Furnace Mountain (Virginia)
Furnace Mountain is the tallest peak of Catoctin Mountain in Loudoun County, Virginia. It rises steeply from the southern banks of the Potomac River across from Point of Rocks and continues southward for 1 mile, reaching an elevation of 891 feet before falling to a gap between it and an unnamed peak of 800 feet, its name arises from the iron furnaces located at its base, which operated from the 1790s to the 1870s. The furnaces were used to process iron ore mined from the mountain, much of, used to build the burgeoning city of Washington D. C.. Scheel, Eugene. Loudoun Discovered:Communities and Crossroads. Vol. 2, 2002, pp. 57–59
Paris is now a small unincorporated community in Fauquier County, United States. Located in Virginia's hunt country, it was established in a strategic spot at the eastern base of Ashby Gap along U. S. Route 17 and U. S. Route 50. Peter Glascock acquired the deed for what became the town in 1786 from Thomas Lord Fairfax, since it had been part of his Leeds Manor. Kimball Hicks had operated a tavern nearby since 1782, Glascock operated a similar venture, both of which were sometimes cited for failure to adhere to the terms of their licenses. A post office existed by 1800; the Virginia General Assembly in 1810 issued a charter for a town at the intersection of Ashby Gap Road and the Dumfries-Winchester Road, although the town was platted two decades earlier. In 1819 the town was named to memorialize the tour of the returning Marquis de Lafayette to the United States after the War of 1812. No written account explains why the place was not directly named after the Marquis, although Peter Glascock served in the Revolutionary army and admired him.
The market town prospered in the early 19th century, but lagged in the middle of the century because none of the newly constructed railroads went through it. It was last listed as an incorporated town in 1830. In 1835, Paris had several taverns, three stores, a school and a church shared by several denominations, as well as 25 dwellings, 2 saddlers, 2 blacksmiths, 2 wagonmakers, a tailor, a cabinetmaker, a chairmaker, a turner, a wheat fan maker and three boot and shoe factories; the Manassas Gap Railroad constructed in 1852 went south, through nearby Marshall and The Plains, Virginia, so Paris and its carting-based businesses declined. Because of its distance from the rail lines, the town saw little conflict during the American Civil War, was referred to in disparaging terms by both Confederate and Union writers; the population in 1880 was 134 persons in 22 households, including physicians, blacksmiths, harness makers, shoemakers, seamstresses and a bookkeeper and silversmith. The current Routes 17 and 50 were rerouted outside the historic town.
The original Old Meetinghouse at 720 Republican Street was bequeathed by Peter Glasscock. Multiple denominations used it before the American Civil War, it became an African-American school late in the 19th century, a private residence; the Trinity United Methodist Church at 684 Federal Street, built by Henry S. Hanes in a Gothic Revival style in 1892-1893, as of 2011 was deconsecrated but available to host events; the regionally well known Ashby Inn is two doors from that church. In 1951, philanthropist Paul Mellon rebuilt Trinity Episcopal Church, once Meade Parish in nearby Upperville, whose structure taken down on account of dampness in 1895 had again become decrepit, in a Gothic revival style; the Paris Historic District has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 2004, constitutes the northern portion of the larger Crooked Run Valley Rural Historic District. Half the town's historic structures date from between 1810 and 1850, with 7 from the Reconstruction period after the American Civil War.
Paris is just north of Sky Meadows State Park and a 10-minute drive from the Thompson Wildlife Management Area. The Appalachian Trail passes through both of these public recreation areas; the village is in Hunt Country and celebrated its 200th anniversary on Dec. 28, 2010. A five-minute drive west on Route 50 is the Shenandoah River, just on the other side of the mountain, where there is a boat landing; the peak of the Blue Ridge, overlooking Paris is called Ashby Gap. The view looking east from the gap has been deemed worthy of a "Scenic Easement", intended to keep this view unmolested for future generations to enjoy
Loudoun Heights (mountain)
Loudoun Heights, sometimes referred to as Loudoun Mountain, is the first peak of the Blue Ridge Mountain south of the Potomac River in Loudoun County and Jefferson County, West Virginia. The northwestern slope is part of Harpers Ferry National Historical Park; the peak, which overlooks Harpers Ferry, was used by Stonewall Jackson to bombard the town during the Battle of Harpers Ferry. It was the scene of the first and worst defeat for Confederate Partisan John Mosby at the hands of the Cole's Maryland Cavalry during the Battle of Loudoun Heights; the Appalachian Trail traverses the peak before descending its northwestern slope to the Shenandoah River and Harpers Ferry. A spur trail called the Loudoun Heights Trail leads off the AT down the northern slope, passing by Civil War earthworks and providing good views of the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah as well as Harpers Ferry at the Split Rock overlook; the trail until descended from the overlook before crossing the Potomac on the U. S. Route 340 bridge and rejoining the AT at Sandy Hook, Maryland.
