Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege
Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege is a tactical shooter video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft. It was released worldwide for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, Xbox One on December 1, 2015; the game puts heavy emphasis on environmental cooperation between players. Each player assumes control of an attacker or a defender in different gameplay modes such as rescuing a hostage, defusing a bomb, taking control of a capture point; the title features a series of short missions that can be played solo. These missions have a loose narrative, focusing on recruits going through training to prepare them for future encounters with the White Masks, a terrorist group that threatens the safety of the world, it is an entry in the Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six series and the successor to Tom Clancy's Rainbow 6: Patriots, a tactical shooter that had a larger focus on narrative. However, Patriots was cancelled due to its technical shortcomings, the team decided to reboot the franchise; the team evaluated the core of the Rainbow Six franchise and believed that letting players impersonate the top counter-terrorist operatives around the world suited the game most.
To create authentic siege situations, the team consulted actual counter-terrorism units and looked at real-life examples of sieges. Powered by AnvilNext 2.0, the game utilizes Ubisoft's RealBlast technology to create destructible environments. Announced at Electronic Entertainment Expo 2014, it received four nominations from Game Critics Awards including Best of Show; the game received an overall positive reception from critics, with praise directed to the game's tense multiplayer and focus on tactics. However, the game was criticized for its lack of content. Initial sales were weak, but the game's player base increased as Ubisoft adopted a "games as a service" model for the game and subsequently released several packages of free downloadable content; the company partnered with ESL to make Siege an esports game. In June 2018, two and a half years after the game's initial launch, the game surpassed 40 million registered players across all platforms. Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Siege is a first-person shooter game, in which players utilize many different operators from the Rainbow team.
Different operators have different nationalities and gadgets. The game features an asymmetrical structure whereby the teams are not always balanced in their ability choices; the base Counter-Terrorism Units available for play are the American Hostage Rescue Team, the British SAS, the German GSG-9, the Russian Spetsnaz and the French GIGN, each of which has four operators per unit split between attackers and defenders. Players have access to a "Recruit" operator who can choose from a more flexible assortment of equipment at the expense of having a unique gadget or the ability to customize their weapon. Players can pick any operator from any unit, defending or attacking before a round starts, choosing spawn points as well attachments on their guns but are not allowed to change their choices once the round has started. An in-game shop allows players to purchase operators or cosmetics using the in-game currency, "Renown", earned at the end of matches from actions performed in-game. Different gameplay modes award renown at different rates, with ranked matches offering the largest renown multiplier potential per match.
Renown gain rate can be affected by the addition of "boosters" which give the player a 100% increase in all renown earned for 24 real-time hours. A premium currency known as "R6 credits" can be purchased using real-world currency to get operators quicker in-game, or other cosmetic. In online matches, when a round begins the attackers choose one of several spawn points from which to launch their attack while defenders do the same from which to defend from. A one-minute preparatory period will commence wherein the attackers are given control over mecanum-wheeled drones to scout the map in search of enemy operators and defensive set-ups as well as the target, while the opposition establishes their defences. Defenders can put up destructible barricades and reinforced walls to make them indestructible to most munitions unless an appropriate operator, such as Hibana and Maverik, destroys it. Maps in the game are designed to encourage close quarters combat, players cannot respawn until the end of a round.
Players who were killed by opponents can enter "Support Mode", which allows them to gain access to drone's cameras and security cameras so that they can continue to contribute to their team by informing them of opponent locations and activities. Matches last only four minutes for a casual and three minutes for a ranked. Teamwork and cooperation are encouraged in Siege, players need to take advantage of their different abilities in order to complete the objective and defeat the enemy team. Communication between players is heavily encouraged; the game has a spectator mode, which allows players to observe a match from different angles. The game features a heavy emphasis on environmental destruction using a procedural destruction system. Players can shoot walls to make bullet holes. Players may gain tactical advantages through environmental destruction, the system aims at encouraging players to utilize creativity and strategy. A bullet-penetration system is featured, in which bullets that pass through structures deal less damage to enemies.
