Paris Métro entrances by Hector Guimard

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Winter view of the Guimard entrance to the Père Lachaise Métro station, in the 11th arrondissement

Between 1900 and 1913, Hector Guimard was responsible for the first generation of entrances to the underground stations of the Paris Métro. His Art Nouveau designs in cast iron and glass dating mostly to 1900, and the associated lettering that he also designed, created what became known as the Métro style (style Métro) and popularized Art Nouveau. However, arbiters of style were scandalized and the public was also less enamored of his more elaborate entrances. In 1904 his design for the Opéra station at Place de l'Opéra was rejected and his association with the Métro ended; many of his station entrances have been demolished, including all three of the pavilion type (at Bastille and on Avenue de Wagram at Étoile). Those that remain are now all protected historical monuments, one has been reconstituted, and some originals and replicas also survive outside France.

Palais Royal station (right) on a 1903 postcard; the Guimard entrance has yet to receive the arch with lights and "Métropolitain" sign, and instead is identified by a temporary wooden sign.

Context[edit]

The initial network of the Paris Métropolitain (soon commonly abbreviated to "Métro") was planned and built at one time in order to minimize disruption to the city from on-going construction and to open Line 1 and two branches in time for the Exposition Universelle in 1900. In 1899 the new Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris (CMP) held a design competition for the above-ground components, to alleviate the public's fear that they would mar the cityscape with an industrial appearance. The new entrances were stipulated to be "as elegant as possible but above all very light, prioritizing iron, glass and ceramic".[1]:39. The competition submissions were all considered too bulky for many of the sidewalk sites.[2][3] Adrien Bénard, the financier whose bank was underwriting the construction, liked the new Art Nouveau style and therefore instead persuaded the Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris (CMP) to appoint the still-young Guimard to design the entrances to the underground stations,[4][5] while the elevated stations were designed by Jean-Camille Formigé, chief architect of the City of Paris.[6]

Construction and characteristics[edit]

Rather than stone, Hector Guimard used cast iron set in concrete both to reduce costs and to suit the sinuous Art Nouveau forms;[3][6] they were painted in a green emulating weathered brass.[7] (For a renovation that began in 1999, the RATP, the Paris transportation authority, restored the entrances to two slightly different shades: at sites with a lot of vegetation, vert wagon ('train-car green'), the dark green used for Parisian public works at the turn of the 20th century, and at fully urban sites, a slightly bluer shade, vert allemand ('German green').[8]) He designed standardized components, including railing cartouches incorporating the letter "M" and signs in his own distinctive lettering reading "Métropolitain" or, at narrow entrances, "Métro"; later the use of the lettering was extended to a holder for a system map and for advertising (porte-plan) with the station name above. In addition to speed (the first set of entrances were installed within six months of their design)[9] and relatively low cost in manufacture and adaptation to different sizes and locations of entrances, all of this gave the system a stylistic identity.[6][10]

Bastille station entrance, now demolished, on another early postcard

Three of the entrances took the form of free-standing pavilions or small stations,[5] including waiting rooms: one at Bastille and two on Avenue de Wagram at Étoile. These were in a style influenced by Japanese pagodas. At Étoile Guimard provided exterior doors for elevators, although the elevators were not built.[10] Eight simpler but still elaborate structures, labeled "Édicule B" by Guimard, were installed at the termini of Line 1 as originally opened and at two other major stations. These consisted of three-sided glass-roofed structures enclosing the stairway, with a projecting canopy.[10][11][12] A variation on this format, "Édicule A", lacked the canopy and was erected at two stations, Saint-Paul and Reuilly – Diderot.[10] These édicule types of entrance, which have come to be called libellules because they resemble dragonflies, in some cases had decorated wall panels surfaced in reconstituted lava.[11] The great majority of the entrances built (154) were unroofed enclosures, dubbed an entourage. A transitional form between the entourage and the édicule, railings with a roof and canopy, was used for one entrance at the Gare de Lyon métro station.[13]

At many of the entourages, the top of the steps is surmounted by a "Métropolitain" or "Métro" sign in a holder that extends between two risers in the form of sinuous stalks,[14] traditionally compared to lily-of-the-valley, each bearing a light in the form of a red-orange globe reminiscent of an eye[3][10] or a flower.[15][16][17] These were not ready until 1901, the year after the system first opened, and Guimard varied the "Métropolitain" lettering somewhat between stations and twice revised the design, which reached its definitive form in 1902.[18]

