Phil Manzanera is an English musician and record producer. He was the lead guitarist with Roxy Music, 801, Quiet Sun. In 2006 Manzanera co-produced David Gilmour's album On an Island and played in Gilmour's band for tours in Europe and North America, he wrote and presented a series of 14 one-hour radio programmes for station Planet Rock entitled The A-Z of Great Guitarists. Manzanera was born in London to a Colombian mother and an English father, spent most of his childhood in different parts of the Americas, including Hawaii, Venezuela and Cuba, it was in Cuba that the young Manzanera, aged six, encountered his first guitar, a Spanish guitar owned by his mother. His earliest musical accomplishments were Cuban folk songs inspired by the Cuban Revolution. In Venezuela the eight-year-old Manzanera started experimenting with the sounds of the electric guitar. During his teenage years he was absorbing the twin influences of 1960s rock and roll and Latin American rhythms of merengue music and the boleros of the Mexican Armando Manzanero.
In his late teens Manzanera – a boarder at Dulwich College in south east London, England – formed a series of school bands with his friends Bill MacCormick a member of Matching Mole and Random Hold, MacCormick's brother Ian and drummer Charles Hayward of This Heat and Camberwell Now. Among the younger students at the school who saw the older boys performing in these various bands were Simon Ainley, David Ferguson and David Rhodes; the final incarnation of Manzanera's Dulwich College bands – a psychedelic outfit dubbed Pooh & The Ostrich Feathers – evolved into the progressive rock quartet Quiet Sun with the addition of keyboard player Dave Jarrett. They wrote a number of original songs and instrumental pieces, none of which were recorded until years and the band broke up when McCormick joined Matching Mole, but Manzanera revived the group in 1975 to record a full LP of their original music during the making of his first solo album Diamond Head. Manzanera was determined to join a professional band, in October 1971 he was one of about twenty players who auditioned as lead guitarist for the formed art rock band Roxy Music.
Manzanera displayed a wide-ranging interest in music. Influenced by his childhood sojourns in Latin America, his stints at boarding school, he came to know several prominent musicians including Soft Machine's Robert Wyatt and Pink Floyd's David Gilmour, a friend of his older brother. Although the group were impressed with his abilities, Manzanera lost out to David O'List, former guitarist with UK prog rock combo The Nice, although Roxy did offer him work as their roadie; however a few months O'List quit the band abruptly after an onstage altercation with drummer Paul Thompson, during the band's audition for David Enthoven of EG Management. Manzanera was invited to the next rehearsal on the pretext of becoming their sound mixer but was asked to stand in on guitar. Unbeknownst to the rest of the group, he had secretly learned their entire repertoire and as a result he was asked to become O'List's permanent replacement, joining on 14 February 1972, his bandmates at this time were Bryan Ferry, Brian Eno, Paul Thompson, Andy Mackay, Graham Simpson.
Roxy Music's rise was meteoric, with the band being hailed as a major stylistic influence of the early 1970s. During the next 12 years, until 1983 when the band members went on a "long break," Roxy Music released a series of internationally best-selling albums, achieving ten UK Top Ten albums and touring extensively throughout the world. Although Ferry had sole writing credit on the first two LPs, his work writing dominated the group's output, Manzanera was credited as co-writer with Ferry on the following Roxy Music songs: "Amazona" "Out of the Blue" and "Prairie Rose" "Whirlwind" and "Nightingale", "Manifesto", "Still Falls The Rain", "Trash" and "My Little Girl" "Trash 2" "Over You", "No Strange Delight" and "Running Wild" "Lover" "Take a Chance with Me" Manzanera received sole composer credit on the following Roxy Music song: "Hula Kula" In parallel with Roxy Music, Manzanera has always pursued solo projects, both recording his own albums and producing for others, his first major credit as producer was in 1975.
