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Paris Peace Conference, 1919–1920

The Paris Peace Conference known as the Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting in 1919 and 1920 of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers. The conference involved diplomats from 32 countries and nationalities, its major decisions were the creation of the League of Nations, as well as the five peace treaties with the defeated states; the main result was the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, which in section 231 laid the guilt for the war on "the aggression of Germany and her allies". This provision proved humiliating for Germany and set the stage for the expensive reparations Germany was intended to pay; the five major powers controlled the Conference. The "Big Four" were French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, US President Woodrow Wilson, Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, they met informally 145 times and made all the major decisions, which were ratified.

The conference began on 18 January 1919. With respect to its end date, Professor Michael Neiberg has noted "Although the senior statesmen stopped working on the conference in June 1919, the formal peace process did not end until July 1923, when the Treaty of Lausanne was signed". Although it is referred to as the "Versailles Conference", only the signing of the first treaty took place at the historic palace, the negotiations occurred at the Quai d'Orsay in Paris; the Conference formally opened on 18 January 1919 at the Quai d’Orsay in Paris. This date was symbolic, as it was the anniversary of the proclamation of William I as German Emperor in 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, shortly before the end of the Siege of Paris - a day itself imbued with significance in its turn in Germany as the anniversary of the establishment of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701; the Delegates from 27 nations were assigned to 52 commissions, which held 1,646 sessions to prepare reports, with the help of many experts, on topics ranging from prisoners of war to undersea cables, to international aviation, to responsibility for the war.

Key recommendations were folded into the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, which had 15 chapters and 440 clauses, as well as treaties for the other defeated nations. The five major powers controlled the Conference. Amongst the "Big Five", in practice Japan only sent a former prime minister and played a small role; the four met together informally 145 times and made all the major decisions, which in turn were ratified by other attendees. The open meetings of all the delegations approved; the conference came to an end on 21 January 1920 with the inaugural General Assembly of the League of Nations. Five major peace treaties were prepared at the Paris Peace Conference: the Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919, the Treaty of Saint-Germain, 10 September 1919, the Treaty of Neuilly, 27 November 1919, the Treaty of Trianon, 4 June 1920, the Treaty of Sèvres, 10 August 1920; the major decisions were the establishment of the League of Nations. The main result was the Treaty of Versailles, with Germany, which in section 231 laid the guilt for the war on "the aggression of Germany and her allies".

This provision proved humiliating for Germany and set the stage for high reparations Germany was supposed to pay. As the conference's decisions were enacted unilaterally, on the whims of the Big Four, for its duration Paris was the center of a world government, which deliberated over and implemented the sweeping changes to the political geography of Europe. Most famously, the Treaty of Versailles itself weakened Germany's military and placed full blame for the war and costly reparations on Germany's shoulders – the humiliation and resentment in Germany is sometimes considered one of the causes of Nazi electoral successes and indirectly a cause of World War II; the League of Nations proved controversial in the United States as critics said it subverted the powers of Congress to declare war. S. Senate did not ratify any of the peace treaties and the U. S. never joined the League – instead, the Harding administration of 1921-1923 concluded new treaties with Germany and Hungary. Republican Germany was not invited to attend the conference at Versailles.

Representatives of White Russia were present. Numerous other nations did send delegations in order to appeal for various unsuccessful additions to the treaties. A central issue of the Conference was the disposition of the

The Jolly Green Giant

"The Jolly Green Giant" is a song written by Lynn Easton, Don Harris, Dewey Terry and performed by The Kingsmen. It reached #1 on the Canadian chart, #4 on the U. S. pop chart, #25 on the U. S. R&B chart in 1965, it was featured on their 1965 album The Kingsmen Volume 3. The song was based on Green Giant's mascot the Jolly Green Giant; the single only credited Easton as the writer, but Harris and Terry were added when it was determined the song was a re-write of The Olympics song "Big Boy Pete". The song was produced by Jerry Dennon; the song ranked #39 on Billboard magazine's Top 100 singles of 1965. Sandy Nelson released a version of the song on his 1965 album Drum Discotheque; the Ravens released a version of the song as the B-side to their 1965 single "Listen to Me Now". The Royal Guardsmen released a version of the song on their 1967 album Snoopy vs. the Red Baron. Don and the Goodtimes released a version of the song on their 1995 compilation album Don & the Goodtimes; the Knickerbockers released a version of the song on their 1998 compilation album The Very Best of the Knickerbockers: Lies.