In addition to destruction, players on the defending team can set up a limited number of heavy-duty f
Noctilien is the night bus service in Paris and its agglomeration. It is managed by the Île-de-France Mobilités, the Île-de-France regional public transit authority, operated by RATP and Transilien SNCF, it replaced the previous Noctambus service on the night of 20/21 September 2005, providing for a larger number of lines than before and claiming to be better adapted to night-time transport needs. In place of the previous hub-and-spoke scheme where all buses terminated at and departed from the heart of Paris: Châtelet, Noctilien's new service includes buses operating between banlieues as well as outbound lines running from Paris' four main railway stations: Gare de l'Est, Gare de Lyon, Gare Montparnasse and Gare Saint-Lazare. In addition, these four stations are connected to each other by a regular night bus service. All in all, Noctilien operates 47 bus lines from the last bus of the night until the first bus of the morning over the whole of Paris and the Île-de-France region, it is made up of: 2 "circular" lines running between Paris' major train stations: N01 & N02.
Like Transilien, the name "Noctilien" is formed by analogy with "Francilien" — the French demonym for residents of Île-de-France. N01 - Inner circle line from and to Gare de l'Est via Gare de Lyon → Gare Montparnasse → Gare Saint-Lazare N02 - Outer circle line from and to Gare Montparnasse via Gare de Lyon → Gare de l'Est → Gare Saint-Lazare N11 - Pont de Neuilly ↔ Château de Vincennes N12 - Pont de Sèvres ↔ Romainville - Carnot N13 - Mairie d'Issy ↔ Bobigny - Pablo Picasso N14 - Mairie de Saint-Ouen ↔ La Croix de Berny N15 - Asnières − Gennevilliers - Gabriel Péri ↔ Villejuif - Louis Aragon N16 - Pont de Levallois ↔ Mairie de Montreuil N21 - Châtelet ↔ Longjumeau - Hôpital N22 - Châtelet ↔ Juvisy - Marché N23 - Châtelet ↔ Chelles-Gournay N24 - Châtelet ↔ Sartrouville N31 - Gare de Lyon ↔ Paris Orly Airport N32 - Gare de Lyon ↔ Boissy-Saint-Léger N33 - Gare de Lyon ↔ Villiers-sur-Marne N34 - Gare de Lyon ↔ Torcy N35 - Gare de Lyon ↔ Nogent-le-Perreux N41 - Gare de l'Est ↔ Villeparisis – Mitry-le-Neuf N42 - Gare de l'Est ↔ Aulnay-sous-Bois - Garonor N43 - Gare de l'Est ↔ Gare de Sarcelles-Saint-Brice N44 - Gare de l'Est ↔ Garges-Sarcelles N45 - Gare de l'Est ↔ Montfermeil - Hôpital N51 - Gare Saint-Lazare ↔ Gare d'Enghien N52 - Gare Saint-Lazare ↔ Gare de Cormeilles-en-Parisis N53 - Gare Saint-Lazare ↔ Nanterre - Université N61 - Gare Montparnasse ↔ Clamart - Georges Pompidou N62 - Gare Montparnasse ↔ Robinson N63 - Gare Montparnasse ↔ Massy-Palaiseau N66 - Gare Montparnasse ↔ Vélizy-Villacoublay - Robert Wagner N71 - Rungis International Market ↔ Val de Fontenay N122 - Châtelet ↔ Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse N130 - Gare de Lyon ↔ Marne-la-Vallée - Chessy N131 - Gare de Lyon ↔ Brétigny N132 - Gare de Lyon ↔ Melun N133 - Gare de Lyon ↔ Juvisy N134 - Gare de Lyon ↔ Combs-la-Ville - Quincy N135 - Villeneuve-Saint-Georges ↔ Corbeil-Essonnes N140 - Gare de l'Est ↔ Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport N141 - Gare de l'Est ↔ Gare de Meaux N142 - Gare de l'Est ↔ Tournan N143 - Gare de l'Est ↔ Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport N144 - Gare de l'Est ↔ Corbeil-Essonnes N145 - Gare de l'Est ↔ Gare de La Verrière N150 - Gare Saint-Lazare ↔ Cergy Le Haut N151 - Gare Saint-Lazare ↔ Gare de Mantes-la-Jolie N152 - Gare Saint-Lazare ↔ Cergy Le Haut N153 - Gare Saint-Lazare ↔ Saint Germain-en-Laye N154 - Gare Saint-Lazare ↔ Montigny – Beauchamp Each bus line number starts with for Noctilien followed by a two or three digit number: 2 digits starting with "N0" for the two "circular" routes 2 digits starting with "N1" for the "transversal" routes 2 digits starting with "N2" for buses running from Châtelet 2 digits starting with "N3" for buses running from Gare de Lyon 2 digits starting with "N4" for buses running from Gare de l'Est 2 digits starting with "N5" for buses running from Gare Saint-Lazare 2 digits starting with "N6" for buses running from Gare Montparnasse 3 digits starting with "N1" for the long distance buses running to the outer suburbs.
