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Paris Commune (French Revolution)

The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1792 until 1795. Established in the Hôtel de Ville just after the storming of the Bastille, it consisted of 144 delegates elected by the 48 divisions of the city; the Paris Commune became insurrectionary in the summer of 1792 refusing to take orders from the central French government. It took charge of routine civic functions but is best known for mobilizing extreme views and actions among the people and for its campaign to dechristianize the churches and the people, it lost much power in 1794 and was replaced in 1795. The first mayor was Jean Sylvain Bailly. In 1792, the Commune was dominated by those Jacobins who were not in the Legislative Assembly due to the Self-Denying Ordinance. On the night of 9 August 1792 a new revolutionary Commune, led by Georges Danton, Camille Desmoulins and Jacques Hébert took possession of the Hôtel de Ville. During the ensuing constitutional crisis, the collapsing Legislative Assembly of France was dependent on the Commune for the effective power that allowed it to continue to function as a legislature.

The all-powerful Commune demanded custody of the royal family, imprisoning them in the Temple fortress. A list of "opponents of the Revolution" was drawn up, the gates to the city were sealed, on 28 August the citizens were subjected to domiciliary visits, ostensibly in a search for muskets, it was not until 1792 that the government had a formal cabinet in place, with the appointment of the Ministers of the French National Convention and the decision of the Commissioners of the Committee of Public Safety in 1794 to take charge of administrative departments. The government of the republic was succeeded by the French Directory in November 1795

Canon FD 200 mm lens

Eight designs of Canon FD 200 mm lens were produced for the Canon FD lens mount. These varied by aperture and macro ability; these photographic lenses were: 200 mm f/2.8 S. S. C.: This lens, introduced in 1975, was identical to the first version of the New FD 200 mm f/2.8 except for the mounting hardware. 200 mm f/4.0: Introduced in 1971, this early version did not have Super Spectra Coating. 200 mm f/4.0 S. S. C.: introduced in 1973, this replaced the original, Spectra Coated version of this lens. This lens had a built-in lens hood; the New FD range changed the method by. This made the lenses attach more like the bayonet-lock mounts of other brands, did away with the criticism that Canon lenses were more slow and fiddly to mount. All New FD lenses were Super Spectra Coated, thus the distinguishing nomenclature was no longer needed. 200 mm f/1.8 L: This was Canon's final FD lens, introduced in November 1989, a year after its autofocus Canon EF equivalent, the EF 200 mm f/1.8 L, due to demand from photographers yet to switch from the FD to the EOS system.

200 mm f/2.8: This lens was a New FD updating of the previous 200 mm f/2.8 lens, replacing the locking ring of the old FD system with the rotating barrel locking mechanism of the New FD series but otherwise little updated. 200 mm f/2.8 II: The second revision of the New FD 200 mm f/2.8 adopted a rear focusing system, in which only the rear group of the lens moves to adjust focus, meaning that the overall length of the lens does not change and focusing is easier. The number of optical elements was increased to 7 elements in 6 groups. 200 mm f/2.8 III: The last version was changed to an internal focusing system. 200 mm f/4.0: Completely reworked from the old FD lens, this new lens was the smallest and lightest FD 200 mm lens by a substantial margin. Like the newer version of the 200 mm f/2.8, the f/4 is a rear-focusing design that does not extend or retract during focusing. A built-in lens hood was a permanent fixture on the end of the lens barrel. 200 mm f/4.0 Macro: The longest of the three macro lenses in the FD system, the 200 mm f/4 Macro achieves a magnification of 1:1 at its closest focusing distance of 0.58 m.

The other Canon FD macro lenses achieve only a 1:2 magnification without extension tubes and require the lens to be closer to the subject.

Vatlur railway station

Vatlur railway station serves the village of Vatluru in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is on the Howrah–Chennai main line around 8 km from Eluru railway station, it is under Vijayawada division of South Central Railway. It has two platforms, serving down trains, it has a general ticket booking counter. First platform has cement seatings for passengers, it has a general waiting hall on first platform. Local passenger trains stop at this station; the Visakhapatnam-Vijayawada section was electrified by 1997. The Howrah-Chennai route was electrified by 2005. A SSP is built beside Vatlur Railway Station. In terms of earnings and outward passengers handled, Vatlur is categorized as a Non-Subruban Grade-6 railway station. Based on the re–categorization of Indian Railway stations for the period of 2017–18 and 2022–23, an NSG–6 category station earns nearly ₹1 crore and handles close to 1 million passengers