Several other 1965 versions with uncredited groups were released on various "hit parade" labels including Hit, Hit Parader, Seeburg Rec-O-Dance

Restored Church of God

The Restored Church of God is one of many churches which were formed in response to major doctrinal changes which were made within the Worldwide Church of God, the church, founded by Herbert W. Armstrong, it is one of the Sabbatarian Churches of God which emerged in the aftermath of a major schism which occurred in the WCG in 1995. The RCG claims to retain the tenets and structure which existed in the earlier WCG before Armstrong's death in 1986; the RCG was formed in May 1999, in the midst of an ongoing upheaval in the wake of a departure from the WCG's established beliefs. It is based in Ohio; the RCG's founder and leader is David C. Pack; as Pastor General of the Restored Church of God, David C. Pack oversees the operations of the church, he attended Ambassador College and entered WCG's ministry in 1971. Following the 1995 schism in WCG, Pack became a minister in the Global Church of God, but he was fired on May 3, 1999, established his own church. Since he has established over 50 congregations, authored more than 20 books, written hundreds of booklets and articles, appeared on The History Channel.

The church claims to have thousands of members. The RCG asserts that its doctrines are similar to those of its predecessor, "...it claims to be'the only true extension of The Worldwide Church of God' as it was before Armstrong’s death." Adhering to what is referred to as Armstrongism, which includes the belief in the impending Apocalypse followed by the millennial reign of Jesus Christ on Earth, along with Old Testament dietary laws, observance of seventh-day Sabbath, bans on holidays and festivals with pagan roots like Christmas and Easter, most of Herbert W. Armstrong's other teachings; the church has been noted by Time for its strong stance against the Halloween tradition of Trick-or-treating. The Restored Church of God adheres to the laws of tithing; this has allowed a small organization to reach people around the world. Non-members, called Coworkers give offerings to show their support of the Work of The Restored Church of God. Another doctrine cited, called "Common" comes from the New Testament understanding that Christians should avoid excess and contribute out of their excess to support the Work of the Church reaching millions around the world.

This doctrine was first explained to the Church by David C. Pack in 2011, in a four-part sermon series titled “Christ’s Sayings—One Great Theme.” It was revisited in his early 2014 two-part series, “How a Small Church Does Such Big Things.” RCG members are told to "sell all" and give their excess to support the Work of RCG. The RCG's flagship magazine is The Real Truth. Pack hosts the program The World to Come, he has written a two-volume Biography, a booklet titled Here Is The Restored Church of God, which contains more descriptions of his church's doctrines and practices; the RCG's literature and programs are offered to the public free of charge. The World to Come: weekly video and daily audio programs preach the church's doctrines Hundreds of free books and booklets, articles and magazines The Real Truth: monthly flagship magazine which analyzes world news in the light of Bible prophecy—is styled a continuation of The Plain Truth magazine, as it was produced from 1934 through the mid-1980s Bible Introduction Course: 30 lessons which introduce the basic RCG doctrines The Splinter Explanation Packet: a series of ten books, as well as sermons, written for former WCG members The Pillar: a bi-monthly magazine, published for the church's members Ambassador Youth: a bi-monthly magazine, published for the church's teenage members The RCG runs Ambassador Center, a two-year institution to train RCG's future ministers and leaders, modeled after the WCG's Ambassador College.

The church runs Ambassador Youth Camp, an annual summer camp for its teenage members. The church, as noted by the Wall Street Journal, discourages conventional 2-person romantic dating among teenagers, preferring group-based social activities, it discourages participation in blogs among youth, citing concerns over victimization. The RCG started constructing its world headquarters in Wadsworth, Ohio, in 2012, it was modeled after Armstrong's Ambassador College campus in Pasadena, California; the church's plans for the project include a four-story Hall of Administration building, a 450-seat auditorium, an educational training center, a studio, a mail-processing building. The project broke ground on May 10, 2012, the administration building opened on June 21, 2013. Armstrongism Christian observances of Jewish holidays Christian views on the Old Covenant Herbert W. Armstrong Restorationism Worldwide Church of God Official website