A city block, urban block or block is a central element of urban planning and urban design. A city block is the smallest area, surrounded by streets. City blocks are the space for buildings within the street pattern of a city, form the basic unit of a city's urban fabric. City blocks may be subdivided into any number of smaller land lots in private ownership, though in some cases, it may be other forms of tenure. City blocks are built-up to varying degrees and thus form the physical containers or'streetwalls' of public space. Most cities are composed of a lesser variety of sizes and shapes of urban block. For example, many pre-industrial cores of cities in Europe and the Middle-east tend to have irregularly shaped street patterns and urban blocks, while cities based on grids have much more regular arrangements. In most cities of the world that were planned, rather than developing over a long period of time, streets are laid out on a grid plan, so that city blocks are square or rectangular. Using the perimeter block development principle, city blocks are developed so that buildings are located along the perimeter of the block, with entrances facing the street, semi-private courtyards in the rear of the buildings.
This arrangement is intended to provide good social interaction among people. Since the spacing of streets in grid plans varies so among cities, or within cities, it is difficult to generalize about the size of a city block. However, as reference points for US cities, the standard square blocks of Portland and Sacramento are 264 by 264 feet, 330 by 330 feet, 410 by 410 feet respectively. Oblong blocks range in width and length; the standard block in Manhattan is about 264 by 900 feet. S. cities standard blocks are as wide as 660 feet. The blocks in Calgary, are 330 by 560 feet, while those in Edmonton, Canada are 197 by 560 feet; the blocks in central Melbourne, are 330 by 660 feet, formed by splitting the square blocks in an original grid with a narrow street down the middle. In Chicago and Minneapolis, Minnesota, a typical city block is 660 by 330 feet, meaning that 16 east-west blocks or 8 north-south blocks measure one mile. Many world cities have grown by accretion over time rather than being planned from the outset.
For this reason, a regular pattern of square or rectangular city blocks is not so common among European cities, for example. An exception is represented by those cities that were founded as Roman military settlements, that preserve the original grid layout around two main orthogonal axes. One notable example is Italy. Following the example of Philadelphia, New York City adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 for a more extensive grid plan. By the middle of the 20th century, the adoption of the uniform, rectilinear block subsided completely, different layouts prevailed, with random sized and either curvilinear or non-orthogonal blocks and corresponding street patterns. In much of the United States and Canada, the addresses follow a block and lot number system, in which each block of a street is allotted 100 building numbers; the concept of city block can be generalized as a sub-block. A superblock or super-block is an area of urban land bounded by arterial roads, the size of multiple typically-sized city blocks.
Within the superblock, the local road network, if any, is designed to serve local needs only. Within the broad concept of a superblock, various typologies emerge based on the internal road networks within the superblock, their historical context, whether they are auto-centric or pedestrian-centric; the context in which superblocks are being studied or conceived gives rise to varying definitions. An internal road network characterised by cul-de-sacs is typical of auto-centric suburban development in Western countries throughout the 20th century; the Oxford Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture's definition is rooted within this suburban conception:“Area containing residential accommodation, schools, etc. with public open space, surrounded by roads and penetrated by cul-de-sac service-roads. It is linked to other super-blocks and a town centre by means of paths over or under the roads.”Though the aim of such superblocks is to minimise traffic within the superblock by directing it to arterial roads, the effect in many cases has been to entrench automobile dependence by limiting pedestrian permeability.
Superblocks can contain an orthogonal internal road network, including ones based on a grid plan or quasi-grid plan. This typology is prevalent in China, for example. Chen defines the supergrid and superblock urban morphology in this context as follows:“The Supergrid is a large-scale net of wide roads that defines a series of cells or Superblocks, each containing a network of narrower streets.”Superblocks can be retroactively superimposed on pre-existing grid plan by changing the traffic rules and streetscape of internal streets within the superblock, as in the case of Barcelona’s superilles. Each superilla comprises nine city blocks, with speed limits on the internal roads slowed to 10–20 km/h and through traffic disallowed, with through travel only possible on the perimeter roads. Superblocks were popular during the early and mid-20th century auto-centric suburban development, arising from modernist ideas in architecture and urban planning. Planning in this era was based upon the distance and speed scales for the automobi
John Herbert Gleason was an American comedian, writer and conductor. Developing a style and characters from growing up in Brooklyn, New York, he was known for his brash visual and verbal comedy, exemplified by his bus driver Ralph Kramden character in the television series The Honeymooners. By filming the episodes with Electronicams, Gleason was able to release the series in syndication, which increased its popularity over the years with new audiences, he developed The Jackie Gleason Show, which maintained high ratings from the mid-1950s through 1970. After originating in New York City, filming moved to Miami Beach, Florida, in 1964 after Gleason took up permanent residence there. Among his notable film roles were Minnesota Fats in 1961's The Hustler, Buford T. Justice in the Smokey and the Bandit series from 1977 into the early 1980s. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Gleason enjoyed a prominent secondary music career, producing a series of best-selling "mood music" albums, his first album, Music for Lovers Only, still holds the record for the longest stay on the Billboard Top Ten Charts, his first 10 albums sold over a million copies each.