Reception and later history[edit]

The Guimard entrances received a generally warm reception,[10] with Salvador Dalí calling them "those divine entrances to the Métro, by grace of which one can descend into the region of the subconscious of the living and monarchical aesthetic of tomorrow".[3][19] By way of what became known as le style Métro,[6] they popularized Art Nouveau, which had been a style known largely to connoisseurs of the avant garde.[20]

However, critics and many of the public were hostile to the libellules in particular, and criticized the green as "German" and the lettering as "un-French"[6] and, according to critic André Hallays in Le Temps, "confus[ing to] little children who are trying to learn their letters and ... stupefy[ing to] foreigners".[21] On the Champs-Élysées, for example at Marbeuf (now part of Franklin D. Roosevelt), simple stone walls with discreet carved signage were used instead,[10] and a plain design was also used at Bourse.[22][23] Unhappiness with Guimard's 1904 design for the Opéra station,[24] described in Le Figaro as having "contorted ramps" and "enormous frog-eye lamps",[25] and increasing costs led to the CMP severing its relationship with him.[5][22] The entrance at Opéra was instead designed by Joseph-Marie Cassien-Bernard [fr], in classical marble.[22][25] The CMP bought Guimard's molds and rights[22] and a total of 141 of his entrances were ultimately produced, the last in 1913.[20]

The CMP continued in later years to replace some of Guimard's designs with more sober entrances by Cassien-Bernard, often a plain balustrade in white stone, for example at Gare de l'Est, Madeleine, Montparnasse, and Saint-François-Xavier.[23] Modernization beginning after World War I also led to the demolition of many, especially the more elaborate.[26] Shortly before World War II, it was suggested that those remaining should be scrapped for their metal.[3] Art Nouveau had only briefly been in fashion and only became popular once more in the last quarter of the 20th century.[6]

Entrances extant today[edit]

Ninety-one Guimard entrances survived until 1970.[20] Eighty-six are still extant and protected as historical monuments;[27] six were protected in 1965, the remainder in 1978.[28] These include two original Type B édicules: at Porte Dauphine, on its original site and with the wall panels, and at Abbesses (moved from Hôtel de Ville in 1974). A third Type B of varying form at Châtelet is a 2000 recreation.[8] The remainder of the preserved entrances are simple enclosures or entourages, with or without the light and sign arch. In addition, two sides of an entourage form an entryway to the headquarters building of the RATP.

Surviving Guimard entrances in Paris protected as historical monuments[edit]

