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A pargana, or parganah spelt pergunnah during the time of the Sultanate period, Mughal times and British Raj, is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used but not by the Muslim kingdoms. Parganas were introduced by the Delhi Sultanate, the word is of Persian origin; as a revenue unit, a pargana consists of several mouzas, which are the smallest revenue units, consisting of one or more villages and the surrounding countryside. Under the reign of Sher Shah Suri, administration of parganas was strengthened by the addition of other officers, including a shiqdar, an amin or munsif and a karkun. In the 16th century the Mughal emperor Akbar organised the empire into subahs, which were further subdivided into sarkars, which were themselves organised into parganas. In the Mughal system, parganas served as the local administrative units of a sarkar. Individual parganas observed common customs regarding land rights and responsibilities, which were known as the pargana dastur, each pargana had its own customs regarding rent, fees and weights and measures, known as the pargana nirikh.

Pargana consisted of several tarafs, which in their turn consisted of several villages plus some uninhabited mountain and forest land. As the British expanded into former Mughal provinces, starting with Bengal, they at first retained the pargana administration, under the Governorship of Charles Cornwallis, enacted the Permanent Settlement of 1793, which abolished the pargana system in favour of the zamindari system, in which zamindars were made the absolute owners of rural lands, abolished the pargana dastur and pargana nirikh. British administration consisted of districts, which were divided into taluks. Parganas remained important as a geographical term, persisting in land surveys, village identification, court decrees, The pargana system persisted in several princely states, including Tonk and Gwalior. Parganas disappeared completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.

List of parganas of Uttarakhand Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, et al.. Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 12. 1908-1931. Markovits, Claude. A History of Modern India: 1480-1950. Anthem Press, London

Almas ukhaa

Almas is a genus of troodontid theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. It contains a single species, Almas ukhaa, named in 2017 by Pei Rui and colleagues, based on a partial articulated skeleton; the only known specimen was found in the Djadochta Formation, late Campanian in age. In 1993, a joint expedition by the American Museum of Natural History and the Mongolian Academy of Sciences discovered near Ukhaa Tolgod, the Flaming Cliffs, a skeleton of a small theropod, it was prepared by Amy Davidson. Though in subsequent years its traits were inserted in some data matrices of phylogenetic analyses, a description of the fossil was never published. In 2017, the type species Almas ukhaa was named and described by Pei Rui, Mark Norell, Daniel Barta, Gabriel Bever, Michael Pittman and Xu Xing; the generic name refers to the almas, "wild man" in Mongolian, a man-like creature from Mongolian folklore. The specific name refers to its provenance; the holotype, IGM 100/1323, was found in a layer of the Djadochta Formation dating from the late Campanian.

It consists of a partial skeleton with skull. The skull, better preserved, was found disarticulated from the postcrania, but was considered to have belonged to the same individual. Parts of the skull roof, as well as the lower jaws, were found disconnected from the remainder of the head; the postcranial skeleton contains three sacral vertebrae, eleven front tail vertebrae, belly ribs, parts of the pelvis and parts of the hindlimbs, which lack the toes. It represents a subadult individual. Near the skeleton egg shells have been found of the Prismatoolithidae type; such eggs have earlier been referred to Troodontidae. 2017 in archosaur paleontology

Hurricane Ignacio (1985)

Hurricane Ignacio threatened Hawaii during July 1985. A tropical depression formed on July 21 far from land, it became Tropical Storm Ignacio that day. Ignacio rapidly intensified and peaked with 130 mph winds on July 24. Ignacio weakened though it leveled off in intensity as a Category 2 hurricane. Ignacio was downgraded into a tropical storm on July 26 while passing south of Hawaii. Continuing to weaken, Ignacio dissipated on July 27. A hurricane watch was issued for the Hawaiian Islands though the watch was dropped when Ignacio weakened. However, Ignacio still brought high waves and light rainfall to the islands. A few roads were closed. Based on data from the ships UJGN and Okean and satellite imagery, the next tropical cyclone of 1985 was spotted early on July 21 while located 1,623 mi southwest of San Diego. Situated over 81 °F sea surface temperatures, the depression attained tropical storm intensity a few hours later. Intensifying further west than normal, the storm reached winds of 70 mph 24 hours after formation.

Nine hours the Eastern Pacific Hurricane Center dropped advisories on Ignacio as it had left their area of responsibility and into the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's warning zone. A Hurricane Hunter aircraft investigated Ignacio at daybreak on July 22, found that Ignacio had developed a well-defined eye and winds of 85 mph. Based on this, the CPHC upgraded Ignacio to hurricane status. Continuing to intensify, Hurricane Ignacio moved west-northwest at 10 mph and was soon upgraded into Category 2 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Several hours the hurricane attained major hurricane status, Category 3 or higher on the SSHS; that day, a Hurricane Hunter aircraft discovered that Hurricane Ignacio had reached its peak wind speed of 130 mph and a central pressure of 960 mbar, making Ignacio one of the most intense hurricane to traverse the Central Pacific. The hurricane held peak intensity for several hours, however, an upper trough northwest of the Hawaiian Islands was approaching Ignacio.