To date his output spans some 20-plus singles, nearly 60 long-playing record albums, over 40 CDs. John Herbert Gleason was born in 1916 at 364 Chauncey Street in the Stuyvesant Heights, now Bedford-Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn. Named Herbert Walton Gleason, Jr. at birth, he was baptized John Herbert Gleason, grew up at 328 Chauncey. His parents were Herbert Walton "Herb" Gleason, an Irish-American insurance auditor, Mae "Maisie" of Farranree, Ireland. Gleason was one of two children. Gleason remembered Clement and his father having "beautiful handwriting", he used to watch his father work at the family's kitchen table, writing insurance policies in the evenings. On the night of December 14, 1925, Gleason's father disposed of any family photos in which he appeared. Once it became evident that he was not coming back, Mae went to work as a subway attendant for the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation. After his father abandoned the family, young Gleason began hanging around with a local gang, hustling pool.
He attended P. S. 73 Elementary School in Brooklyn. Gleason became interested in performing after being part of a class play. Other jobs he held at that time included working in a pool hall, as a stunt driver, as a carnival barker. Gleason and his friends made the rounds of the local theaters, he performed the same duties twice a week at the Folly Theater. Gleason was 19 when his mother died in 1935 of sepsis from a large neck carbuncle that young Jackie had tried to lance, he had nowhere to go, thirty-six cents to his name. The family of his first girlfriend, Julie Dennehy, offered to take him in, his friend Birch made room for him in the hotel room he shared with another comedian. Birch told him of a week-long gig in Reading, which would pay $19, more money than Gleason could imagine; the booking agent advanced his bus fare for the trip against his salary, granting Gleason his first job as a professional comedian. Following this he would always have regular work in small clubs. Gleason worked his way up to a job at New York's Club 18, where insulting its patrons was the order of the day.
Gleason greeted noted skater Sonja Henie by handing her an ice cube and saying, "Okay, now do something." It was here that Jack L. Warner first saw Gleason. By age 24, Gleason was appearing in movies: first for Warner Brothers in such films as Navy Blues with Ann Sheridan and Martha Raye and All Through the Night with Humphrey Bogart, for Columbia Pictures for the B military comedy Tramp, Tramp! and for Twentieth Century-Fox, where Gleason played Glenn Miller Orchestra bassist Ben Beck in Orchestra Wives. He had a small part as a soda shop clerk in Larceny, Inc. with Edward G. Robinson, a modest part as an actor's agent in the 1942 Betty Grable–Harry James musical Springtime in the Rockies. During World War II, Gleason was exempt from military service, since he was a father of two. However, in 1943 the US started drafting men with children. Gleason reported to his induction where the doctors discovered that his broken left arm had healed crooked, the area between his thumb and forefinger was nerveless and numb, a pilonidal cyst existed at the end of his coccyx, that he was 100 pounds overweight.
Gleason was therefore rejected for military service. Gleason did not make a strong impression on Hollywood at first. At the end of 1942, Gleason and Lew Parker led a large cast of entertainers in the road show production of Olsen and Johnson's New 1943 Hellzapoppin, he became known for hosting all-night parties in his hotel suite. "Anyone w
Renaissance Revival architecture
Renaissance Revival architecture is a group of 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival nor Gothic Revival but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes. Under the broad designation "Renaissance architecture" nineteenth-century architects and critics went beyond the architectural style which began in Florence and central Italy in the early 15th century as an expression of Humanism. Self-applied style designations were rife in the mid- and nineteenth century: "Neo-Renaissance" might be applied by contemporaries to structures that others called "Italianate", or when many French Baroque features are present; the divergent forms of Renaissance architecture in different parts of Europe in France and Italy, has added to the difficulty of defining and recognizing Neo-Renaissance architecture. A comparison between the breadth of its source material, such as the English Wollaton Hall, Italian Palazzo Pitti, the French Château de Chambord, the Russian Palace of Facets—all deemed "Renaissance"—illustrates the variety of appearances the same architectural label can take.
