1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2,1890. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time, the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, the total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing. The public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the right answer was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in America, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850. The 1890 census announced that the region of the United States no longer existed. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement, by 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line. This prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis, the original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available.
Almost all the schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington. Some 25% of the materials were presumed destroyed and another 50% damaged by smoke, the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21,1933, and the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935. The other censuses for which information has been lost are the 1800 and 1810 enumerations. Mayo-Smith, The Eleventh Census of the United States
Geographic Names Information System
It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names, the database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited, variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier, the database never removes an entry, except in cases of obvious duplication. The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features, the general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals. The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail.
In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer, Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, Blue Highways, A Journey Into America, standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice, Vol.73, No. 170, page 51276 Report, Principles and Procedures, Domestic Geographic Names, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28, November 2000. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes
Park Hills, Kentucky
Park Hills is a home rule-class city in Kenton County, Kentucky, in the United States. The city is a suburb of Cincinnati and has recommended as the Best Place to Live in the area by Cincinnati Magazine. Much of the city was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2008 as the Park Hills Historic District, the population was 2,970 at the 2010 census. The area of present-day Park Hills was subdivided and settled c. 1845 on land owned by Messrs and this community remained quite small until D. Collins Lee and Robert Simmons developed the area in 1926 and incorporated the present city the next year. Park Hills is a home rule-class city, the city has a mayor who is elected every four years, the current mayor is Matt Mattone. The city has a six-member City Council that is elected every two years, current City Council Members are, Monty OHara Steve Elkins Greg Claypole Kathy Zembrodt Pam Spoor L. F. Onge of the 63rd District in the House of Representatives. Park Hills is located in Kentuckys 4th Congressional District, currently represented in the 113th United States Congress by Thomas Massie, Park Hills is located at 39°4′13″N 84°31′51″W,2.5 miles from downtown Cincinnati and approximately 10 miles from the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 0.8 square miles. The city is part of the Bluegrass Region of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, as of the census of 2000, there were 2,977 people,1,382 households, and 725 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,840.2 people per square mile, there were 1,523 housing units at an average density of 1,964.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96. 64% White,1. 65% African American,0. 07% Native American,0. 77% Asian,0. 30% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 60% of the population. 40. 3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.85. In the city, the population was out with 19. 9% under the age of 18,9. 1% from 18 to 24,33. 2% from 25 to 44,23. 3% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.1 males, the median income for a household in the city was $42,227, and the median income for a family was $65,833.
Males had an income of $39,450 versus $31,719 for females. The per capita income for the city was $29,486, about 2. 8% of families and 5. 3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4. 9% of those under age 18 and 4. 7% of those age 65 or over. The City of Park Hills is served by the Kenton County School District, students from Park Hills attend Dixie Heights High School in grades 9 through 12, Turkey Foot Middle School in grades 6 through 8, and Fort Wright Elementary in grades Pre-K through 5
1930 United States Census
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949, after which the original sheets were destroyed. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, and digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Glasgow, Kentucky, micropolitan area
The Glasgow Micropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties in Kentucky, anchored by the city of Glasgow. As of the 2000 census, the μSA had a population of 48,070. The racial makeup of the μSA was 94. 92% White,3. 58% African American,0. 17% Native American,0. 34% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,0. 33% from other races, and 0. 65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 85% of the population, the median income for a household in the μSA was $27,390, and the median income for a family was $33,205. Males had an income of $26,145 versus $19,900 for females. The per capita income for the μSA was $15,026
CSX Transportation is a Class I railroad in the United States. The main subsidiary of the CSX Corporation, the railroad is headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida, CSX operates one of the three Class I railroads serving most of the East Coast, the other two being the Norfolk Southern Railway and Canadian Pacific Railway. It serves the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec, together CSX and Norfolk Southern Railway have a duopoly over all east-west freight rail traffic east of the Mississippi River. As of October 1,2014, CSXs total public stock value was slightly over $32 billion, CSX Transportation was formed on July 1,1986, by combining the Chessie System and Seaboard System Railroad. The origin of the Chessie System was the former Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, which had merged with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, on June 6,1998, the STB approved the CSX–NS application and set August 22,1998, as the effective date of its decision. CSX acquired 42 percent of Conrails assets, and NS received the remaining 58 percent, as a result of the transaction, CSXs rail operations grew to include some 3,800 miles of the Conrail system.
CSX began operating its trains on its portion of the Conrail network on June 1,1999, CSX now serves much of the eastern U. S. with a few routes into nearby Canadian cities. The name came about during merger talks between Chessie System, Inc. and Seaboard System Railroad, Inc. commonly called Chessie, the company chairmen said it was important for the new name to include neither of those names because it was a partnership. Employees were asked for suggestions, most of which consisted of combinations of the initials, at the same time a temporary shorthand name was needed for discussions with the Interstate Commerce Commission. CSC was chosen but belonged to a company in Virginia. The lawyers decided to use CSX, and the name stuck, in the public announcement, it was said that CSX is singularly appropriate. C can stand for Chessie, S for Seaboard, and X, however, in the August 9,2016 article on the Railway Age website stated that. And the X was for Consolidated, the T had to be added to CSX when used as a reporting mark because reporting marks that end in X means that the car is owned by a leasing company or private car owner.