This article draws on the French Wikipedia page "Noctilien", downloaded 18 February 2006. Official website
The Gare Saint-Lazare Paris-Saint-Lazare, is one of the six large terminus railway stations of Paris. It serves train services toward Normandy, northwest of Paris, along the Paris–Le Havre railway. Saint-Lazare is the second busiest station in Paris, after the Gare du Nord, it handles 275,000 passengers each day. The station was designed by architect Juste Lisch, the maître de l'oeuvre was Eugene Flachat; the first station at St Lazare was 200 m north-west of its current position, called Embarcadère des Batignolles. The station was opened by Marie-Amélie on 24 August 1837; the first line served was the single track line to Le Pecq. In 1843 St-Lazare was the terminus for three lines; the station had 14 platforms in 1854 after several enlargements, now has 27 platforms sorted in six destination groups. On 27 April 1924 the inner suburban lines were electrified with 750 V third rail; the same lines were re-electrified at 25 kV overhead wires in the 1960s. On 21 March 2012, a new three-level shopping mall with 80 shops opened inside the passenger hall.
The Gare Saint-Lazare is situated in the 8th arrondissement, in a dense business and shopping area of Paris. The Gare Saint-Lazare has been represented in a number of artworks, it attracted artists during the Impressionist period and many of them lived close to the Gare St-Lazare during the 1870s and 1880s. Édouard Manet lived close at 4 rue de Saint-Pétersbourg. Two years after moving to the area he showed his painting The Railway, at the Paris Salon in 1874. Painted from the backyard of a friend's house on the nearby rue de Rome, this canvas, now in the National Gallery of Art at Washington D. C. portrays a woman with a book as she sits facing us in front of an iron fence. At the time of its first exhibition it was caricatured and the subject of ridicule. Gustave Caillebotte lived just a short walk away from the station, he painted Le Pont de l’Europe in 1876 and On the Pont de l'Europe in 1876-80. While the former picture looks across the bridge with the ironworks diagonally crossing the picture to the right, with a scene of interacting figures on the bridge to the left, the latter depicts the iron structure of the bridge face-on in a strong close-up of its industrial geometry, with three male figures to the left side of the painting all looking in different directions.
In 1877, painter Claude Monet rented a studio near the Gare Saint Lazare. That same year he exhibited seven paintings of the railway station in an impressionist painting exhibition, he completed 11 paintings of this subject. Oscar-Claude Monet's series of the Gare Saint-Lazare train station was one of his most famous series in his lifetime. Monet was one of the most important and influential painters in the Impressionist movement in the 19th century, he was a strong proponent of plein-air landscape painting. Artists such as Gustave Caillebotte, Edgar Degas and Berthe Morisot, do this in order to portray the scene in the moment instead of creating the painting from what they could remember. Monet and others who followed the Impressionism Movement were not accepted in the Salon de Paris, because of their rejection of the academies’ teachings of form, subject matter etc. so instead they decided to open a new exhibition on their own Impressionist Exhibition in April 1874. Claude Monet's depiction of this train station is an astonishing composition in which the hard-edged discs of the railroad signals hover above a scribbled swirl of blue and rose clouds of steam, with scrolled white edges, while the sketchy, angular drawing of the tracks and buildings provides contrast.
The flat, opaque circle of the largest signal, placed dead center and thickly painted, is so insistent that it turns the picture into a near-abstraction. The Gare Saint-Lazare piece was shown at the Third Impressionist Exhibition; the Gare Saint-Lazare is far different than Monet's previous paintings of harbors and oceans that viewers had seen before. The Gare Saint-Lazare series of paintings lead the viewers through a tour of the train station in different points of the day. “Monet exemplifies the modern life, in all its chaos and instability,” The steam coming from the trains creates a way of dissolving the train and showing the impressionistic style of blending colors and light. Everything turns into a flurry of blended colors; as said by Émile Zola, “Monet is able to turn a dirty and gritty place into a peaceful and beautiful scene…You can hear the trains rumbling in, see the smoke billow up under the huge roofs…that is where painting is today…our artists have to find the poetry in train station, the way their fathers found the poetry in forests and rivers.”