Manzanera played guitar on three tracks of the first Brian Eno album Here Come the Warm Jets, as well as guitar and production assistance on Eno's second solo album Taking Tiger Mountain. All his previous solo albums have been digitally remastered and re-released with new artwork on his own label, Expression Records; as a writer and solo artist, Phil Manzanera has worked with many of the luminaries of modern music, such as Steve Winwood, David Gilmour, John Cale, Godley & Creme and John Wetton. He has co-written material with many artists, including Brian Eno, Tim Finn, Robert Wyatt and Gilmour. Manzanera co-wrote Pink Floyd's single "One Slip" from their 1987 A Momentary Lapse of Reason a
Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
Alice known as Alice Visconti, is an Italian singer-songwriter and pianist, active since 1971. Alice had her breakthrough after winning the Sanremo Music Festival with the song "Per Elisa" in 1981, followed by European hit singles like "Una notte speciale", "Messaggio", "Chan-son Egocentrique", "Prospettiva Nevski" and "Nomadi" and albums like Gioielli rubati, Park Hotel, Elisir and Il sole nella pioggia charting in Continental Europe and Japan. In 1984, she represented Italy in the Eurovision Song Contest with "I treni di Tozeur", a duet with longtime collaborator Franco Battiato. In her more recent career Alice has explored a diverse range of musical genres including classical, jazz and ambient and has collaborated with a large number of renowned English and American musicians, her latest album Samsara was released in 2012. Born in Forlì, Bissi started taking piano lessons in the local Conservatory and singing at the age of eight, her career in music started as she as a seventeen-year-old won the 1971 Castrocaro Music Festival under her birth name Carla Bissi, with an interpretation of the song "Tanta voglia di lei" composed and recorded by classic Italian rock band Pooh.
The following year saw her winning another music award, La gondola d'argento in Venice, with the song "La festa mia" as well as making her debut in the important Sanremo Music Festival performing "Il mio cuore se ne va" in the Newcomers category released as her debut single, the song however failed to qualify for the finals. Two further singles on the Carosello label credited as Carla Bissi followed in 1972 and 1973, both faring unnoticed by the Italian audiences. In 1975 she quit her day job at a design studio and took the stage name Alice Visconti as she was signed by the Italian subsidiary of CBS Records and released her debut album La mia poca grande età; the album consisted of material written by some of Italy's most successful composers and lyricists of the era and among the musicians contributing were in fact members of Pooh. The singles "Piccola anima" and "Io voglio vivere", both in the traditional Italian easy listening genre, became minor chart successes in late 1975 and early 1976, the latter a modest hit in France.
A second album on CBS followed in late 1977, Cosa resta... Un fiore, recorded with the same team of producers and musicians as the debut, including the singles "... E respiro" and "Un'isola" which met with moderate commercial success. In late 1979, shortly after her contract with CBS had expired, Bissi met a man with whom she would go on to collaborate with for the next three decades with great success, the experimental and productive composer and singer Franco Battiato, just on the verge of having his Italian breakthrough in the pop genre with the album L'era del cinghiale bianco, released in 1979. Battiato secured Bissi a contract with his label EMI and the two began working together with his producer Angelo Carrara on what was to become her first proper hit single, the dark and despairing "Il vento caldo dell'estate" and the following album Capo Nord. Co-written and arranged by Battiato, the album saw Bissi making a dramatic change in musical direction as it combined influences from contemporary rock and new wave and a musical landscape with prominent use of synthesizers and distorted electric guitars.
At this time Bissi dropped the Visconti part of her stage name and the Capo Nord album was the first to be credited as Alice. It was Bissi's debut as a composer, with her writing the majority of the songs and over the course of the following albums she would become involved in the production of her music, both as composer, musical arranger and sound engineer. In early 1981 she returned to the Sanremo Music Festival with the song "Per Elisa", composed by Bissi herself, Franco Battiato and his longtime co-writer, classical violinist Giusto Pio; the song was both lyrically and musically a modern paraphrase of Ludwig van Beethoven's "Für Elise" but it was by no means an archetypal sentimental Sanremo ballad. The rough rock track had lyrics which dealt with jealousy, betrayal and revenge. For the live performance at the contest Bissi made full use of her vocal range; the unorthodox Sanremo entry and Bissi's delivery of the song dressed in tight jeans and a leather jacket made a strong impression on both the juries and the TV audiences.
