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Parish in the Catholic Church

In the Roman Catholic Church, a parish is a stable community of the faithful within a particular church, whose pastoral care has been entrusted to a parish priest, under the authority of the diocesan bishop. It is the lowest ecclesiastical subdivision in the Catholic episcopal polity, the primary constituent unit of a diocese. In the 1983 Code of Canon Law, parishes are constituted under cc. 515–552, entitled "Parishes and Parochial Vicars." Most parishes are territorial parishes, which comprise all the Christian faithful living within a defined geographic area. Some parishes may be joined with others in a deanery or vicariate forane and overseen by a vicar forane known as a dean or archpriest. Per canon 518, a bishop may erect non-territorial parishes, or personal parishes, within his see. Personal parishes are created to better serve Catholics of a particular rite, nationality, or other commonality which make them a distinct community; such parishes include the following: National parishes, established to serve the faithful of a certain ethnic group or national origin, offering services and activities in their native language.

Parishes established to serve university students. Parishes established in accordance with the 7 July 2007 motu proprio Apostolic Letter Summorum Pontificum "for celebrations according to the older form of the Roman rite", i.e. the form in use in 1962 Anglican Use parishes established by the Pastoral Provision or other dispensations for former members of the Episcopal Church in the United States. By nature, communities belonging to the personal ordinariates for Anglicans as established by Anglicanorum Coetibus of 4 November 2009 are personal parishes. All the Christian faithful who reside in a territorial parish are considered constitutive of that territorial parish, all members of a community for which a personal parish has been erected are members of that personal parish. Membership should not be confused with worship, however. Catholics are not obliged to worship only at the parish church to which they belong, but may for convenience or taste attend services at any Catholic church; the term church may refer to the building.

In this article it is used to refer to the building. Each parish is charged to a parish priest, although pastoral care of one or more parishes can be entrusted to a team of priests in solidum under the direction of one of them, to be answerable to the bishop for their activity. In extraordinary situations, a share in the pastoral care of a parish can be entrusted to a deacon or lay person under the supervision of a priest. Canon 519 states: The parish priest is the proper clergyman in charge of the congregation of the parish entrusted to him, he exercises the pastoral care of the community entrusted to him under the authority of the diocesan bishop, whose ministry of Christ he is called to share, so that for this community he may carry out the offices of teaching and ruling with the cooperation of other priests or deacons and with the assistance of lay members of Christ's faithful, in accordance with the law. In American usage, a "parish priest" is any priest assigned to a parish in a subordinate capacity, some may be designated as associate pastors or assistant pastors.

Globally they may be known as parochial vicars or curates. In addition to the parish priest and any assistant priests he may have, a parish has a staff of lay people and ordained deacons. For example, a parish secretary may assist in administrative matters, a parish sister in activities such as visiting the sick, a married permanent deacon in sacramental as well as pastoral or administrative duties. A parish is obliged to have a finance committee and, if the bishop considers it opportune, a pastoral council or parish council; the finance committee and pastoral council are only consultative. The parish council is elected, to be broadly representative of the parish community, while members of the finance committee are more appointed by the pastor according to their expertise. In addition to a parish church, each parish may maintain auxiliary organizations and their facilities such as a rectory, parish hall, parochial school, or convent located on the same campus or adjacent to the church; each parish has a single seat of the parish church.

Geography, overcrowding, or other circumstances may induce the parish to establish alternative worship centers, which may not have a full-time parish priest. The parish church is the center of most Catholics' spiritual life, since it is there that they receive the sacraments. On Sundays, also daily, Mass is celebrated by a priest resident in the parish. Confession is made available, Vespers in the larger or more progressive parishes. There are laity-led activities and social events in accordance with local culture and circumstances. Many parishes in different parts of the world operate schools for the children of the parish, though their organization and funding varies according to local practice. However, many parishes cannot support schools alone, there may be regional schools run by some parish or by the diocese. In addition to the standard curriculum, students at parochial schools are given moral and religious education in line with the teachings of the Catholic Church. A parish has two constitutive elements: a body of Christian faithful and a parish priest to serve their spiritual needs.