The origin of Renaissance architecture is accredited to Filippo Brunelleschi Brunelleschi and his contemporaries wished to bring greater "order" to architecture, resulting in strong symmetry and careful proportion. The movement grew in particular human anatomy. Neo-Renaissance architecture is formed by not only the original Italian architecture but by the form in which Renaissance architecture developed in France during the 16th century. During the early years of the 16th century the French were involved in wars in northern Italy, bringing back to France not just the Renaissance art treasures as their war booty, but stylistic ideas. In the Loire valley a wave of chateau building was carried out using traditional French Gothic styles but with ornament in the forms of pediments, shallow pilasters and entablatures from the Italian Renaissance. In England the Renaissance tended to manifest itself in large square tall houses such as Longleat House; these buildings had symmetrical towers which hint at the evolution from medieval fortified architecture.
This is evident at Hatfield House built between 1607 and 1611, where medieval towers jostle with a large Italian cupola. This is why so many buildings of the early English Neo-Renaissance style have more of a "castle air" than their European contemporaries, which can add again to the confusion with the Gothic revival style; when in the 19th century Renaissance style architecture came into vogue, it materialized not just in its original form according to geography, but as a hybrid of all its earlier forms according to the whims of architects and patrons rather than geography and culture. If this were not confusing enough, the new Neo-Renaissance frequently borrowed architectural elements from the succeeding Mannerist period, in many cases the later Baroque period. Mannerism and Baroque being two opposing styles of architecture. Mannerism was exemplified by Baroque by the Wurzburg Residenz, thus Italian and Flemish Renaissance coupled with the amount of borrowing from these periods can cause great difficulty and argument in identifying various forms of 19th-century architecture.
Differentiating some forms of French Neo-Renaissance buildings from those of the Gothic revival can at times be tricky, as both styles were popular during the 19th century. John Ruskin's panegyrics to architectural wonders of Venice and Florence contributed to shifting "the attention of scholars and designers, with their awareness heightened by debate and restoration work" from Late Neoclassicism and Gothic Revival to the Italian Renaissance; as a consequence, a self-consciously "Neo-Renaissance" manner first began to appear circa 1840. By 1890 this movement was in decline; the Hague's Peace Palace completed in 1913, in a heavy French Neo-Renaissance manner was one of the last notable buildings in this style. Charles Barry introduced the Neo-Renaissance to England with his design of the Travellers Club, Pall Mall. Other early but typical, domestic examples of the Neo-Renaissance include Mentmore Towers and the Château de Ferrières, both designed in the 1850s by Joseph Paxton for members of the Rothschild banking family.
The style is characterized by original Renaissance motifs, taken from such Quattrocento architects as Alberti. These motifs included rusticated masonry and quoins, windows framed by architraves and doors crowned by pediments and entablatures. If a building were of several floors, the uppermost floor had small square windows representing the minor mezzanine floor of the original Renaissance designs. However, the Neo-renaissance style came to incorporate Romanesque and Baroque features not found in the original Renaissance architecture, more severe in its design. Like all architectural styles, the Neo-Renaissance did not appear overnight formed but evolved slowly. One of the first signs of its emergence was the Würzburg Women's Prison, erected in 1809 designed by Peter Speeth, it included a rusticated ground floor, alleviated by one semicircular arch, with a curious Egyptian style miniature portico above, high above this were a sequence of six tall arched windows and above these just beneath the projecting roof were the small windows of the upper floor.