An album titled Alice followed a few months including follow-up single "Una notte speciale" and the same year Bissi set out on her first European tour. The following years saw the release of the albums Azimut and Falsi allarmi, again composed by Bissi herself, but including further songwriting collaborations with Battiato and Giusto Pio, both albums produced by Angelo Carrara; the albums spun off further popular single releases like "Messaggio", the nonsensical French/Italian/German/English language "Chan-son Egocentrique", "A cosa pensano", "Notte a Roma", "Solo un'idea" and "Il profu
A guitarist is a person who plays the guitar. Guitarists may play a variety of guitar family instruments such as classical guitars, acoustic guitars, electric guitars, bass guitars; some guitarists accompany themselves on the guitar by playing the harmonica. The guitarist may employ any of several methods for sounding the guitar, including finger picking, depending on the type of strings used, including strumming with the fingers, or a guitar pick made of bone, plastic, felt, leather, or paper, melodic flatpicking and finger-picking; the guitarist may employ various methods for selecting notes and chords, including fingering, the barre, and'bottleneck' or steel-guitar slides made of glass or metal. These left- and right-hand techniques may be intermixed in performance. Several magazines and websites have compiled what they intend as lists of the greatest guitarists—for example The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time by Rolling Stone magazine, or 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time by Guitar World magazine.
Rolling Stone In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine published a list called The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. This list included 100 guitarists whom the magazine editor David Fricke considered the best, with a brief introduction for each of them; the first in this list is the American guitarist Jimi Hendrix introduced by Pete Townshend, guitarist for The Who, who was, in his turn, ranked at #50 in the list. In describing the list to readers, Paul MacInnes from British newspaper The Guardian wrote, "Surprisingly enough for an American magazine, the top 10 is fair jam-packed with Yanks," though he noted three exceptions in the top 10; the online magazine Blogcritics criticized the list for introducing some undeserving guitarists while forgetting some artists the writer considered more worthy, such as Johnny Marr, Al Di Meola, Phil Keaggy or John Petrucci. In 2011, Rolling Stone updated the list, which this time was chosen by a panel of guitarists and other experts with the top 5 consisting of Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page, Keith Richards and Jeff Beck.
Artists who had not been included in the previous list were added. Rory Gallagher, for example, was ranked in 57th place; the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time is mentioned in many biographies about artists who appear in the list. Guitar World Guitar World, a monthly music magazine devoted to the guitar published their list of 100 greatest guitarists in the book Guitar World Presents the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time from the Pages of Guitar World Magazine. Different from the Rolling Stone list, which listed guitarists in descending order, Guitar World divided guitarists by music genre—such as "Lords of Hard Rock" for hard rock artists or "Jazzmen" for jazz players. Despite the appearance in other magazines like Billboard, this publication by Guitar World was criticized for including no female musicians within its selection. However, Guitar World published a list of "Eight Amazing Female Acoustic Players," including Kaki King, Muriel Anderson and Sharon Isbin. TIME and others Following the death of Les Paul, TIME website presented their list of 10 greatest artists in electric guitar.
As in Rolling Stone magazine's list, Jimi Hendrix was chosen as the greatest guitarist followed by Slash from Guns'N' Roses, B. B. King, Keith Richards, Jimmy Page, Eric Clapton. Gigwise.com, an online music magazine ranks Jimi Hendrix as the greatest guitarist followed by Jimmy Page, B. B. King, Keith Richards and Kirk Hammett. There are many classical guitarists listed as notable in their respective epochs. In recent decades, the most "notable classical and cross genre" guitarist was Paco de Lucía, one of the first flamenco guitarists to have crossed over into other genres of music such as classical and jazz. Richard Chapman and Eric Clapton, authors of Guitar: Music, Players, describe de Lucía as a "titanic figure in the world of flamenco guitar", Dennis Koster, author of Guitar Atlas, has referred to de Lucía as "one of history's greatest guitarists.". Media related to Guitarists at Wikimedia Commons
Electric upright bass
The electric upright bass is an instrument that can perform the musical function of a double bass. It requires only a minimal or'skeleton' body to produce sound because it uses a pickup and electronic amplifier and loudspeaker. Therefore,a large resonating structure is not required to project the sound into the air; this minimal body reduces the bulk and weight of the instrument. EUBs must always be connected to an amplifier and speaker cabinet to produce an adequate audible sound. However,the EUB retains enough of the features of the double bass so that double bass players are able to perform on it. There are two types: hollowbody EUBs. Solid-body EUBs have no hollow enclosure for the body and, as such, they produce no sound without electronic amplification. Solid-body EUBs are connected to an amplifier for practice and live performances. Hollowbody EUBs have a wooden enclosure, while much smaller than the hollow body cavity of a double bass, is still large enough to give the instrument some sound output without amplification, at least for individual practice.