“Monet’s work on the Gare Saint-Lazare is unparalleled in its evocation of steam and the smoke-filled station. In spite of the impressionist style, the work reproduces the topography of the area allowing one to deduce the precise point where the artist was standing while painting; this is the first time an artist had showed a single theme through a series of variations” The Gare Saint-Lazare itself, a monument to the last word in state-of-the-art transportation, the railroad. Le Quartier de l'Europe, where artists like Claude Monet and Gustave Caillebotte spent a lot of time and painted was, in short, a paradigm of mo
Foire de Paris
The Foire de Paris is a major retail event, held annually in Paris since 1904 for ten days in April–May. Although showing domestic goods, it offers a varied range of products for the general public. Since 1924 the fair has been held in the Porte de Versailles exhibition center, it is the largest general-purpose fair in Europe. The concept of the Foire de Paris was aired in 1889 by a jeweler named Gustave Sandoz, but was dropped as preparations began for the Exposition Universelle of 1900. In 1903 an organizing committee was established by the Chambre Syndicale des Jeux et Jouets, the first fair was opened in March 1904. During World War I the fair was suspended in 1915. In February 1916 the new Minister of Commerce, Étienne Clémentel, suggested reopening the fair, it was held on 1–17 March 1917 on the Esplanade des Invalides, showing only French products. This fair included agricultural machinery for the first time, but included more than 400 booths devoted to fashion; the fair was again banned in 1918.
In 1921 the fair was held on the Champ de Les Invalides. The first Salon des Appareils Ménagers was held between 18 October 1923 and 4 November 1923 in 5,000 square metres of the Foire de Paris on the Champ de Mars; the first show was held in a simple hut. In 1923 the Parc des expositions was created at the Porte de Versaille to accommodate the fair and the exhibitions organized by the Ministry of Agriculture. From 1924 the Foire de Paris was hosted in the Porte de Versailles. In 1925 the fair began to include foreign products, showing new openness to international competition. From 1929 the fair has hosted a competition for inventions. In 1929 the fair had 754 foreign exhibitors. President Albert François Lebrun visited the 1934 fair at the Porte de Versailles. During World War II the fair was held in 1940, closing on 10 May 1940 on the day of the great German offensive, it was suspended for the rest of the war. The head of the Provisional Government, General Charles de Gaulle, inaugurated the Foire de Paris in 1945.
The 1948 fair covered 45 hectares and included luxury goods such as leather and shoes for the first time since the war. It had 23 television sets, which attracted thousands of people. In 1950 President Vincent Auriol advised the French people, "Let all who are melancholic and sad come to the Paris Fair, their sorrow will give way to optimism." In 1960 the sensation of the fair was a realistic village of 30 equipped houses surrounding a church. The organizers arranged for a young couple to be married in the church during the fair. In 1968 the fair suffered from civic disturbances, with the metro on strike on opening day, but still had 400,000 visitors; the 1969 fair was arranged into large, specialized exhibitions. In 1972 there were one million visitors. Over the next years the fair began to stay open for longer into the evening, evolved with new categories, including renewable energy and energy efficiency and home computers, swimming pools. In 2012 the Foire de Paris, the largest general fair in Europe, lasted for twelve days and closed on 8 May 2012.