Its current slogan, How Tomorrow Moves, appeared in 2008, in 2014 Canadian Pacific Railway approached CSX with an offer to merge the two companies, but CSX declined and in 2015 Canadian Pacific made an attempt to purchase and merge with Norfolk Southern. In 2017 CSX announced Hunter Harrison as its new chief executive, CSX added 5 new directors to their board, including Harrison and Mantle Ridge founder Paul Hilal. Mantle Ridge owns 4.9 percent of CSX, CSX operates two regions of five divisions each, the Northern, based in Calumet City and Southern, based in Jacksonville, Florida. The CEO of CSX is Hunter Harrison as of Feb 2017, o823, Q740 and Q741, Q743, and Q745—which consists of Tropicana cars that carry fresh orange juice between Bradenton and the Greenville section of Jersey City, New Jersey. The train runs from Bradenton to Fort Pierce, Florida, in the 21st century, the Juice Train has been studied as a model of efficient rail transportation that can compete with trucks and other modes in the perishable-goods trade
Interstate 65 is a major Interstate Highway in the central United States. As with most interstates that end in a five, it is a major cross-country, north-south route, I-65 connects several major metropolitan areas in the Midwest and Southern United States. It connects the four largest cities in Alabama and it serves as one of the main north-south routes through Nashville, Louisville and Indianapolis, each a major metropolitan area in each respective state. In the state of Alabama, I-65 passes through or near four of the major metropolitan areas, Montgomery, Birmingham. I-65 begins its path northward in Mobile at its junction with I-10, from I-10, I-65 runs west of downtown Mobile and through the northern suburbs of the city before turning northeasterly towards Montgomery. In Montgomery, I-65 connects with the terminus of I-85. In Birmingham, I-65 has an interchange with I-20/I-59, north of downtown, I-22 branches off I-65 towards Memphis. From Birmingham, I-65 continues north, crossing the Tennessee River near Decatur, a few miles north of the river, it interchanges with I-565, a short spur route which provides access to Huntsville.
It continues out of the Tennessee Valley to the state of Tennessee. I-65 enters Tennessee from the south near the town of Ardmore, it reaches the outer parts of Columbia and making its way to Saturn Parkway, which brings travelers to the town of Spring Hill. I-65 continues on to reach I-840 and progresses until it intersects SR96 at Franklin, the highway goes through Brentwood, Madison, White House, and close to Portland, this highway passes into the state of Kentucky. I-65 enters the state five miles south of Franklin, throughout its length, it passes near Mammoth Cave National Park, Bernheim Forest, the National Corvette Museum and the Fort Knox Military Reservation. I-65 has intersections with four of the parkways in the state, the first major junction is with the William H. Natcher Parkway at Bowling Green, followed by the Cumberland Parkway north of the city between Smiths Grove and Park City. At Elizabethtown, it has two more interchanges with the Wendell H. Ford Western Kentucky Parkway and the Martha Layne Collins Bluegrass Parkway.
I-65 has interchanges with I-265, I-264, I-64, the widest stretch of Interstate 65 in its entirety is in Louisville at Kentucky Route 1065, where the main line is 14 lanes wide. The highway crosses the Ohio River into Indiana on the John F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge, the latter bridge opened in October 2016 as part of the Ohio River Bridges Project. Prior to the project, the Kennedy Bridge carried traffic in both directions, the project included reconstruction of the I-65/I-64/I-71 convergence interchange just south of the Kennedy Bridge, plus renovating the older span to carry six lanes of southbound traffic. At one time, the stretch of I-65 from Louisville to Elizabethtown was a road bearing the Kentucky Turnpike name
Mammoth Cave Railroad
Mammoth Cave Railroad was a short rail line with a small train off the Louisville and Nashville Railroad that went to Mammoth Caves in Kentucky. The tiny 9-mile railroad from Glasgow Junction to Mammoth Caves was started in 1886, the complete Dinkey Train consisted only of a dummy 0-4-2T type steam locomotive and a wooden coach to carry passengers and their luggage. Among the many stops on the way to Mammoth Caves were Diamond Caverns, Grand Avenue Cave, Procter Cave and Hotel, Chaumont Post Office, Union City, Sloans Crossing, the Dinkey Train could obtain speeds of 25–35 miles per hour on the lightweight rails. Colonel Larkin J. Procter owned and operated this line that began at Bells Tavern. Procter owned the Mammoth Cave Hotel and estate, the Mammoth Cave Railroad was not built by the L&N, although it owned the railroad rights to Mammoth Caves. A contract was entered into two companies whereby the L&N would lease its rights. In 1874 Procter chartered the Mammoth Cave Railroad with his brother George and they leased the railroad rights to Mammoth Cave from the L&N Railroad.