This building foreshadows similar effects in the work of the American architect Henry Hobson Richardson whose work in the Neo-Renaissance style was popu
Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Midtown is home to some of the city's most iconic buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project, the headquarters of the United Nations, Grand Central Terminal, Rockefeller Center, as well as Broadway and Times Square. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the world and ranks among the most expensive pieces of real estate. However, due to the high price of retail spaces in Midtown, there are many vacant storefronts in the neighborhood. Midtown is the country's largest commercial and media center, a growing financial center; the majority of New York City's skyscrapers, including its tallest hotels and apartment towers, are in Midtown. The area hosts commuters and residents working in its offices and retail establishments and students. Times Square, the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, is a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
Sixth Avenue has the headquarters of three of the four major U. S. television networks. Midtown is part of Manhattan Community District 5, it is patrolled by the 18th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Geographically, the northern bound of Midtown Manhattan is defined to be 59th Street. Midtown spans the entire island of Manhattan along an east-west axis, bounded by the East River on its east and the Hudson River to its west; the Encyclopedia of New York City defines Midtown as extending from 34th Street to 59th Street and from 3rd Avenue to 8th Avenue. In addition to its central business district, Midtown Manhattan encompasses many neighborhoods, including Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea on the West Side, Murray Hill, Kips Bay, Turtle Bay, Gramercy Park on the East Side, it is sometimes broken into "Midtown East" and "Midtown West", or north and south as in the New York City Police Department's Midtown North and Midtown South precincts. Neighborhoods in the Midtown area include the following: Between 59th Street to the north and 42nd Street to the south, from west to east: Hell's Kitchen from the Hudson River to Eighth Avenue, including Theatre Row on West 42nd Street between Eleventh Avenue and Ninth Avenue, where Hell's Kitchen meets Central Park and the Upper West Side at West 59th Street and Eighth Avenue, Columbus Circle Times Square and the Theater District from West 42nd Street to around West 53rd Street, from Eighth Avenue to Sixth Avenue The Diamond District on West 47th Street between Sixth Avenue and Fifth Avenue Midtown East from around Sixth Avenue to the East River, including: Sutton Place near the East River between East 53rd Street and East 59th Street Turtle Bay from 53rd Street to 42nd Street and from Lexington Avenue to the East River Tudor City from First Avenue to Second Avenue and East 40th Street to East 43rd Street Between 42nd Street north and around 34th Street, from west to east, north to south: Hell's Kitchen from the Hudson River to Eighth Avenue The Garment District from West 42nd Street to West 34th Street and from Ninth Avenue to Fifth Avenue Herald Square around the intersection of Broadway, Sixth Avenue, West 34th Street Murray Hill from East 42nd Street to East 34th Street and Fifth Avenue to Second Avenue Between 34th Street and 23rd Street, from west to east: Chelsea, between the Hudson River and Sixth Avenue Koreatown from 36th Street to 31st Street and Fifth and Sixth Avenues, centered on "Korea Way" on 32nd Street between Fifth Avenue and Broadway Rose Hill or Curry Hill between Madison Avenue and Third Avenue Kips Bay from Third Avenue to the East River Between 23rd Street and 14th Street, going west to east and north to south: Chelsea, between the Hudson River and Sixth Avenue The Meatpacking District in the southwesternmost corner of Midtown, to the south of West 15th Street Madison Square and the Flatiron District, the area surround the intersection of Broadway, Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street.
Union Square, to the northeast of the intersection of Broadway, East 14th Street and Park Avenue South Gramercy from East 23rd Street to East 14th Street and Lexington Avenue to First Avenue Peter Cooper Village from East 23rd Street to East 20th Street and 1st Avenue to Avenue C Stuyvesant Town from East 20th Street to East 14th Street and First Avenue to Avenue CMidtown is the original district in the United States to bear the name and included historical but now defunct neighborhoods such as the Ladies' Mile, along Fifth Avenue from 14th to 23rd Street. Important streets and thoroughfares Broadway 34th Street 42nd Street The border of Midtown Manhattan is nebulous and further confused by the fact that the term "Midtown Manhattan" can be used to refer either to a district or a group of neighborhoods and districts in Manhattan: The area between 14th and 86th Streets includes the center of Manhattan. Manhattan Community District 5 is located from 14th to 59th Streets between Lexington Avenue and Eighth Avenue.
Community District 5 is coterminous with Midtown but includes the Flatiron District, NoMad, Union Square, parts of Gramercy Park an
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was an American political figure and activist. She served as the First Lady of the United States from March 4, 1933 to April 12, 1945 during her husband President Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office, making her the longest serving First Lady of the United States. Roosevelt served as United States Delegate to the United Nations General Assembly from 1945 to 1952. President Harry S. Truman called her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute to her human rights achievements. Roosevelt was a member of the prominent American Roosevelt and Livingston families and a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt, she had an unhappy childhood, having suffered the deaths of both parents and one of her brothers at a young age. At 15, she attended Allenwood Academy in London and was influenced by its headmistress Marie Souvestre. Returning to the U. S. she married her fifth cousin once removed, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in 1905. The Roosevelts' marriage was complicated from the beginning by Franklin's controlling mother and after Eleanor discovered her husband's affair with Lucy Mercer in 1918, she resolved to seek fulfillment in leading a public life of her own.
