommended by their superiors for acceptance into the school.
The University of Plymouth offers a BA course in Perfumery. Most perfumers are employed by several large fragrance corporations in the world including Mane, Firmenich, IFF, Givaudan and Symrise; some perfumers work for a perfume house or in their own company, but these cases are not as common. The perfumer begins a perfume project with a brief by the perfumer's employer or an outside customer; the customers to the perfumer or their employers, are fashion houses or large corporations of various industries. Each brief will contain the specifications for the desired perfume, will describe in poetic or abstract terms what the perfume should smell like or what feelings it should evoke in those who smell it, along with a maximum per litre price of the perfume oil concentrate; this allowance, along with the intended application of the perfume, will determine what aromatic ingredients will be used in the perfume composition. The perfumer will go through the process of blending multiple perfume mixtures and will attempt to capture the desired feelings specified in the brief.
After presenting the perfume mixtures to the customers, the perfumer may "win" the brief with their approval. They proceed to work with the customer with the direction provided by a panel or artistic director, which guides and edits the modifications on the composition of the perfume; this process spans several months to several years, going over many iterations and may involve cultural and public surveys to tailor a perfume to a particular market. The perfume composition will be either used to enhance another product as a functional fragrance or marketed and sold directly to the public as a fine fragrance. Alternatively, the perfumer may be inspired to create a perfume and produce something that becomes marketable or wins a brief; this is more common in independent perfume houses. Aromachologist ISIPCA Université Européenne des Senteurs & Saveurs The British Society of Perfumers The British Society of Perfumers
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or accepted standards, social norms, or criteria taking the form of a custom. Certain types of rules or customs may become law and regulatory legislation may be introduced to formalize or enforce the convention. In a social context, a convention may retain the character of an "unwritten law" of custom. In physical sciences, numerical values are called conventional if they do not represent a measured property of nature, but originate in a convention, for example an average of many measurements, agreed between the scientists working with these values. A convention is a selection from among two or more alternatives, where the rule or alternative is agreed upon among participants; the word refers to unwritten customs shared throughout a community. For instance, it is conventional in many societies; some conventions are explicitly legislated. The standardization of time is a human convention based on calendar; the extent to which justice is conventional is an important debate among philosophers.
The nature of conventions has raised long-lasting philosophical discussion. Quine and David Lewis published influential writings on the subject. Lewis's account of convention received an extended critique in Margaret Gilbert's On Social Facts, where an alternative account is offered. Another view of convention comes from Ruth Millikan's Language: A Biological Model, once more against Lewis. According to David Kalupahana, The Buddha described conventions—whether linguistic, political, ethical, or religious—as arising dependent on specific conditions. According to his paradigm, when conventions are considered absolute realities, they contribute to dogmatism, which in turn leads to conflict; this does not mean that conventions should be ignored as unreal and therefore useless. Instead, according to Buddhist thought, a wise person adopts a middle way without holding conventions to be ultimate or ignoring them when they are fruitful. In sociology a social rule refers to any social convention adhered to in a society.
These rules are not otherwise formalized. In social constructionism there is a great focus on social rules, it is argued that these rules are constructed, that these rules act upon every member of a society, but at the same time, are re-produced by the individuals. Sociologists representing symbolic interactionism argue that social rules are created through the interaction between the members of a society; the focus on active interaction highlights shifting character of social rules. These are specific to a context that varies through time and place; that means a social rule changes over time within the same society. What was acceptable in the past may no longer be the case. Rules differ across space: what is acceptable in one society may not be so in another. Social rules reflect what is normal behaviour in any situation. Michel Foucault's concept of discourse is related to social rules as it offers a possible explanation how these rules are shaped and change, it is the social rules. Thus, social rules tell a woman how to behave in a womanly manner, a man, how to be manly.