Station Arrondissement Address Base Mérimée Coordinates Photo
Châtelet 1st Rue de Rivoli
Rue des Lavandières-Sainte-Opportune
PA00085986 48°51′33″N 2°20′46″E / 48.859194°N 2.346222°E / 48.859194; 2.346222 (Châtelet) P1010010 Paris Ier Chatelet entrée du métro reductwk.jpg
Étienne Marcel 1st 14 Rue de Turbigo PA00085987 48°51′49″N 2°20′56″E / 48.863694°N 2.348944°E / 48.863694; 2.348944 (Étienne-Marcel) EGEtienne.JPG
Louvre - Rivoli 1st Rue de l'Amiral-de-Coligny
Rue de Rivoli
PA00085988 48°51′38″N 2°20′27″E / 48.860694°N 2.340889°E / 48.860694; 2.340889 (Louvre-Rivoli) Louvre Rivoli metro entrance.jpg
Palais Royal - Musée du Louvre 1st Place du Palais-Royal PA00085989 48°51′45″N 2°20′12″E / 48.862392°N 2.33665°E / 48.862392; 2.33665 (Palais-Royal 1) Palais Royal station entrance.jpg
Palais Royal - Musée du Louvre 1st Place du Palais-Royal PA00085989 48°51′46″N 2°20′11″E / 48.862747°N 2.33632°E / 48.862747; 2.33632 (Palais-Royal 2) EGPR2.JPG
Palais Royal - Musée du Louvre 1st Rue de Rivoli PA00085989 48°51′45″N 2°20′08″E / 48.862498°N 2.335609°E / 48.862498; 2.335609 (Palais-Royal 3) EGPR3.JPG
Tuileries 1st Rue de Rivoli PA00085990 48°51′51″N 2°19′48″E / 48.864295°N 2.330077°E / 48.864295; 2.330077 (Tuilerie 1) Metro tuileries1.jpg
Tuileries 1st Rue de Rivoli PA00085990 48°51′51″N 2°19′49″E / 48.864238°N 2.330252°E / 48.864238; 2.330252 (Tuilerie 2) EGTuileries2.JPG
Quatre-Septembre 2nd Rue du Quatre-Septembre
Rue de Choiseul
PA00086085 48°52′10″N 2°20′12″E / 48.8695554°N 2.336803°E / 48.8695554; 2.336803 (Quatre-Septembre) Metro - Paris - Ligne 3 - station Quatre-Septembre 01.jpg
Réaumur - Sébastopol 2nd 63, 65 Rue Réaumur PA00086086 48°52′00″N 2°21′02″E / 48.866599°N 2.350522°E / 48.866599; 2.350522 (Réaumur - Sébastopol 1) EGRS1.JPG
Réaumur - Sébastopol 2nd 63, 65 Rue Réaumur PA00086086 48°52′00″N 2°21′02″E / 48.86656°N 2.350686°E / 48.86656; 2.350686 (Réaumur - Sébastopol 2) EGRS2.JPG
Réaumur - Sébastopol 2nd 28 Rue de Palestro PA00086086 48°51′59″N 2°21′08″E / 48.866477°N 2.352161°E / 48.866477; 2.352161 (Réaumur - Sébastopol 3) EGRS3.JPG
Réaumur - Sébastopol 2nd 28 Rue de Palestro PA00086086 48°52′00″N 2°21′08″E / 48.866572°N 2.352217°E / 48.866572; 2.352217 (Réaumur - Sébastopol 4) EGRS4.JPG
Sentier 2nd 87 Rue Réaumur PA00086087 48°52′00″N 2°21′02″E / 48.8667084°N 2.3504533°E / 48.8667084; 2.3504533 (Sentier) EGSentier.JPG
Temple 3rd Rue du Temple
Rue de Turbigo
PA00086229 48°52′00″N 2°21′42″E / 48.866615°N 2.36155°E / 48.866615; 2.36155 (Temple) EGTemple.JPG
Cité 3rd Place Louis-Lépine PA00086471 48°51′20″N 2°20′51″E / 48.855625°N 2.347397°E / 48.855625; 2.347397 (Cité 1) EGCité2.JPG
Cité 4th Place Louis-Lépine PA00086471 48°51′19″N 2°20′50″E / 48.855215°N 2.347142°E / 48.855215; 2.347142 (Cité 2) Metro - Paris - Ligne 4 - station Cite.jpg
Saint-Michel 5th Boulevard Saint-Michel
(between Quai Saint-Michel and Rue de la Huchette)