The new railroad acquired four used steam engine locomotives and they were Baldwin dummy steam engines formally used on street railways in Memphis and Nashville, Tennessee. They acquired two wooden passenger coaches and two wooden combination coaches and baggage cars, usually at any one time there were two sets of Dinkey Trains operating. The coach cars had open vestibules and were heated with a coal stove, before the actual construction work began the L&N agreed to lease the railroad rights to Mammoth Caves for 25 years from the completion of the spur railroad. The actual work on the railroad did not begin until 1880 when the first short part went to Diamond Cave, construction stopped again until July 1886 when Jim McDaniel and Henry Chapman resumed work on the roadbed. The railroad officially opened for business in November 1886 under this 25-year lease from the L&N and it cost $3 per ticket when it first started running as is recorded in the Mammoth Cave Hotel register on November 8,1886.
The first passenger was a W. F. Richardson, the hotel register reads The cost of the entire Mammoth Cave excursion in 1913, including roundtrip railway fare, cave fees and meals was $11.75. Also at this time there were services that included a side trip to Colossal Cavern for $1.50. The Mammoth Cave Railroad with the Dinkey Train ran successfully from 1886 until the mid-1890s, the stockholders reformed the company under the same name and assumed full control from the L&N in 1903. In 1904 an Indianapolis judge drove the first car to the caves which represented the doom of the railroad line, the establishment of the Mammoth Cave National Park in 1926 put the final nails into the coffin. The Dinkey Train discontinued service February 28,1929 and it was replaced temporarily by a railcar for mail service until 1931 when it finally shut down permanently. On the first of August 1931 the railroad ceased operations, the Mammoth Cave museum collection at the Mammoth Cave National Park contains Baldwin steam engine number 4 and passenger coach number 2 located at the lines terminus
A stagecoach is a type of covered wagon used to carry passengers and goods inside. It is strongly sprung and generally drawn by four horses, usually four-in-hand, widely used before the introduction of railway transport, it made regular trips between stages or stations, which were places of rest provided for stagecoach travelers. The business of running stagecoaches or the act of journeying in them was known as staging, the yard of ale drinking glass is associated by legend with stagecoach drivers, though it was mainly used for drinking feats and special toasts. The stagecoach was a vehicle pulled by horses or mules. The primary requirement was that it was used as a conveyance, running on an established route. Vehicles that were used included buckboards and dead axle wagons, surplus Army ambulances, on the outside were two back seats facing one another, which the British called baskets. In addition to the driver who guided the vehicle, a shotgun messenger, armed with a coach gun. The stagecoach traveled at an speed of about five miles per hour.
The term stage originally referred to the distance between stations on a route, the coach traveling the route in stages, but through metonymy it came to apply to the coach. A fresh set of horses would be staged at the next station, under this staging system, the resting and feeding of the spent horses would not delay the coach. This system based on making fresh horses regularly available along a route had been in use by a number of different civilisations, the stagecoach was called a stage or stage carriage. Varieties included, mail coach or post coach, used for carrying mail, mud coach and smaller, with flat sides and simpler joinery. Road coach, revived in Great Britain and Ireland during the half of the 19th century. The first crude depiction of a coach, not necessarily a stagecoach, was in an English manuscript from the 13th century, crude coaches were built from the 16th century. Without suspension, these coaches achieved very low speeds on the poor quality rutted roads of the time, by the mid 17th century, a basic stagecoach infrastructure had been put in place.
The first stagecoach route started in 1610 and ran from Edinburgh to Leith and this was followed by a steady proliferation of other routes around the country. A string of coaching inns operated as stopping points for travellers on the route between London and Liverpool by the mid 17th century, the coach would depart every Monday and Thursday and took roughly ten days to make the journey during the summer months. They became adopted for travel in and around London by mid-century
A U. S. state is a constituent political entity of the United States of America. There are 50 states, which are together in a union with each other. Each state holds administrative jurisdiction over a geographic territory. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders. States range in population from just under 600,000 to over 39 million, four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies widely by state, State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. All are grounded in principles, and each provides for a government.
States possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, Constitution has been amended, and the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the government playing a much larger role than it once did. There is a debate over states rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government. States and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a legislature consisting of the Senate. Each state is represented in the Senate by two senators, and is guaranteed at least one Representative in the House, members of the House are elected from single-member districts. Representatives are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census, the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50, alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959.
The Constitution is silent on the question of states have the power to secede from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U. S. Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, as a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they often vary greatly with regard to form and substance
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume, it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans and it is a key geographical term. Population density is population divided by land area or water volume. Low densities may cause a vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it, commonly this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory, or the entire world. The worlds population is around 7,000,000,000, the worldwide human population density is around 7,000,000,000 ÷510,000,000 =13.7 per km2. If only the Earths land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account and this includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded, population density rises to over 50 people per km2, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources.
Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo, for instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, and the surrounding suburbs excluded. Arithmetic density, The total number of people / area of land, physiological density, The total population / area of arable land. Agricultural density, The total rural population / area of arable land, residential density, The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land. Urban density, The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land, ecological optimum, The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources. S. States by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density