Other such rules are as follows: Strangers being introduced shake hands, as in Western societies, but Bow toward each other, in Korea and China Do not bow at each other, in the Jewish tradition In the United States, eye contact, a nod of the head toward each other, a smile, with no bowing. Present business cards to each other, in business meetings Click heels together, in past eras of Western history A woman's curtsey, in some societies In the Middle East, never displaying the sole of the foot toward another, as this would be seen as a grave insult. In many schools, though seats for students are not assigned they are still "claimed" by certain students, sitting in someone else's seat is considered an insult In government, convention is a set of unwritten rules that participants in the government must follow; these rules can be ignored only if justification can be provided. Otherwise, consequences follow. Consequences may include ignoring some other convention. According to the traditional doctrine, conventions cannot be enforced in courts, because they are non-legal sets of rules.
Convention is important in the Westminster System of government, where many of the rules are unwritten. The term "convention" is used in international law to refer to certain formal statements of principle such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Conventions are adopted by international bodies such as the International Labour Organization and the United Nations. Conventions so adopted apply only to countries that ratify them, do not automatically apply to member states of such bodies; these conventions are seen as having the force of international treaties for the ratifying countries. The best known of these are the several Geneva Conventions. De facto standard Etiquette Standard
Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds and solvents, used to give the human body, food and living-spaces an agreeable scent. It is in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a person's body. Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells unattainable from natural aromatics alone; the word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare, meaning "to smoke through". Perfumery, as the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, or maybe Ancient China, was further refined by the Romans and the Arabs; the world's first-recorded chemist is considered a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers and calamus with other aromatics filtered and put them back in the still several times.
In India and perfumery existed in the Indus civilization. One of the earliest distillations of Ittar was mentioned in the Hindu Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. In 2003, archaeologists uncovered what are believed to be the world's oldest surviving perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus; the perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. They were discovered in an ancient perfumery, a 300-square-meter factory housing at least 60 stills, mixing bowls and perfume bottles. In ancient times people used herbs and spices, such as almond, myrtle, conifer resin, bergamot, as well as flowers. In May 2018, an ancient perfume “Rodo” was recreated for the Greek National Archaeological Museum's anniversary show “Countless Aspects of Beauty”, allowing visitors to approach antiquity through their olfaction receptors. In the 9th century the Arab chemist Al-Kindi wrote the Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations, which contained more than a hundred recipes for fragrant oils, aromatic waters, substitutes or imitations of costly drugs.
The book described 107 methods and recipes for perfume-making and perfume-making equipment, such as the alembic. The Persian chemist Ibn Sina introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation, the procedure most used today, he first experimented with the rose. Until his discovery, liquid perfumes consisted of mixtures of oil and crushed herbs or petals, which made a strong blend. Rose water was more delicate, became popular. Both the raw ingredients and the distillation technology influenced western perfumery and scientific developments chemistry; the art of perfumery was known in western Europe from 1221, taking into account the monks' recipes of Santa Maria delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella of Florence, Italy. In the east, the Hungarians produced in 1370 a perfume made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution – best known as Hungary Water – at the behest of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary; the art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, in the 16th century the personal perfumer to Catherine de' Medici, Rene the Florentine, took Italian refinements to France.
His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulae could be stolen en route. Thanks to Rene, France became one of the European centers of perfume and cosmetics manufacture. Cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence, which had begun in the 14th century, grew into a major industry in the south of France. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, perfumes were used by the wealthy to mask body odors resulting from infrequent bathing. Due to this patronage, the perfume industry developed. In 1693, Italian barber Giovanni Paolo Feminis created a perfume water called Aqua Admirabilis, today best known as eau de cologne. By the 18th century the Grasse region of France and Calabria were growing aromatic plants to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. Today and France remain the center of European perfume design and trade. Perfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent, which in fine fragrance is ethanol or a mix of water and ethanol.