She persuaded Franklin to stay in politics after he was stricken with a paralytic illness in 1921, which cost him the normal use of his legs, began giving speeches and appearing at campaign events in his place. Following Franklin's election as Governor of New York in 1928, throughout the remainder of Franklin's public career in government, Roosevelt made public appearances on his behalf, as First Lady, while her husband served as President, she reshaped and redefined the role of First Lady. Though respected in her years, Roosevelt was a controversial First Lady at the time for her outspokenness on civil rights for African-Americans, she was the first presidential spouse to hold regular press conferences, write a daily newspaper column, write a monthly magazine column, host a weekly radio show, speak at a national party convention. On a few occasions, she publicly disagreed with her husband's policies, she launched an experimental community at Arthurdale, West Virginia, for the families of unemployed miners widely regarded as a failure.
She advocated for expanded roles for women in the workplace, the civil rights of African Americans and Asian Americans, the rights of World War II refugees. Following her husband's death in 1945, Roosevelt remained active in politics for the remaining 17 years of her life, she became its first delegate. She served as the first chair of the UN Commission on Human Rights and oversaw the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, she chaired the John F. Kennedy administration's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women. By the time of her death, Roosevelt was regarded as "one of the most esteemed women in the world". In 1999, she was ranked ninth in the top ten of Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born in 1884 at 56 West 37th Street in Manhattan, New York City, to socialites Anna Rebecca Hall and Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt. From an early age she preferred to be called by Eleanor. Through her father, she was a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt.
Through her mother, she was a niece of tennis champions Valentine Gill "Vallie" Hall III and Edward Ludlow Hall. Her mother nicknamed her "Granny". Anna was somewhat ashamed of her daughter's plainness. Roosevelt had two younger brothers: Hall, she had a half brother, Elliott Roosevelt Mann, through her father's affair with Katy Mann, a servant employed by the family. Roosevelt was born into a world of immense wealth and privilege, as her family was part of New York high society called the "swells", her mother died from diphtheria on December 7, 1892, Elliott Jr. died of the same disease the following May. Her father, an alcoholic confined to a sanitarium, died on August 14, 1894, after jumping from a window during a fit of delirium tremens, he died from a seizure. Roosevelt's childhood losses left her prone to depression throughout her life, her brother Hall suffered from alcoholism. Before her father died, he implored her to act as a mother towards Hall, it was a request she made good upon for the rest of Hall's life.
Roosevelt doted on Hall, when he enrolled at Groton School in 1907, she accompanied him as a chaperone. While he was attending Groton, she wrote him daily, but always felt a touch of guilt that Hall had not had a fuller childhood, she took pleasure in Hall's brilliant performance at school, was proud of his many academic accomplishments, which included a master's degree in engineering from Harvard. After the deaths of her parents, Roosevelt was raised in the household of her maternal grandmother, Mary Livingston Ludlow of the Livingston family in Tivoli, New York; as a child, she was insecure and starved for affection, considered herself the "ugly duckling". However, Roosevelt wrote at 14 that one's prospects in life were not dependent on physical beauty: "no matter how plain a woman may be if truth and loyalty are stamped upon her face all will be attracted to her."Roosevelt was tutored and with the encouragement of her aunt Anna "Bamie" Roosevelt, she was sent to Allenswood Academy at the age of 15, a private finishing school in Wimbledon, outside London, where she was educated from 1899 to 1902.
The headmistress, Marie Souvestre, was a noted educator who sought to cultivate in
AXA is a French multinational insurance firm headquartered in the 8th arrondissement of Paris that engages in global insurance, investment management, other financial services. The AXA Group operates in Western Europe, North America, the Asia Pacific region, the Middle East, with a presence in Africa. AXA is a conglomerate of independently run businesses, operated according to the laws and regulations of many different countries; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. The company was founded in 1816 as Mutuelle de L'assurance contre L'incendie, it became Mutuelles Unies. It went on becoming Mutuelles Unies/Drouot, it adopted the AXA name in 1985. The takeover of the American insurance company The Equitable, came in 1991, it bought Union des Assurances De Paris, France's largest insurer, in 1996 becoming AXA-UAP for a while before reverting to the name AXA in 1999. In February 1999 AXA acquired Guardian Royal Exchange. In May 2000 AXA acquired all shares it did not own in Sun Life & Provincial Holdings.
