California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Miracle Mile, Los Angeles
The Miracle Mile is a neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, California. It contains a stretch of Wilshire Boulevard known as Museum Row, it contains two Historic Preservation Overlay Zones: The Miracle Mile HPOZ and the Miracle Mile North HPOZ. The Miracle Mile's boundaries are 3rd Street on the north, Highland Avenue on the east, San Vicente Boulevard on the south, Fairfax Avenue on the west. Major thoroughfares include Wilshire and Olympic Boulevards, La Brea and Fairfax Avenues, 6th Street. Google Maps identifies an irregularly shaped area labeled “Miracle Mile” that runs from Ogden Drive on the west to Citrus Avenue and La Brea Avenue on the east; the north is bordered by 4th Street and on the south is 12th Street. In the early 1920s, Wilshire Boulevard west of Western Avenue was an unpaved farm road, extending through dairy farms and bean fields. Developer A. W. Ross saw potential for the area and developed Wilshire as a commercial district to rival downtown Los Angeles; the Miracle Mile development was anchored by the May Company Department Store with its landmark 1939 Streamline Moderne building on the west and the E. Clem Wilson Building on the east Los Angeles's tallest commercial building.
The Wilson Building had a dirigible mast on top and was home to a number of businesses and professionals relocating from downtown. The success of the new alternative commercial and shopping district negatively affected downtown real estate values and triggered development of the multiple downtowns which characterize contemporary Los Angeles. Ross's insight was that the form and scale of his Wilshire strip should attract and serve automobile traffic rather than pedestrian shoppers, he applied this design both to the buildings lining it. Ross gave Wilshire various "firsts," including dedicated left-turn lanes and timed traffic lights, the first in the United States, he required merchants to provide automobile parking lots, all to aid traffic flow. Major retailers such as Desmond's, Silverwood's, May Co. Coulter's, Mullen & Bluett, Myer Siegel, Seibu spread down Wilshire Boulevard from Fairfax to La Brea. Ross ordered that all building facades along Wilshire be engineered so as to be best seen through a windshield.
This meant larger, simpler signage and longer buildings in a larger scale. They had to be oriented toward the boulevard and architectural ornamentation and massing must be perceptible at 30 MPH instead of at walking speed; these building forms were driven by practical requirements but contributed to the stylistic language of Art Deco and Streamline Moderne. Ross's moves were unprecedented, a huge commercial success, proved influential. Ross had invented the car-oriented urban form — what Reyner Banham called "the linear downtown" model adopted across the United States; the moves contributed to Los Angeles's reputation as a city dominated by the car. A sculptural bust of Ross stands at 5800 Wilshire, with the inscription, "A. W. Ross and developer of the Miracle Mile. Vision to see, wisdom to know, courage to do." As wealth and newcomers poured into the fast-growing city, Ross's parcel became one of Los Angeles's most desirable areas. Acclaimed as "America's Champs-Élysées," this stretch of Wilshire near the La Brea Tar Pits was named "Miracle Mile" for its improbable rise to prominence.
Although the preponderance of shopping malls and the development in the 1960s of financial and business districts in downtown and Century City lessened the Miracle Mile's importance as a retail and business center, the area has retained its vitality thanks to the addition of several museums and commercial high-rises. An Art Deco style bank at 5209 Wilshire was built in 1929, joined a select other Miracle Mile buildings when listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it was designed by the architecture firm of Morgan, Walls & Clements, which designed the Wiltern Theatre, the El Capitan Theatre, other notable buildings in Los Angeles. Note: According to historian David Leighton, of the Arizona Daily Star newspaper the Miracle Mile in Tucson, Arizona derives its name from Los Angeles' Miracle Mile; the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, The Petersen Automotive Museum, A+D Museum and Folk Art Museum, George C. Page Museum, La Brea Tar Pits pavilions, among others, create "Museum Row" on the Miracle Mile.