Various sources differ in the definitions of perfume types. The intensity and longevity of a perfume is based on the concentration and longevity of the aromatic compounds, or perfume oils, used; as the percentage of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the scent. Specific terms are used to describe a fragrance's approximate concentration by the percent of perfume oil in the volume of the final product; the most widespread terms are: parfum or extrait, in English known as perfume extract, pure perfume, or perfume: 15–40% aromatic compounds.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the Muses are the inspirational goddesses of literature and the arts. They are considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, lyric songs, myths that were related orally for centuries in these ancient cultures. In current English usage, "muse" can refer in general to a person who inspires an artist, musician, or writer; the word "Muses" came from the o-grade of the Proto-Indo-European root *men- or from root *men- since all the most important cult-centres of the Muses were on mountains or hills. R. S. P. Beekes suggests a Pre-Greek origin; the earliest known records of the Nine Muses are from the homeland of Hesiod. Some ancient authorities thought. There, a tradition persisted. In the first century BC, Diodorus Siculus cited Homer and Hesiod to the contrary, observing: Writers disagree concerning the number of the Muses. Diodorus states that Osiris first recruited the nine Muses, along with the satyrs, while passing through Ethiopia, before embarking on a tour of all Asia and Europe, teaching the arts of cultivation wherever he went.
According to Hesiod's account followed by the writers of antiquity, the Nine Muses were the nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, figuring as personifications of knowledge and the arts literature and music. The Roman scholar Varro relates that there are only three Muses: one born from the movement of water, another who makes sound by striking the air, a third, embodied only in the human voice, they were called Melete or "Practice", Mneme or "Memory" and Aoide or "Song". Three ancient Muses were reported in Plutarch's Quaestiones Convivales. However, the classical understanding of the Muses tripled their triad and established a set of nine goddesses, who embody the arts and inspire creation with their graces through remembered and improvised song and mime, traditional music, dance, it was not until Hellenistic times that the following systematic set of functions was assigned to them, then there was some variation in both their names and their attributes: Calliope, Euterpe, Melpomene, Erato and Urania.
According to Pausanias in the second century AD, there were three Muses, worshipped on Mount Helicon in Boeotia: Aoide and Mneme. Together, these three form the complete picture of the preconditions of poetic art in cult practice. In Delphi three Muses were worshiped as well, but with other names: Nete and Hypate, which are assigned as the names of the three chords of the ancient musical instrument, the lyre. Alternatively they were called Cephisso and Borysthenis, names which characterize them as daughters of Apollo. In a tradition, a set of four Muses were recognized: Thelxinoë, Archē, Melete, said to be daughters of Zeus and Plusia or of Ouranos. One of the people associated with the Muses was Pierus. By some he was called the father of a total of seven Muses, called Neilṓ, Tritṓnē, Asōpṓ, Heptápora, Achelōís, Tipoplṓ, Rhodía. According to Hesiod's Theogony, they were daughters of Zeus, king of the gods, Mnemosyne, Titan goddess of memory. For Alcman and Mimnermus, they were more primordial, springing from the early deities Ouranos and Gaia.
Gaia is Mother Earth, an early mother goddess, worshipped at Delphi from prehistoric times, long before the site was rededicated to Apollo indicating a transfer to association with him after that time. Sometimes the Muses are referred to as water nymphs, associated with the springs of Helicon and with Pieris, it was said that the winged horse Pegasus touched his hooves to the ground on Helicon, causing four sacred springs to burst forth, from which the Muses were born. Athena tamed the horse and presented him to the Muses. Classical writers set Apollo as Apollon Mousagetēs. In one myth, the Muses judged a contest between Marsyas, they gathered the pieces of the dead body of Orpheus, son of Calliope, buried them in Leivithra. In a myth, Thamyris challenged them to a singing contest, they punished Thamyris by blinding him and robbing him of his singing ability. According to a myth from Ovid's Metamorphoses—alluding to the connection of Pieria with the Muses—Pierus, king of Macedon, had nine daughters he named after the nine Muses, believing that their skills were a great match to the Muses.
He thus challenged the Muses to a match, resulting in his daughters, the Pierides, being turned into chattering magpies for their presumption. Pausanias records a tradition of two generations of Muses. Another, rarer genealogy is that they are daughters of Harmonia