PA00088479 48°51′13″N 2°20′40″E / 48.853511°N 2.344521°E / 48.853511; 2.344521 (Saint-Michel) Saint-Michel Metro, 26 April 2012.jpg
Saint-Michel 5th Boulevard Saint-Michel
(between Rue de la Huchette and Rue Saint-Séverin)
PA00088479 48°51′12″N 2°20′39″E / 48.85325°N 2.344194°E / 48.85325; 2.344194 (Saint-Michel)
Saint-Michel 6th Place Saint-André-des-Arts PA00088648 48°51′11″N 2°20′35″E / 48.85315°N 2.34295°E / 48.85315; 2.34295 (Saint-Michel) EGSTMichel3.JPG
Europe 8th Rue de Madrid PA00088871 48°52′44″N 2°19′22″E / 48.87887°N 2.32274°E / 48.87887; 2.32274 (Europe) Paris metro3 - europe - entrance.jpg
Saint-Lazare 8th Rue de Rome
Rue de l'Arcade
PA00088872 48°52′29″N 2°19′29″E / 48.87476°N 2.32471°E / 48.87476; 2.32471 (Saint-Lazare) EGStLazare.JPG
Cadet 9th 65 Rue La Fayette
17 Rue Cadet
PA00088991 48°52′34″N 2°20′39″E / 48.876°N 2.344027778°E / 48.876; 2.344027778 (Cadet) Cadet, mai 2016 (9412).jpg
Opéra 9th Rue Auber
Rue Scribe
PA00088992 48°52′18″N 2°19′50″E / 48.87158333°N 2.330666667°E / 48.87158333; 2.330666667 (Opéra) Paris 9 - Edicule Guimard station Opéra -161.JPG
Château d'Eau 10th 49–51 Boulevard de Strasbourg PA00086508 48°52′21″N 2°21′21″E / 48.872537°N 2.355919°E / 48.872537; 2.355919 (Château d'Eau 1) Paris Station Metro Château d'Eau 9.JPG
Château d'Eau 10th 49–51 Boulevard de Strasbourg PA00086508 48°52′21″N 2°21′21″E / 48.872447°N 2.355873°E / 48.872447; 2.355873 (Château d'Eau 2) Paris Station Metro Château d'Eau 8.JPG
Colonel Fabien 10th Place du Colonel Fabien PA00086509 48°52′39″N 2°22′15″E / 48.8775°N 2.370806°E / 48.8775; 2.370806 (Colonel Fabien) Édicule Guimard - station Colonel Fabien.jpg
Gare du Nord 10th 9 Boulevard de Denain PA00086510 48°52′47″N 2°21′16″E / 48.879772°N 2.35445°E / 48.879772; 2.35445 (Gare du Nord (9 boulevard Denain)) Paris Station Metro Gare du Nord 4.JPG
Gare du Nord 10th 2 Boulevard de Denain
129 Rue La Fayette
PA00086510 48°52′43″N 2°21′15″E / 48.878736°N 2.354261°E / 48.878736; 2.354261 (Gare du Nord (2 boulevard de Denain et 129 rue La Fayette)) Paris Station Metro Gare du Nord 5.JPG
Gare du Nord 10th 12 Boulevard de Denain PA00086510 48°52′47″N 2°21′17″E / 48.879725°N 2.354825°E / 48.879725; 2.354825 (Gare du Nord) Paris Station Metro Gare du Nord 3.JPG
Louis Blanc 10th 221 Rue La Fayette
223 Rue du Faubourg Saint-Martin
PA00086511 48°52′53″N 2°21′55″E / 48.881389°N 2.365333°E / 48.881389; 2.365333 (Louis-Blanc) Édicule Guimard de la station Louis Blanc, 75010 Paris.JPG
République 10th Place de la République at Boulevard de Magenta PA00086550 48°52′06″N 2°21′47″E / 48.868333°N 2.363056°E / 48.868333; 2.363056 (Louis-Blanc) EGRepublique.JPG
Bréguet - Sabin 11th 23 Boulevard Richard-Lenoir PA00086545 48°51′24″N 2°22′14″E / 48.856606°N 2.370499°E / 48.856606; 2.370499 (Bréguet - Sabin 1) Metro Paris - Ligne 5 - station Breguet - Sabin 04.jpg