For performing it is connected to an speaker. Whilst the EUB retains some of the tonal characteristics of the double bass, being electronically amplified gives it its own unique sound; the size and shape of EUB bodies varies. Some EUBs have a small body, which makes the instrument smaller and lighter in weight; some EUBs have larger bodies, including the upper bouts, to aid the player in performing higher pitches. Some EUBs have built-in pickups and volume controls, similar in function to the pickups and knobs on an electric bass; some EUBs are sold without knobs. EUBs sometimes have a long endpin to support the instrument at the appropriate height although some eubs can be mounted on a stand for playing; as with the double bass, an EUB can be played sitting on a stool. EUBs are used in a wide range of styles of music, from jazz fusion and jazz to Cuban music and rock music. While four string EUBs are most common, using the same E,A,D,G tuning as the double bass and bass guitar, 5-, 6, 7- and 8-string models are available.
Like the double bass, most EUBs bowed. The first production electric upright basses were developed independently in the mid-1930s by Regal and Rickenbacker. However, in the 1930s and 1940s, neither the transducers and or amplification equipment which were available could reproduce the deep tones of the bass; this may have contributed to the lack of public interest in either the electric upright basses or Paul Tutmarc's bass guitar-style instruments that emerged in the 1930s. In comparison with other electronically amplified string instruments, such as the electric violin and cello, the EUB has been taken up by a wider range of players because a traditional upright bass's size and weight makes it challenging to transport when compared to smaller instruments in the family; the scale length of EUBs varies: some scales are 42", similar to most double basses, whilst other models have scale lengths of only 30" like a short scale bass guitar. The shorter scale can make it easier for bass guitarists to convert to the EUB.
Some scales lie for example 34", like a long scale bass guitar. The fingerboard extends over two octaves and has side dots for the players reference. Regardless of scale length, the strings are tuned to E1, A1, D2, G2 at the same pitch as the double bass or bass guitar. Double bass players use features of the instrument such as the neck heel and edge of the upper bout as tactile positional references; the rear of the body of an upright bass is braced against the hip with player standing or knee if sitting. Many EUBs therefore mirror these features in their design. There will be a raised reference point about 1/3 down from the nut to the bridge at either the "D" or "Eb" position ) to represent the'neck heel' of the acoustic bass. Many EUBs have wooden or metal bars to brace the instrument against the musician's body, to act as the upper bouts of a wooden double bass; the wooden or metal brace bars help the EUB to rest against the player's body in a position similar to the way a double bass rests against the body.
The most complete example of this is the Yamaha'silent bass' which has a removable frame designed to match the outline of right hand side and left upper bout of an upright bass allowing for easy transference of double bass techniques. Most EUBs are fretless, but a small number are fretted, to facilitate their use by players of fretted electric bass. Solid bodied EUBs produce little sound without electronic amplification. Hollow-bodied EUBs produce a quiet tone, loud enough for individual practice. However, since hollow-bodied EUBs do not have a large resonant cavity like a double bass, they cannot reproduce the lowest notes of the instrument without an amplifier. To amplify the EUB, the string vibrations are sensed with a pickup. Early EUBs used magnetic pickups similar to those in electric guitars, or percussive magnetic diaphragm pickups. Many modern EUBs use piezoelectric pickups located in a combination of pickup types; the signal from the pickup is preamplified and equalized with a preamplifier and sent to a bass amplifier or a PA system.
For practice in a hotel room or apartment, an EUB can be connected to headphones. Some EUBs have a hollow resonant cha
Yes are an English progressive rock band formed in London in 1968 by singer Jon Anderson, bassist Chris Squire, guitarist Peter Banks, keyboardist Tony Kaye, drummer Bill Bruford. The band has undergone numerous formations throughout its history. Since June 2015, it has consisted of guitarist Steve Howe, drummer Alan White, keyboardist Geoff Downes, singer Jon Davison, bassist Billy Sherwood, with no remaining founding members. Yes have explored several musical styles over the years, are most notably regarded as progressive rock pioneers. Yes began in 1968, performing original songs and rearranged covers of rock, pop and jazz songs, as evident on their first two albums. A change of direction in 1970 led to a series of successful progressive rock albums until their disbanding in 1981, their most successful being The Yes Album and Close to the Edge. Yes toured as a major rock act that earned the band a reputation for their elaborate stage sets, light displays, album covers designed by Roger Dean.