The Academy Museum of Motion Pictures for the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, designed by Renzo Piano, will be located in the former May Company Department Store on the corner of Wilshire Boulevard and Fairfax Avenue. A new contemporary structure for the museum's theaters will be located behind the building. Miracle Mile contains two Historic Preservation Overlay Zones; the Miracle Mile HPOZ comprises 1,347 properties. Its boundaries are Wilshire Boulevard to the north, San Vicente Boulevard to the south, La Brea Avenue to the east, Orange Grove Avenue to the west, it is located in the Mid-Wilshire community. The Miracle Mile North HPOZ consists of single-family residences which are uniform in scale and setbacks, the majority of which were built from 1924 to 1941, its boundaries are Detroit Streets, between Beverly Boulevard and Third Street. It is located in the Beverly-Fairfax community; the Miracle Mile District is one of the city's more densely populated areas. To alleviate problems and provide an alternative to automobiles for commuters, Los Angeles Metro's Purple Line subway is being extended along Wilshire Boulevard to the Veterans Affairs Hospital, from its current terminus at Western Avenue in Koreatown.
However, a federal ban on tunneling operations in the area was passed at the behest of the district's Congressional representative Henry Waxman af
Mitchell-Lama Housing Program
The Mitchell-Lama Housing Program is a non-subsidy governmental housing guarantee in the state of New York. It was sponsored by Assemblyman Alfred Lama, it was signed into law in 1955 as The Limited-Profit Housing Companies Act. The program's publicly stated purpose was the development and building of affordable housing, both rental and co-operatively owned, for middle-income residents. Under this program, local jurisdictions acquired property by eminent domain and provided it to developers to develop housing for low- and middle-income tenants. Developers received tax abatements as long as they remained in the program, low-interest mortgages, subsidized by the federal, state, or New York City government, they were guaranteed a 6% or 7.5% return on investment each year. The program was based on the Morningside Gardens housing cooperative, a co-op in Manhattan's Morningside Heights neighborhood, subsidized with tax money; the New York State Division of Housing and Community Renewal, was merged with the New York State Housing Finance Administration in 2010 to create the New York State Housing and Community Renewal agency.
The new agency provided financing and supervison of mortgages to developments as long as they remained in the Mitchell-Lama program. According to the New York State Homes and Community Renewal, "A total of 269 Mitchell-Lama developments with over 105,000 apartments were built under the program." It has resulted in developments that were and are ethnically and economically diverse as some of the original tenants became more successful while others found themselves closer to or in poverty. The tenants have formed stable communities that in some cases have resulted in increased property values. Landlords may remove the developments from Mitchell-Lama by prepaying the mortgage, which happens 20 years after the project is developed. However, in some cases, special land use agreements specify more time. Between 1990 and 2005, Mitchell-Lama housing lost "22,688 units, over a third of its stock." That pace has now increased with the real estate market for rental buildings. When a building is privatized, it loses its tax abatement, the owner must refinance the mortgage, the owner loses the right to a 6% annual return on investment.
What happens to the tenants in those buildings depends on when they were built and public policy. Tenants in rental buildings built before 1974 go into rent stabilization upon leaving Mitchell-Lama; that means their rents increase according to the New York City Rent Guidelines Board orders for each new lease as well as according to orders by the New York Office of Rent Administration for, among other things, major capital improvements and landlord hardship. Upon leaving Mitchell-Lama, the owners of rental buildings built since 1974 can raise rents without restriction. Tenants whose buildings had federally-subsidized "236" mortgages may qualify for federal "enhanced" vouchers, which allows them to pay at least what they were paying and no less than 30% of their income in rent, with a government paying the balance. Tenants who do not qualify for enhanced vouchers, including all tenants in post-1973 buildings that were not federally subsidized, must pay the rent set by the landlords; that the buildings are no longer in a rent-regulation program poses a particular problem for tenants who were receiving special subsidies that may not cover the new, higher rent payments, such as subsidy programs because of poverty age, disability.