However, this section was closed due to damage following storms. Topographic Map
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Blue Ridge Mountains
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains range. The mountain range is located in the eastern United States, extends 550 miles southwest from southern Pennsylvania through Maryland, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia; this province consists of northern and southern physiographic regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap. To the west of the Blue Ridge, between it and the bulk of the Appalachians, lies the Great Appalachian Valley, bordered on the west by the Ridge and Valley province of the Appalachian range; the Blue Ridge Mountains are noted for having a bluish color. Trees put the "blue" in Blue Ridge, from the isoprene released into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to the characteristic haze on the mountains and their distinctive color. Within the Blue Ridge province are two major national parks – the Shenandoah National Park in the northern section, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southern section – and eight national forests including George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Cherokee National Forest, Pisgah National Forest, Nantahala National Forest and Chattahoochee National Forest.
The Blue Ridge contains the Blue Ridge Parkway, a 469-mile long scenic highway that connects the two parks and is located along the ridge crest-lines with the Appalachian Trail. Although the term "Blue Ridge" is sometimes applied to the eastern edge or front range of the Appalachian Mountains, the geological definition of the Blue Ridge province extends westward to the Ridge and Valley area, encompassing the Great Smoky Mountains, the Great Balsams, the Roans, the Blacks, the Brushy Mountains and other mountain ranges; the Blue Ridge extends as far north into Pennsylvania as South Mountain. While South Mountain dwindles to mere hills between Gettysburg and Harrisburg, the band of ancient rocks that form the core of the Blue Ridge continues northeast through the New Jersey and Hudson River highlands reaching The Berkshires of Massachusetts and the Green Mountains of Vermont; the Blue Ridge contains the highest mountains in eastern North America south of Baffin Island. About 125 peaks exceed 5,000 feet in elevation.
The highest peak in the Blue Ridge is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet. There are 39 peaks in North Tennessee higher than 6,000 feet. Southern Sixers is a term used by peak baggers for this group of mountains; the Blue Ridge Parkway runs 469 miles along crests of the Southern Appalachians and links two national parks: Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains. In many places along the parkway, there are metamorphic rocks with folded bands of light-and dark-colored minerals, which sometimes look like the folds and swirls in a marble cake. Most of the rocks that form the Blue Ridge Mountains are ancient granitic charnockites, metamorphosed volcanic formations, sedimentary limestone. Recent studies completed by Richard Tollo, a professor and geologist at George Washington University, provide greater insight into the petrologic and geochronologic history of the Blue Ridge basement suites. Modern studies have found that the basement geology of the Blue Ridge is made of compositionally unique gneisses and granitoids, including orthopyroxene-bearing charockites.
Analysis of zircon minerals in the granite completed by John Aleinikoff at the U. S. Geological Survey has provided more detailed emplacement ages. Many of the features found in the Blue Ridge and documented by Tollo and others have confirmed that the rocks exhibit many similar features in other North American Grenville-age terranes; the lack of a calc-alkaline affinity and zircon ages less than 1,200 Ma suggest that the Blue Ridge is distinct from the Adirondacks, Green Mountains, the New York-New Jersey Highlands. The petrologic and geochronologic data suggest that the Blue Ridge basement is a composite orogenic crust, emplaced during several episodes from a crustal magma source. Field relationships further illustrate that rocks emplaced prior to 1,078–1,064 Ma preserve deformational features; those emplaced post-1,064 Ma have a massive texture and missed the main episode of Mesoproterozoic compression. The Blue Ridge Mountains began forming during the Silurian Period over 400 million years ago.