Bréguet - Sabin 11th 9 Boulevard Richard-Lenoir PA00086545 48°51′20″N 2°22′12″E / 48.85565°N 2.37007°E / 48.85565; 2.37007 (Bréguet - Sabin 2) EGBS2.JPG
Couronnes 11th Boulevard de Belleville PA00086546 48°52′09″N 2°22′49″E / 48.869057°N 2.38041°E / 48.869057; 2.38041 (Couronnes) EGCouronnes.JPG
Ménilmontant 11th Boulevard de Ménilmontant PA00086547 48°52′00″N 2°23′00″E / 48.866674°N 2.383242°E / 48.866674; 2.383242 (Ménilmontant) EGMenilmontant.JPG
Parmentier 11th 88 bis Avenue Parmentier PA00086548 48°51′56″N 2°22′28″E / 48.865436°N 2.374562°E / 48.865436; 2.374562 (Parmentier) EGParmentier.JPG
Père Lachaise 11th Boulevard de Ménilmontant PA00086549 48°51′46″N 2°23′15″E / 48.862682°N 2.387488°E / 48.862682; 2.387488 (Père Lachaise 1) EGPL.JPG
Père Lachaise 11th 103 Avenue de la République PA00086549 48°51′48″N 2°23′09″E / 48.863197°N 2.385922°E / 48.863197; 2.385922 (Père Lachaise 2) EGPL2.JPG
Richard-Lenoir 11th 65 Boulevard Richard-Lenoir PA00086551 48°51′52″N 2°22′43″E / 48.864402°N 2.37859°E / 48.864402; 2.37859 (Richard-Lenoir) EGRichardLenoir.JPG
Rue Saint-Maur 11th 74 Avenue de la République PA00086552 48°51′52″N 2°22′43″E / 48.864444°N 2.378611°E / 48.864444; 2.378611 (Rue Saint-Maur) EGStMaur.JPG
Bastille 12th Boulevard Beaumarchais (moved from Rue de Lyon) PA00086576 48°51′11″N 2°22′09″E / 48.853056°N 2.369167°E / 48.853056; 2.369167 (Bastille) Édicule Bastille.JPG
Daumesnil 12th Place Félix-Éboué, center island PA00086577 48°50′23″N 2°23′45″E / 48.839722°N 2.395833°E / 48.839722; 2.395833 (Daumesnil) EGDaumesnil.JPG
Gare de Lyon 12th Boulevard Diderot, forecourt of rail terminal PA00086578 48°50′44″N 2°22′22″E / 48.845556°N 2.372778°E / 48.845556; 2.372778 (Gare de Lyon) EGGareLyon.JPG
Nation 12th Place de la Nation, at Boulevard Diderot PA00086579 48°50′53″N 2°23′42″E / 48.848056°N 2.395°E / 48.848056; 2.395 (Nation) Guimard Nation Diderot.jpg
Nation 12th Place de la Nation, at Avenue Dorian PA00086580 48°50′52″N 2°23′43″E / 48.847778°N 2.395139°E / 48.847778; 2.395139 (Nation) Guimard Nation Dorian.jpg
Picpus 12th Avenue de Saint-Mandé PA00086581 48°50′43″N 2°24′02″E / 48.845278°N 2.400556°E / 48.845278; 2.400556 (Picpus) Station Picpus.JPG
Campo-Formio 13th Boulevard de l'Hôpital PA00086599 48°50′08″N 2°21′30″E / 48.835556°N 2.358333°E / 48.835556; 2.358333 (Campo-Formio) Station de Metro Campo-Formio.JPG
Place d'Italie 13th Place d'Italie PA00086600 48°49′51″N 2°21′19″E / 48.830833°N 2.355278°E / 48.830833; 2.355278 (Place d'Italie) Édicule Métro Place d'Italie.JPG
Place d'Italie 13th Place d'Italie PA00086600 48°49′51″N 2°21′17″E / 48.830833°N 2.354722°E / 48.830833; 2.354722 (Place d'Italie) EGPItalie2.JPG
Saint-Marcel 13th Boulevard de l'Hôpital PA00086601 48°50′18″N 2°21′39″E / 48.838333°N 2.360833°E / 48.838333; 2.360833 (Saint-Marcel) P1000526 Paris XIII Hopital Pitié-Salpétrière reductwk.JPG
Denfert-Rochereau 14th Place Denfert-Rochereau PA00086630 48°50′03″N 2°19′55″E / 48.834175°N 2.331982°E / 48.834175; 2.331982 (Denfert-Rochereau) EGDenfer.JPG