On June 14, 2006 AXA acquired the leading Swiss insurance company Winterthur Group from Credit Suisse for €9 billion. On September 12, 2018, AXA completed the acquisition of Bermuda based XL Group Ltd, a leading global Property & Casualty commercial lines insurer and reinsurer for $15.3 billion. According to a 2011 paper by Vitali et al. AXA was the second most powerful transnational corporation in terms of ownership and thus corporate control over global financial stability and market competition with Barclays and State Street Corporation taking the 1st and 3rd position, respectively. During May 2016,it announced it was to stop investing in tobacco shares and bonds and allow its portfolio of tobacco-related bonds to run off. Despite being written in upper case, "AXA" is not an acronym, but was chosen because its name can be pronounced by people who speak any language. After acquiring the Drouot Group in 1982, Chairman and CEO Claude Bébéar hired an outside consultant to conduct a computer-aided search for a new name.
Bébéar wanted a short and snappy name to convey vitality and could be pronounced the same way in every language, consistent with the group's desire for an international presence. "Elan" was the top choice, but Canadian executives balked because "elan" is the French word for a moose or elk. In 1985, Bébéar chose the name AXA. AXA trades in the United Kingdom as AXA UK using a number of subsidiaries such as AXA Sun Life, AXA Insurance, AXA Investment Managers, AXA Wealth and AXA PPP Healthcare. AXA PPP Healthcare was created when AXA bought Guardian Royal Exchange, though it subsequently sold the other parts of GRE to Aegon; the company owns the online insurer Swiftcover, distribution business Bluefin and fund manager Architas. In January 2007 AXA was reorganised into "strategic business units" aimed at competing within their specific markets. In September 2013, AXA Wealth was fined £1.8m by the FCA for failing to ensure it gave suitable investment advice to its customers. The regulator says it found "serious defects" in the way AXA advisers in Clydesdale Bank, Yorkshire Bank and the West Bromwich Building Society advised customers on investments.
AXA runs its investment branch through AXA Investment Managers. AXA Sun Life was created following the merger between AXA Equity & Law and Sun Life Assurance Society PLC. In 2006 Winterthur Life in the UK was absorbed although AXA continues to use the Winterthur brand for high-net-worth wealth management business; the business units are: AXA Wealth – This includes AXA + Winterthur's Bonds + Individual Pensions, AXA Distribution Services who offer the Elevate wrap platform and Architas. Corporate Business – AXA + Winterthur's Group Pensions. AXA intend to create a "Market Leading" group pension proposition using Winterthur's'Embassy' IT platform. Protection – This business aims to market AXA's Protection Account as AXA continues to build on its presence in this area with the intention of becoming a leading protection provider. Traditional Business – Concentrating on policies which are still in force but no longer marketed. SunLife – This business focuses on selling protection & savings products directly to those in the UK.
Bancassurance – This business is responsible for an advisory and sales force that sell AXAs products and propositions. AXA sold AXA Sun Life Holdings Ltd to Resolution Limited in autumn 2010, whilst retaining AXA Wealth, SunLife and Bancassurance business units. Closure of the Bancassurance arm was announced in April 2013. AXA PPP healthcare is a UK private medical insurance provider. AXA PPP healthcare was known as The London Association of Hospital Services, set up in 1938 as a private healthcare scheme for people of middle income in London; the company has its headquarters in the town of Tunbridge Wells in Kent, is the town's largest private sector employer. AXA PPP healthcare provides individual private medical insurance for individuals and business as well as employee assistance programmes. AXA PPP healthcare has a main office in Leicester, East Midlands, England. In 2009, AXA PPP International was created. In 2018, it launched a virtual doctor service, called Global Care on Demand, for its customers with outpatient cover.
Provided by Advance Medical it offers access to medical advice by phone or video by doctors located in eight main hubs around the world who speak more than 20 languages, is targeted at expatriates. AXA Isle of Man Limited was created as a subsidiary of AXA Sun Life in the United Kingdom
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York