Subsequently, the environment was becoming less conductive as the trough induced increased southwesterly wind shear and introduced colder and drier air into Ignacio's circulation. By 1800 UTC July 24, Ignacio was no longer a major hurricane as satellite imagery suggested that the eye had become irregular and soon disappeared. Air Force aircraft confirmed the weakening trend despite being located in an area where other hurricanes such as Hurricane Dot in 1959 and Hurricane Fico in 1978 maintained their intensity around the same time of the year. Minor re-intensification may have occurred the next day as the eye re-developed, this theory is not supported in the hurricane database; the hurricane resumed its westerly course, Hurricane Ignacio was downgraded a Category 1 hurricane at 1800 UTC on July 25, a tropical storm the next day. While passing south of Hawaii, Ignacio dropped to tropical depression status early on July 27, dissipated shortly after that; because of a strong trough was located northwest of Ignacio, many tropical cyclone forecast models predicted a more northerly track than what occurred.

By July 24, a high surf advisory was in effect for east-facing shores of Hawaii. One drugstore opened a special hurricane supplies center. In addition, beach activities on south-facing shores were cancelled. 24 hours after the hurricane watch was issued, the watch was cancelled as Ignacio resumed weakening though a small craft advisory remained in effect for the Hawaiian Islands. Ignacio resulted in 10 ft to 15 ft surf, peaking midday on July 25. Rainfall from the storm was light, with a few reports exceeding 2 in on the windward slopes of Maui and the Big Island; some structures and roads near Kalapana and Kapoh were damaged. Many secondary roads that led to the beaches were closed. Picnic areas and nature trails in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park were closed and overnight camping throughout the state was banned. List of Pacific hurricanes 1985 Pacific hurricane season Timeline of the 1985 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane Estelle Hurricane Hector

Waters of March

The Waters of March is a Brazilian song composed by Antônio Carlos Jobim in 1972. Jobim wrote both the Portuguese lyrics; the lyrics written in Portuguese, do not tell a story, but rather present a series of images that form a collage. In 2001, "Águas de Março" was named as the all-time best Brazilian song in a poll of more than 200 Brazilian journalists and other artists conducted by Brazil's leading daily newspaper, Folha de S. Paulo, it was voted by the Brazilian edition of Rolling Stone as the second greatest Brazilian song. The inspiration for "Águas de Março" came from Rio de Janeiro's rainiest month. March is marked by sudden storms with heavy rains and strong winds that cause flooding in many places around the city; the lyrics and the music have a constant downward progression much like the water torrent from those rains flowing in the gutters, which would carry sticks, bits of glass, everything and anything. The orchestration creates the illusion of the constant descending of notes much like Shepard tones.

In both the Portuguese and English versions of the lyrics, "it" is a stick, a stone, a sliver of glass, a scratch, a cliff, a knot in the wood, a fish, a pin, the end of the road, many other things, although some specific references to Brazilian culture, flora and fauna were intentionally omitted from the English version with the goal of providing a more universal perspective. All these details swirling around the central metaphor of the cascading "waters of March" can give the impression of the passing of daily life and its continual, inevitable progression towards death, just as the rains of March mark the end of a Brazilian summer. Both sets of lyrics speak of "the promise of life," allowing for other, more life-affirming interpretations, the English contains the additional phrases "the joy in your heart" and the "promise of spring," a seasonal reference that would be more relevant to most of the English-speaking world; when writing the English lyrics, Jobim endeavored to avoid words with Latin roots, which resulted in the English version having more verses than the Portuguese.

The English version still contains some words from Latin origin, such as promise, plan, mountain and mule. Another way in which the English lyrics differ from the Portuguese is that the English version treats March from the perspective of an observer in the northern hemisphere. In this context, the waters are the "waters of defrost" in contrast to the rains referred to in the original Portuguese, marking the end of summer and the beginning of the colder season in the southern hemisphere. Composer-guitarist Oscar Castro-Neves relates that Jobim told him that writing in this kind of stream of consciousness was his version of therapy and saved him thousands in psychoanalysis bills; the first recording of this song appeared on an EP released in May, 1972, named O Tom de Antonio Carlos Jobim e o Tal de João Bosco. This EP was released as a bonus included in the Brazilian periodical O Pasquim and was never reissued again; this type of vinyl record album was known as a "disco do bolso". At the time, it was considered more of a novelty promotional item for the magazine rather than one of Jobim's seminal works.

For that reason, existing copies of this recording are rare. The second recording was on Elis Regina's album Elis, the first in a series of 3 consecutive self-titled solo albums by Regina; the third recording was on Jobim. Album was titled Matita Perê in Brazil without additional English version of song. João Gilberto's recording from João Gilberto is known for its considerable deviation in rhythm and meter from the original. Italian singer Mina sings it as "La Pioggia di Marzo" on her album Frutta e verdura. Orchestra arranged & conducted by Pino Presti. Georges Moustaki recorded his version of the song as "Les Eaux de Mars" on the album Déclaration. What many reviewers consider to be the definitive recording of the song is the duet sung by Jobim and Elis Regina on the album Elis & Tom. Stan Getz and João Gilberto recorded a version on their joint album The Best of Two Worlds, with Portuguese lyrics sung by Gilberto and English lyrics sung by Miúcha, Gilberto's wife at the time. Sérgio Mendes & Brasil'77 recorded this song on the album Vintage 74.