Mouton-Duvernet 14th Avenue du Général Leclerc PA00086631 48°49′54″N 2°19′48″E / 48.831577°N 2.329931°E / 48.831577; 2.329931 (Mouton-Duvernet 1) EGMouton2.JPG
Mouton-Duvernet 14th Avenue du Général Leclerc PA00086631 48°49′52″N 2°19′46″E / 48.831145°N 2.329569°E / 48.831145; 2.329569 (Mouton-Duvernet 2) Metro Paris ligne 4 - Mouton - Duvernet - Entree.jpg
Raspail 14th Boulevard Raspail
Boulevard Edgar-Quinet
PA00086632 48°50′20″N 2°19′50″E / 48.838965°N 2.33055°E / 48.838965; 2.33055 (Raspail) EGRaspail.JPG
Pasteur 15th Boulevard Pasteur PA00086657 48°50′34″N 2°18′46″E / 48.842667°N 2.31275°E / 48.842667; 2.31275 (Pasteur) Pasteur métro L6 entrée.jpg
Boissière 16th Avenue Kléber PA00086695 48°52′01″N 2°17′25″E / 48.86691667°N 2.290222222°E / 48.86691667; 2.290222222 (Boissière) Paris 16 - Edicule Guimard Station Boissière -1.JPG
Chardon-Lagache 16th Rue Molitor
Rue Chardon-Lagache
PA00086696 48°50′42″N 2°15′59″E / 48.845009°N 2.266485°E / 48.845009; 2.266485 (Chardon-Lagache) EGChardon.JPG
Église d'Auteuil 16th Rue d'Auteuil
Rue Chardon-Lagache
PA00086698 48°50′51″N 2°16′07″E / 48.847387°N 2.268594°E / 48.847387; 2.268594 (Église-d'Auteuil) EGEgliseAuteuil.JPG
Kléber 16th Avenue Kléber PA00086699 48°52′18″N 2°17′36″E / 48.871695°N 2.293387°E / 48.871695; 2.293387 (Kléber 1) Metro entrance.jpg
Kléber 16th Avenue Kléber PA00086699 48°52′18″N 2°17′37″E / 48.871625°N 2.293616°E / 48.871625; 2.293616 (Kléber 2) Kleber metropolitan station.jpg
Mirabeau 16th Rue Mirabeau PA00086700 48°50′51″N 2°16′24″E / 48.84738889°N 2.273305556°E / 48.84738889; 2.273305556 (Mirabeau) Paris 16 - Station Mirabeau -1.JPG
Porte d'Auteuil 16th Boulevard de Montmorency PA00086701 48°50′53″N 2°15′36″E / 48.848094°N 2.260053°E / 48.848094; 2.260053 (Porte d'Auteuil) EGPorteAuteuil.JPG
Porte Dauphine 16th Avenue Foch PA00086697 48°52′20″N 2°16′37″E / 48.872149°N 2.277051°E / 48.872149; 2.277051 (Porte Dauphine 1) EdiculePorteDauphine.jpg
Porte Dauphine 16th Avenue Bugeaud PA00086697 48°52′17″N 2°16′36″E / 48.871426°N 2.276758°E / 48.871426; 2.276758 (Porte Dauphine 2) EGPDauphine2.JPG
Victor Hugo 16th Place Victor-Hugo
Avenue Victor-Hugo
Rue Léonard-de-Vinci
PA00086702 48°52′12″N 2°17′08″E / 48.869946°N 2.285647°E / 48.869946; 2.285647 (Victor-Hugo) Metro de Paris Victor Hugo entree.jpg
Monceau 17th Boulevard de Courcelles PA00086724 48°52′49″N 2°18′37″E / 48.880278°N 2.310278°E / 48.880278; 2.310278 (Monceau) Metro - Paris - Ligne 2 - station Monceau 01.jpg
Rome 17th Boulevard des Batignolles PA00086725 48°52′57″N 2°19′19″E / 48.8825°N 2.321944°E / 48.8825; 2.321944 (Rome) Metro de Paris - Ligne 2 - Rome 06.jpg
Ternes 17th Place des Ternes PA00086726 48°52′41″N 2°17′55″E / 48.878056°N 2.298611°E / 48.878056; 2.298611 (Ternes) EGTernes.JPG
Villiers 17th Boulevard de Courcelles PA00086727 48°52′52″N 2°18′54″E / 48.881111°N 2.315°E / 48.881111; 2.315 (Villiers) EGVilliers.JPG