There had been 620,000 visitors, 4% more than in 2011. 88% of visitors had made purchases, spending on average €740. The fair had 3,400 exhibitors in an area of 220,000 square metres, it included performance, workshops and competitions. Due to the economic crisis, average expenditure dropped to €320 in 2013. At the 2014 fair the average visitor spent €437; the 2014 fair had 575,000 visitors. The 2015 Foire de Paris again ran for 12 days from 29 April 2015, with 200,000 square metres of retain area, equivalent to twenty hypermarkets. Admission cost €13 euros at the door. There were 3,500 exhibitors and 1,800 brands organized into five sections: Home & habitat, World Crafts and Culture and Gastronomy, Beauty and Wellness and Practical Life; the Home section accounts for 70% of the sales by value offering discounts of 15%, in some cases up to 40%. Foire de Lyon
Paris International Agricultural Show
The Paris International Agricultural Show is an annual agricultural show and trade fair, that takes place at the end of February or beginning of March at the Paris expo Porte de Versailles in Paris, France. It is one of the world’s largest and most important agricultural shows, drawing larger crowds than any other in Paris except the Foire de Paris; this event was first held in 1870 as the Concours général agricole. Its name was changed in 1964, but the Concours still exists and is one of the fair's main attractions. Notes This show is organised on several themed zones in different buildings at the Paris expo Porte de Versailles. In 2015 the stands were grouped into four zones: Élevages et ses filières: This zone houses a representative gathering of animals from the 360 exhibited species. At the 2014 show there was a total of more than 3,850 animals in this zone. Produits gastronomiques: This sector represents the food culture of 18 different countries from around the world as well as from the different regions of France.
Cultures et filières végétales: Here were exhibited vegetable crops from the cereal sector, important in France. This section informed the public of new trends in gardening as well as providing activities and entertainment for all ages. Services et métiers de l'agriculture: This was run by the French Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, a major player in the development of agriculture and agricultural training in France. Since 2010, the show has established thematic guided tours which varied from day to day, depending on whether they were targeted for schoolchildren or trade visitors. In 2013, ten thematic guided tours were offered to visitors, one of, a special golden jubilee tour; every two years, the Salon international du machinisme agricole is held at the Parc des expositions de Paris-Nord at Villepinte, Seine-Saint-Denis. Entrance is restricted to those working in the agriculture or forestryOn the alternate years, the Salon du fromage et des produits laitiers is held, it is the largest showcase for cheesemaking knowhow.
With 150 exhibutors and 5,997 visitors, this is a major trade fair for cheesemongers and buyers of cheese and dairy products. The show is organised by the CENECA, in partnership with the French Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry; the French Minister of Agriculture is responsible for decision-making. CENECA brings together various professional organizations in the agricultural world, agri-food and communities; the city of Paris and the government are the ultimate backers of the show. Although CENECA sets the general strategy, it subcontracts operational matters to Comexposium. Official visits are arranged and managed directly by the CENECA. Jean-Luc Poulain is the current president of the CENECA and of the show. Comexposium is one of Europe's leading exhibition organizers, it is a joint venture wholly owned subsidiary of the Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Unibail-Rodamco, Comexposium organizes around 114 public and trade events per year, including five of the ten largest French fairs.
The mass media play an important role in publicising the show, with stands taken by Public Sénat, Campagne TV, France 3 and France Ô Visits by the French President, the leaders of the French political parties, is covered. Politicians take the opportunity to reach out to the general public to debate the issues of the day, in an attempt to seem more "down to earth", improve their party image; the media coverage increases the importance of the show in the public mind, it is keenly followed by the public. Because of this, it has become an event of international importance, it allows the French government to present the best of its agricultural sector to its European neighbours and its views on maintaining the Common Agricultural Policy, important for subsidising French farmers and for many years has paid farmers to help protect the rural environment. Berlin International Green Week Media related to Salon international de l'agriculture at Wikimedia Commons www.salon-agriculture.com www.cga-paris.com
2024 Summer Olympics
The 2024 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad, known as Paris 2024, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event, scheduled to take place from 26 July to 11 August 2024 in Paris, France. Having hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics, Paris will become the second city to host the Olympic Games three times, along with London; the 2024 Games mark the centennial of the 1924 Games. This will be the sixth overall Olympic Games held in France. Bidding to host these Games began in 2015 with five candidate cities in contention, but Hamburg and Budapest withdrew, leaving Paris and Los Angeles as the two candidates remaining. A proposal to elect the 2024 and 2028 Olympic host cities at the same time was approved by an Extraordinary IOC Session on 11 July 2017 in Lausanne. On 31 July 2017, the IOC made a deal with Los Angeles to host the 2028 Summer Olympics, making Paris the host of the 2024 Summer Olympics; the formal announcement of the hosts for both Olympiads took place at the 131st IOC Session in Lima, Peru, on 13 September 2017.