Jobim played guitar on this track. Art Garfunkel recorded the song on his solo album Breakaway, his recording is similar to the 1973 Jobim recording in inflection and evocation of the song. Jack Parnell recorded the song on his album Braziliana Mark Murphy recorded this song on the album Stolen Moments. Sérgio Mendes & Brasil'88 recorded this song on the album Brasil'88. Jobim and Gal Costa recorded a live English version on Rio Revisited. New Zealand jazz singer Malcolm McNeill recorded an English version in 1982, released on Malcolm McNeill. Susannah McCorkle released a bilingual version on her album From Bessie to Brazil, it was repeated in her album Most Requested Songs. McCorkles version of the song was played over the closing credits of the 2002 documentary "Comedian", featuring Jerry Seinfeld. Carlos Berlanga recorded the song in Portuguese with Ana Belen on his album Indicios. David Byrne and Marisa Monte recorded the song for the benefit compilation album Red Hot + Rio

McCain (surname)

McCain is an English-language surname derived from Gaelic. The surname is an Anglicised form of the Gaelic Mac Cain, meaning "son of Cain". John S. McCain Sr. US Navy vice admiral John S. McCain Jr. US Navy admiral, son of John S. McCain, Sr. Roberta McCain, wife of John S. McCain, Jr. mother of John S. McCain III Sandy McCain, sister of John S. McCain III John McCain, US Senator, presidential candidate, navy pilot, Vietnam War POW, son of John S. McCain, Jr. Carol McCain, ex-wife of John S. McCain III Douglas McCain, adopted son of John S. McCain III Andrew McCain, adopted son of John S. McCain III Sidney McCain, daughter of John S. McCain III Cindy McCain, wife of John S. McCain III Meghan McCain, daughter of John S. McCain III Renee Swift McCain, wife of John Sidney McCain IV James McCain, son of John S. McCain III Bridget McCain, adopted daughter of John S. McCain III Joe McCain, brother of John S. McCain III Ben McCain, co-host of a morning television program in Oklahoma City Bobby McCain, American footballer Brandi McCain, former American college and professional basketballer Brice McCain, American footballer Butch McCain, half of the singing songwriting team, The McCain Brothers Chris McCain, American footballer Donald "Ginger" McCain, British horse trainer Edwin McCain, American singer-songwriter Elske McCain, American film actress Eric McCain, former professional gridiron footballer Frances Lee McCain, American actress Franklin McCain, American civil rights activist and member of the Greensboro Four Fred McCain, Canadian politician Gillian McCain, Canadian poet and photography collector Harrison McCain, Canadian businessmen co-founder of McCain Foods Henry Pinckney McCain, officer in the United States Army Hugh H. McCain, produce dealer and political figure in New Brunswick, Canada Ida McCain, American architect Jerry McCain, blues performer Justin McCain, American musician, songwriter and label executive Kelly McCain, former professional tennis player Margaret McCain, Canadian philanthropist and lieutenant governor of New Brunswick Michael McCain, president and CEO of Maple Leaf Foods Patrick McCain, indoor footballer Robert Stacy McCain, American author and journalist Rufus McCain, Alcatraz prisoner Scott McCain, former professional tennis player Stephen McCain, retired American gymnast Vernon McCain, football coach W. T. McCain, American legislator and judge Wallace McCain, Canadian businessmen and co-founder of McCain Foods William David McCain, American archivist and college president Yvonne McCain, lead plaintiff in landmark lawsuit Chase McCain, the main protagonist of the video game Lego City Undercover Desmond McCain, the main antagonist in the eight Alex Rider book, Crocodile Tears Eden McCain, a character from the TV show Heroes Lucas McCain, a character from the TV show The Rifleman Mark McCain, the son of Lucas McCain McCain McKean


Akhpradzor' is a small village in the Gegharkunik Province of Armenia. It is estimated; the village has one school that has 75 students from Kindergarten to 12th grade. Its principal, Ginevard Ghukasyan is the director of the school; the school is sponsored by a non-profit organization known as the Hidden Road Initiative that runs regular programs in the summer, provides internet and computers to the village school, provides scholarships to high school graduates. Most of the villagers sell potatoes; the village is well known for its locally produced honey. The villagers regularly sell their cheese and butter; the road leading to the village is limited and hard to access. During the winter, the snow blocks the road for the majority of the months. US Ambassador John Heffern visited the village in the summer of 2014 and promoted the road construction; the village mayor as well as the regional director promised that the road should be renovated by 2016. The village is home to several archaeological sites.

It contains old cemeteries from its Azeri inhabitants. It is believed that the village was once inhabited by Timur Lenk whose 13th century ruins can still be found in the village. Gegharkunik Province Akhpradzor at GEOnet Names Server Report of the results of the 2001 Armenian Census, Statistical Committee of Armenia Brady Kiesling, Rediscovering Armenia, p. 47.