The success of "Roundabout", the single from Fragile, cemented their popularity across the decade and beyond. In 1983, Yes reformed with a new line-up that included Trevor Rabin and a more commercial and pop-oriented musical direction; the result was 90125, their highest-selling album, which contained the U. S. number-one single, "Owner of a Lonely Heart". From 1990 to 1992, Yes were an eight-member formation after they merged with Anderson Bruford Wakeman Howe for Union and its tour. Since 1994, Yes have released albums with varied levels of success and completed tours from 1994 to 2004. After a four-year hiatus, they continue to release albums. In 2016, a new group of former Yes members began touring and named themselves Yes Featuring Jon Anderson, Trevor Rabin, Rick Wakeman. Yes are one of the most successful and longest-lasting progressive rock bands, they have sold 13.5 million RIAA-certified albums in the US. In 1985, they won a Grammy Award for Best Rock Instrumental Performance with "Cinema", received five Grammy nominations between 1985 and 1992.
They were ranked No. 94 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. Yes have headlined annual progressive rock-themed cruises since 2013 named Cruise to the Edge, their discography spans 21 studio albums. In April 2017, Yes were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, which chose to bestow the honour upon current and former members Anderson, Bruford, Howe, Rick Wakeman and Rabin. In 1967, bassist Chris Squire formed the rock band Mabel Greer's Toyshop, with singer and guitarist Clive Bayley, drummer Bob Hagger, guitarist Peter Banks, they played at the Marquee Club in Soho, London where Jack Barrie, owner of the nearby La Chasse club, saw them perform. "There was nothing outstanding about them", he recalled, "the musicianship was good but it was obvious they weren't going anywhere". Barrie introduced Squire to singer Jon Anderson, a worker at the bar in La Chasse, who found they shared interests in Simon & Garfunkel and harmony singing; that evening at Squire's house they wrote "Sweetness,", included on the first Yes album.
Meanwhile, Banks had left Mabel Greer's Toyshop to join Neat Change, but he was dismissed by this group on 7 April 1968. In June 1968, Hagger was replaced in the nascent Yes by Bill Bruford, who had placed an advertisement in Melody Maker, Banks was recalled by Squire, replacing Bayley as guitarist; the classically trained organist and pianist Tony Kaye, of Johnny Taylor's Star Combo and the Federals, became the keyboardist and the fifth member. The newborn band rehearsed in the basement of The Lucky Horseshoe cafe on Shaftesbury Avenue between 10 June and 9 July 1968. Anderson suggested. Squire suggested. Banks responded "yes", and, how the band were named; the first gig under the new brand followed at a youth camp in East Mersea, Essex on 4 August 1968. Early sets were formed of cover songs from artists such as the Beatles, the 5th Dimension and Traffic. On 16 September, Yes performed at Blaise's club in London as a substitute for Sly and the Family Stone, who failed to turn up, they were well received by the audience, including the host Roy Flynn, who became the band's manager that night.
That month, Bruford decided to quit performing to study at the University of Leeds. His replacement, Tony O'Reilly of the Koobas, struggled to perform with the rest of the group on-stage. After Bruford was refused a year's sabbatical leave from Leeds and Squire convinced him to return for Yes's supporting slot for Cream's farewell concert at the Royal Albert Hall on 26 November. After seeing an early King Crimson gig in 1969, Yes realised that there was stiff competition on the London gigging circuit, they needed to be much more technically proficient, starting regular rehearsals, they subsequently signed a deal with Atlantic Records, that August, released their debut album Yes. Compiled of original material, the record includes renditions of "Every Little Thing" by the Beatles and "I See You" by the Byrds. Although the album failed to break into the UK album charts, Rolling Stone critic Lester Bangs complimented the album's "sense of style and subtlety". Melody Maker columnist Tony Wilson chose Yes and Led Zeppelin as the two bands "most to succeed".
Following a tour of Scandinavia with the Small Faces, Yes performed a solo concert at the Queen Elizabeth Hall on 21 March 1970. The second half consisted of excerpts from their second album Time and a Word, accompanied by a 20-piece youth orchestra. Banks left the group in May, two months before the a