The parish is a "juridic person" under canon law, thus recognized as a unit with certain rights and responsibilities. It is no

Akaigawa, Hokkaido

Akaigawa is a village located in Shiribeshi, Japan. As of September 2016, the village has an estimated population of 1,157; the total area is 280.11 km². The center of Akaigawa is in a caldera and surrounded by mountains on every side. Kiroro Resort is on the eastern of the village. Mountains: Mount Yoichi, Mount Ponkuto Rivers: Yoichi River, Shiroigawa River, Akaigawa River Minami-ku, Sapporo Otaru Yoichi Niki Kutchan Kyōgoku The name derives from Ainu word "hure-pet", meaning "red river". 1899: Akaigawa Village split off from Ōe Village. 1906: Akaigawa became a Second Class Village. 1991: Kiroro Resort opened. Akaigawa Junior High School Akaigawa Elementary School Miyako Elementary School Media related to Akaigawa, Hokkaido at Wikimedia Commons Official Website

Massimo Introvigne

Massimo Introvigne is an Italian philosopher, sociologist of religion and independent scholar. He is a founder and the managing director of the Center for Studies on New Religions, a Turin-based organization, described as "the highest profile lobbying and information group for controversial religions". Swedish academic Per Faxneld, writing for Reading Religion, described Introvigne as "one of the major names in the study of new religions." Sociologist Roberto Cipriani has called Introvigne "one of the Italian sociologists of religion most well-known abroad, among the world's leading scholars of new religious movements". Introvigne was born in Rome on June 14, 1955. From 1970 to 1973, Introvigne attended the Jesuit high school of Turin. In 1972, he joined conservative group Alleanza Cattolica, he Introvigne earned a B. A. in Philosophy from Rome's Gregorian University in 1975, in 1979 his J. D. from University of Turin. In 1980, Introvigne began work as an intellectual-property attorney at the firm Jacobacci & Partners.

In 1986, he became a partner. In 1988 he has since served as the group director. From 2008 to 2016 he has served as vice-president of the Catholic movement Alleanza CattolicaIn 2010, Introvigne was included in an advisory board to the Italian Ministry for Internal Affairs, advising on issues related to Islamic minority in Italy. In 2011, Introvigne was the "Representative on combating racism and discrimination, with a special focus on discrimination against Christians and members of other religions" of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Beginning in 2012, Introvigne was listed as a "invited professor of sociology of religious movements" by the Pontifical Salesian University In 2012, Introvigne was appointed by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to be chairperson of the newly instituted Observatory of Religious Liberty.. He maintained this position until 2016. In 2013, Introvigne theorized that the election of Pope Francis led some'lapsed' Catholics to return to the church.

In 2016, Introvigne published Satanism: A Social History. In 2018, Oxford University Press published his book on the Plymouth Brethren. Beginning in 2018, Introvigne was editor-in-chief of the daily magazine on religion and human rights in China, Bitter Winter. In 2019 Introvigne said that Vladimir Putin "had made it clear that he believed Western values, such as a belief in human rights and religious liberty, were not universal rights and did not apply in Russia."Introvigne is a member of the board of the journal Nova Religio and the editorial board for the Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion.. Introvigne is a proponent of the theory of religious economy developed by Rodney Stark. Introvigne has participated in a series of academic projects on the influence of esoteric movements on modern art, including "Enchanted Modernities", "Theosophical Appropriations" and others, was called by the Spanish daily newspaper El País "one of the leading world experts on these themes." Introvigne has been described as a "persistent critic of any national attempts to identify or curtail so-called'cults'".

Writing in 2001, scholar Stephen A. Kent criticized Introvigne and his group, arguing: "In the context, therefore, of the debate over Scientology in France and Germany, CESNUR is a think-tank and lobbying group, attempting to advance Scientology's legitimation goals by influencing European and American governmental policies toward it, it is not a neutral academic association less so because on its web page Introvigne intermingles ideological positions within solid research and information. On issues, that are key to the religious human rights debates — apostates, undue influence, compromised academic research,'sect' membership and the potential for harm, critical information exchange on the Internet, etc. — he advocates doctrinaire positions that favour groups like Scientology." In the mid-1990s, Introvigne testified on behalf of Scientologists in a criminal trial in Lyon. In France, after the publication of the 1997 report on cults by the French government, of which Introvigne was one of the main critics, journalists hostile to the cults called Introvigne a "cult apologist" and tried to construct his relations with the Catholic Alliance and Silvio Berlusconi's ruling party as "right-wing extremism", a serious accusation in 1990s France.

Introvigne himself answered this criticism by stressing that his scholarly and political activities were not connected. In 2016, Introvigne left all his positions in the Catholic Alliance. Critics continue to object, however, to what they see as his defense of "cults" under the banner of religious liberty. Activists and scholars such as Thomas Gandow, Stephen Kent, as well as Benjamin Zablocki see Introvigne's framing of scholars and academics vs. anti-cult movement as biased. One of the main points which are questioned regarding Introvigne's work is his attitude regarding brainwashing and the CESNUR information he presents on that subject. Gandow refers to. Introvigne's reply was regarded as useful by critics, since he went to great lengths to obtain, post on the Internet, publish crucial and unavailable documents of the original U. S. bra