Paris, Budapest and Los Angeles were the five candidate cities. However, the process was hit by withdrawals, with political uncertainty and cost cited as deterring bidding cities. Hamburg withdrew its bid on 29 November 2015 after holding a referendum. Rome withdrew its bid on 21 September 2016 citing fiscal difficulties. On 22 February 2017, Budapest withdrew its bid after a petition against the bid collected more signatures than necessary for a referendum. Following these withdrawals, the IOC Executive Board met in Lausanne, Switzerland to discuss the 2024 and 2028 bid processes on 9 June 2017; the International Olympic Committee formally proposed electing the 2024 and 2028 Olympic host cities at the same time in 2017, a proposal, approved by an Extraordinary IOC Session on 11 July 2017 in Lausanne. The IOC set up a process whereby the LA 2024 and Paris 2024 bid committees would meet with the IOC to discuss who would host the 2024 Games, who would host the 2028 Games, whether it were possible to select the host city for both at the same time.
Following the decision to award the 2024 and 2028 Games Paris was understood to be the preferred host for the 2024 Games. On 31 July 2017, the IOC announced Los Angeles as the sole candidate for the 2028 Games, opening Paris up to be confirmed as hosts for the 2024 Games. Both decisions were ratified at the 131st IOC Session on 13 September 2017. Paris was elected as the host city on September 2017 at the 131st IOC Session in Lima, Peru; the two French IOC members, Guy Drut and Tony Estanguet were ineligible to vote in this host city election under the rules of the Olympic Charter. In 2007, the IOC established the concept of Olympics including 28 sports: 25 permanent'core' sports with 3 additional sports selected for each individual Games. On 8 September 2013, IOC added wrestling to the Olympic programme for the 2020 and 2024 Games, representing one of these additional sports. FILA changed freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling weight classes for men and decreased to 6 categories in order to add more weights for women.
However, in August 2016, the IOC added five sports to the 2020 Olympics, with plans to separately evaluate the existing 28 sports. No indication was given how this would affect the number of sports in 2024. In August 2017, it was reported that the Paris organizers held discussions with the IOC and various professional eSport organizations to study the possibility of introducing eSports as a medal-winning sport during the Olympics. On February 21, 2019, the Paris Organizing Committee announced they would propose breakdancing for inclusion in the program to the IOC, along with three of the sports that will debut at the 2020 Games: surfing and skateboarding. During the Lima Session, the IOC approved the Rio 2016 sports program for Paris 2024. New sports will be chosen during the 134th IOC Session in 2019 in Lausanne, subject to final approval by the IOC Executive Board in December 2020; the 2024 Summer Olympic programme is scheduled to feature 28 sports encompassing 319 events, though this is to change depending on success of the five additional sports added to the Tokyo Olympics.
This means there could be up to 33 sports, any new sports which are added to the Olympic programme. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. Most of the Olympic events will be held in and around Paris, including the suburbs of Saint-Denis, Le Bourget, Nanterre and Vaires-sur-Marne, just outside the city environs; the sailing and surfing events will be held in the remote coastal resorts of Marseille and Biarritz respectively. Football will be hosted in various cities around France. Notes Parc des Princes, 61,338, Paris Stade Vélodrome, 67,394, Parc Olympique Lyonnais, 59,186, Stade Pierre-Mauroy, 50,157, Stade Matmut Atlantique, 42,115, Stade Geoffroy-Guichard, 41,965, Saint-Étienne, YellowPark, 40,000, Allianz Riviera, 35,624, Stadium Municipal, 33,150, France A call for tenders was launched in October 2018 to create the new Visual identity of Paris 2024, including the logo, the derivative brands, the Olympic torch relay, the g
Île-de-France tramway Line 2
Île-de-France tramway Line 2 is part of the modern tram network of the Île-de-France region of France. Line T2 connects Paris-Porte de Versailles and Pont de Bezons serving notably the La Défense business district on its way; the line has a length of 24 stations. The initial section between La Défense and Issy–Val de Seine station opened in July 1997 uses a former heavy rail line converted into light rail whereas the further extensions on both ends opened in November 2009 and November 2012 feature segregated on-street running. Line T2 is operated by the Régie autonome des transports parisiens under the autority of Île-de-France Mobilités; because of the success of this line the trams were doubled in length in 2005, raising the capacity of each tram to 440 passengers