320 Mya, North America, Europe collided, pushing up the Blue Ridge. At the time of their emergence, the Blue Ridge were among the highest mountains in the world and reached heights comparable to the much younger Alps. Today, due to weathering and erosion over hundreds of millions of years, the highest peak in the range, Mount Mitchell in North Carolina, is only 6,684 feet high – still the highest peak east of the Rockies; the English who settled colonial Virginia in the early 17th century recorded that the native Powhatan name for the Blue Ridge was Quirank. At the foot of the Blue Ridge, various tribes including the Siouan Manahoacs, the Iroquois, the Shawnee hunted and fished. A German physician-explorer, John Lederer, first reached the crest of the Blue Ridge in 1669 and again the following year. At the Treaty of Albany negotiated by Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood, of Virginia with the Iroquois between 1718 and 1722, the Iroquois ceded lands they had conquered south of the Potomac River and east of the Blue Ridge to the Virginia Colony.
This treaty made the Blue Ridge the new demarcation point between the areas and tribes subject to the Six Nati
Neighbor Mountain is a mountain in Page and Rappahannock Counties, near the city of Luray. It is part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, its summit lies within Shenandoah National Park. Geologically speaking, the mountain is situated in the northern subprovince of the Blue Ridge Province of the Appalachian Highlands, it is part of the Crystalline Appalachians. Neighbor Mountain is separated from parallel Knob Mountain to the west by a stream known as Jeremy's Run; the crest of the northern arm of Neighbor Mountain forms part of the border between Page and Rappahanock Counties. Page County is located to the west of the ridge; as the mountain curves south-west, the county border follows the topographical spine of the Blue Ridge from Neighbor Mountain onto Pass Mountain to the south, the south-western arm lies within Page County. On this south-western arm are a series of knobs known as "Three Sisters." Neighbor Mountain is accessible via Skyline Drive, which runs along the ridge of the mountain's northern arm.
The Appalachian Trail runs parallel to Skyline Drive along this part of the mountain. The south-western arm of the mountain is accessible from the Appalachian Trail via the Neighbor Mountain Trail. Skyline Drive offers two scenic overlooks on the mountain. Jeremy's Run Overlook is situated on the northern arm, while Thornton Hollow Overlook is situated near the summit
Reddish Knob of Shenandoah Mountain is one of the highest points in Virginia, rising 4,397 feet. A narrow, paved road reaches the summit from Virginia. Reddish Knob is located on the border between Augusta County and Pendleton County, West Virginia, in the George Washington National Forest. Reddish Knob stands within the watershed of the Potomac River; the northwest side of Reddish Knob drains into Stony Run, thence into the South Fork of the South Branch of the Potomac River. To the south, Reddish Knob drains into the North Fork of the Little River, thence into the North River, the South Fork of the Shenandoah River, into the Potomac River. To the east, Reddish Knob drains into the Briery Branch of the North River. From Reddish Knob, a scenic gravel road continues south along the ridge crest that forms the boundary between Virginia and West Virginia, passing Shenandoah Mountain Picnic Area in a couple of miles. Further south lies the Ramsey's Draft Wilderness. To the north, a rough road provides access to a number of ridge top balds that have great primitive campsites.
Several developed recreation sites are nearby. Hone Quarry has a picnic area, campground with spaced sites, a small lake; the mountain peak is a popular destination for "day-trippers" for students of the nearby James Madison University, Eastern Mennonite University, Bridgewater College. They enjoy the "parking lot in the sky" as a place to relax and enjoy spectacular 360 degree views year round. Grindstone 100 Miler run entrants summit Reddish Knob; every year the Blue Ridge Running Camp runs up Reddish Knob. The summit is included in the Jeremiah Bishop Alpine Loop Gran Fondo; the loop climbs to Reddish Knob via the "darkside" of Reddish Knob's forest road, routes to the summit descends to Harrisonburg via the paved access road. From the 1920s to 1975, a steel fire tower stood atop Reddish Knob. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Reddish Knob PeakBagger.com: Reddish Knob summitpost.org: Reddish Knob