Wagram 17th Rue Brémontier
Avenue de Villiers
PA00086728 48°53′03″N 2°18′13″E / 48.884167°N 2.303611°E / 48.884167; 2.303611 (Wagram) Paris 17 - Edicule Wagram -279.JPG
Abbesses 18th Place des Abbesses PA00086748 48°53′04″N 2°20′20″E / 48.884444°N 2.338889°E / 48.884444; 2.338889 (Abbesses) Abbesses (Paris Metro) 2010-07-31.jpg
Anvers 18th 70 Boulevard de Rochechouart PA00086749 48°52′58″N 2°20′38″E / 48.88283333°N 2.343777778°E / 48.88283333; 2.343777778 (Anvers) Anvers (Paris Métro).JPG
Barbès - Rochechouart 18th Boulevard de Rochechouart
Relocated to Bolivar in 1987
PA00086750 48°53′02″N 2°20′58″E / 48.88375°N 2.349361111°E / 48.88375; 2.349361111 (Barbès - Rochechouart)
Blanche 18th Boulevard de Clichy PA00086751 48°53′01″N 2°19′58″E / 48.88369444°N 2.332888889°E / 48.88369444; 2.332888889 (Blanche) EGBlanche.JPG
Pigalle 18th 16 Boulevard de Clichy PA00086752 48°52′56″N 2°20′17″E / 48.88227778°N 2.337916667°E / 48.88227778; 2.337916667 (Pigalle) Station Pigalle P1050879.JPG
Place de Clichy 18th 130 Boulevard de Clichy PA00086753 48°53′03″N 2°19′45″E / 48.884286°N 2.329062°E / 48.884286; 2.329062 (Place de Clichy 1) Paris 18 - Edicule Guimard - Place de Clichy.JPG
Place de Clichy 18th Place de Clichy PA00086753 48°53′01″N 2°19′40″E / 48.883605°N 2.327852°E / 48.883605; 2.327852 (Place de Clichy 2) EGClichy2.JPG
Bolivar 19th Avenue Simon-Bolivar
Relocated from Barbès - Rochechouart in 1987
PA00086750 48°52′50″N 2°22′30″E / 48.880502°N 2.3749217°E / 48.880502; 2.3749217 (Bolivar) EGBolivar.JPG
Botzaris 19th Rue Botzaris PA00086768 48°52′47″N 2°23′21″E / 48.879722°N 2.389167°E / 48.879722; 2.389167 (Botzaris) Metro de Paris - Ligne 7bis - Botzaris 04.jpg
Crimée 19th 185, Rue de Crimée
2 Rue Mathis
PA00086769 48°53′29″N 2°22′39″E / 48.891389°N 2.3775°E / 48.891389; 2.3775 (Crimée) EGCrimée.JPG
Jaurès 19th 184 Boulevard de la Villette PA00086770 48°52′54″N 2°22′13″E / 48.88167°N 2.37028°E / 48.88167; 2.37028 (Jaurès)
Pré-Saint-Gervais 19th Boulevard Sérurier
Rue Alphonse-Aulard
PA00086771 48°52′48″N 2°23′56″E / 48.88°N 2.398889°E / 48.88; 2.398889 (Pré-Saint-Gervais) Metro de Paris - Ligne 7bis - Pre-Saint-Gervais 04.jpg
Alexandre Dumas 20th Boulevard de Charonne PA00086784 48°51′21″N 2°23′41″E / 48.855833°N 2.394722°E / 48.855833; 2.394722 (Alexandre Dumas) Metro de Paris - Ligne 2 - Alexandre Dumas 01.jpg
Avron 20th Boulevard de Charonne PA00086785 48°51′07″N 2°23′52″E / 48.851944°N 2.397778°E / 48.851944; 2.397778 (Avron) Avron.jpg
Gambetta 20th Place Martin-Nadaud PA00086786 48°51′54″N 2°23′54″E / 48.865°N 2.398333°E / 48.865; 2.398333 (Gambetta) Paris - Gambetta metro station (27778358341).jpg
Philippe Auguste 20th Boulevard de Charonne PA00086787 48°51′29″N 2°23′27″E / 48.858056°N 2.390833°E / 48.858056; 2.390833 (Philippe Auguste) Metro de Paris - Ligne 2 - Philippe Auguste 01.jpg

Guimard entrances elsewhere[edit]

Some subway systems and museums outside France have examples of Guimard Métro entrances, mostly replicas presented by the RATP in exchange for art works.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Canac, Sybil (2014). Paris Métro: Histoire et design. Éditions Massin.
  2. ^ Mark Ovenden, Paris Underground: The Maps, Stations, and Design of the Métro, New York: Penguin, 2009, ISBN 978-0-14-311639-4, pp. 21, 22, 24.
  3. ^ a b c d e Hector Guimard: Photographs by Felipe Ferré, Text by Maurice Rheims, Explanatory Captions and Chronology by Georges Vigne. 1985; English ed. trans. Robert Erich Wolf, New York: Abrams, 1988, ISBN 9780810909731, p. 88.
  4. ^ Ovenden, p. 24.
  5. ^ a b c Laurence des Cars, "Fin de Siècle. Art Nouveau: The Rejection of Imitation: The architect and the city: Hector Guimard in Paris", in Sébastien Allard [fr] and Laurence des Cars, ed. Henri Loyrette, Nineteenth Century French Art. 2006, English ed. trans. David Radzinowicz, Paris: Flammarion, 2007, ISBN 978-2-0803-0532-9, pp. 432–37, p. 436.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Andrew Ayers, The Architecture of Paris: An Architectural Guide, Stuttgart/London: Axel Menges, 2004, ISBN 9783930698967, pp. 382–83.
  7. ^ a b "An Entrance to the Paris Métropolitain: conservation of an original Hector Guimard architectural surround", Conservation, National Gallery of Art, retrieved April 10, 2018.
  8. ^ a b RATP press release, "Rénovation des entrées du métro", at L'Art Nouveau.com (in French).
  9. ^ Claude Frontisi, "Hector Guimard entre deux siècles", Vingtième Siècle 17 (January–March 1988) 51-61, p. 56 (in French).
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Ovenden, p. 25.
  11. ^ a b Rheims and Vigne, pp. 88–89.
  12. ^ Édicule has a broader meaning in French than Latin Aedicula; it is sometimes used for all the Guimard Métro entrances, not only for those with roofs.
  13. ^ Ovenden, pp. 25, 26–27.
  14. ^ Or "noodles", nouille; Ovenden, p. 25.
  15. ^ a b "Hector Guimard, French, 1867–1942: Entrance Gate to Paris Subway (Métropolitain) Station, c. 1900", MoMA Highlights: 350 Works from the Museum of Modern Art, New York, ed. Harriet Schoenholz Bee and Cassandra Heliczer, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2nd ed., 2004, ISBN 9780870704901, p. 39.
  16. ^ "germinating lilies", Debora L. Silverman, Art Nouveau in Fin-de-Siècle France: Politics, Psychology, and Style, Studies on the history of society and culture, Berkeley: University of California, 1989, ISBN 9780520063228, p. 1.
  17. ^ "orchid-shaped", Robert Schmutzler, Art Nouveau, 1962, trans. Édouard Roditi, abridged ed. 1977, New York: Abrams, 1978, ISBN 9780810921771, p. 99: Schmutzler regards them as "colossal counterparts" to designs by Victor Horta.
  18. ^ Ovenden, pp. 167, 173.
  19. ^ Schmutzler, in 1962, still saw them as "arous[ing] ... expectations of the abode of Venus deep down in a mountain rather than a democratic subway". (p. 214).
  20. ^ a b c d F. Lanier Graham, Hector Guimard, Exhibition Catalog, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1970, OCLC 81368, p. 14.
  21. ^ Gillian Naylor, "Hector Guimard—Romantic Rationalist?", Hector Guimard, Architectural Monographs 2, New York: Rizzoli, 1978, OCLC 4529054, p. 19, note 30.
  22. ^ a b c d Ovenden, p. 28.
  23. ^ a b Ovenden, p. 30.
  24. ^ Rheims and Vigne, p. 89.
  25. ^ a b Naylor, p. 20.
  26. ^ Ovenden, p. 169.
  27. ^ List at Base Mérimée, Ministry of Culture (in French), retrieved April 15, 2018.
  28. ^ Paul Smith, Ministry of Culture and Communication, "Le patrimoine ferroviaire protégé", 1999, rev. 2011, p. 3, at Association pour l'histoire des chemins de fer (in French).
  29. ^ "Hector Guimard, Parisian metro entrance, 1900-1912", Métro de Montréal, retrieved April 10, 2018.
  30. ^ Matt McLauchlin, "Restoration and Reinauguration of the Guimard Entrance", Métro de Montréal, retrieved April 10, 2018.
  31. ^ "Estación del metro Bellas Artes, un pedazo de Francia en el corazón de México", MXCity, (in Spanish), retrieved April 10, 2018.
  32. ^ "Métro Lisbonne Station Picoas", Lisbonne.net, (in French), retrieved April 10, 2018.
  33. ^ "La RATP française et le Métro russe", Russie.net, January 27, 2007 (in French).
  34. ^ Aamer Madhani, "Metra to get touch of Paris: Union League gift will replace entry", Chicago Tribune, October 6, 2001.
  35. ^ Isabelle Gournay, "Review: Art Nouveau, 1890–1914", Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 60.3 (September 2001) 344–45.
  36. ^ "Hector Guimard: Entrance Gate to Paris Subway (Métropolitain) Station, Paris, France c. 1900", Art and Artists, Museum of Modern Art, retrieved April 10, 2018.

Further reading[edit]

  • Frédéric Descouturelle, André Mignard, and Michel Rodriguez. Le métropolitain d'Hector Guimard. Paris: Somogy, 2004. ISBN 9782850568152. (in French).

External links[edit]