In some of the buildings, tenant associations are negotiating "landlord assistance plans" to implement the increases at a slower rate and to protect some of the weakest tenants. The plans are limited to a specific number of years, upon their expiration, tenants may be vulnerable. LAPs do not preserve the stock of affordable housing for future tenants. After a certain period of years, owners of Mitchell-Lama limited equity housing co-operatives may decide according to their co-op voting rules to "privatize" or demutualize their building as well; that may permit them to sell their apartments at a high profit, but it can increase the rents of remaining residents since the building loses its tax abatement and may have increased payments for a non-subsidized mortgage. Flip taxes on resales can be used to mitigate such increases, but, up to the co-op boards. There is some effort to require them by legislation; such demutualization thus diminishes the stock of affordable housing in a given area and increases tax revenue.
Some politicians have proposed bills to the New York State legislature that would put all buildings leaving or that have left Mitchell-Lama into rent stabilization upon privatization. The Rent Act of 2011 signed into law June 24, 2011, on did not mention Mitchell-Lama rentals or co-operatives. Given that state legislators who reside outside of New York City vote on such bills, many tenants interested in preserving affordable housing in New York City seek to shift control over rent regulation from the state to the city by restoring home rule. Other bills have called for a one-year moratorium on all privatization. In November 2007, the State's Division of Housing and Community Renewal - now NYS HCR - adopted regulations stating that just remo
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Rancho La Brea
Rancho La Brea was a 4,439-acre Mexican land grant in present-day Los Angeles County, California given in 1828 to Antonio Jose Rocha and Nemisio Dominguez by José Antonio Carrillo, the Alcalde of Los Angeles. Rancho La Brea consisted of one square league of land of what is now Wilshire's Miracle Mile and parts of West Hollywood; the grant included the famous La Brea Tar Pits. The title awarded by the Alcalde in 1828 was confirmed by José María de Echeandía, Governor of Alta California. With the cession of California to the United States after the Mexican–American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored; as required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim was filed by Antonio José Rocha, José Jorge Rocha, Josefa de la Merced de Jordan with the Public Land Commission in 1852, but was rejected in 1860. As a lawyer and surveyor, Henry Hancock worked for the Rocha family to aid them with their efforts to prove their claim to Rancho La Brea; the Rochas won their claim.
The grant included the famous La Brea Tar Pits. As happened to other rancheros, the claimants' legal expenses left. In 1860, Antonio José Rocha's son, José Jorge Rocha, deeded Rancho La Brea to Henry Hancock. Hancock paid $20,000 for the Mexican grants with his profits from the sale of gold he had found in a rich placer mine, he engaged in the commercial development of the tar deposits on Rancho La Brea. He shipped considerable quantities to San Francisco by schooner. After Hancock's death in 1883, it was owned by Ida Hancock Ross. Most of Rancho La Brea was subdivided and developed by his surviving son, Captain George Allan Hancock, he owned the Rancho La Brea Oil Company and donated 23 acres of Hancock Park to Los Angeles County in 1924 to preserve and exhibit the fossils exhumed from Rancho La Brea. The La Brea Tar Pits within the Park are a now registered National Natural Landmark. Arthur Gilmore started a dairy farm. Drilling for water, he struck oil; this find. Arthur's son Earl Gilmore built Gilmore Stadium next to Gilmore Field.
Ranchos of California List of Ranchos of California Map of old Spanish and Mexican ranchos in Los Angeles County
The Grove at Farmers Market
The Grove is a retail and entertainment complex in Los Angeles, located on parts of the historical Farmers Market. The complex fills space occupied by an orchard and nursery, which were the last remains of a dairy farm owned by A. F. Gilmore in the latter part of the 19th century; the developers began demolition of an antiques alley and other older buildings on Third Street behind CBS Television City, broke ground for the new mall in 1999. There was some controversy over increasing traffic in a busy Los Angeles neighborhood that offered several other shopping venues, including the Beverly Center; the Grove opened in 2002. The Warner Bros. tabloid television news program Extra was taped in the complex from 2010-2013 on the mall's lawn area. Since November 2015, it has served as a venue for the finales of Dancing with the Stars; the history behind the development of the A. F. Gilmore property that became The Grove was not without controversy. In 1984, A. F. Gilmore and neighboring CBS Television City hired Olympia & York California Equities Corp. to look into the possibility of creating a major business and entertainment complex that would have been twice as large as Universal City but would have required the demolition of all existing structures at both Farmers Market and CBS in the process.
That plan was not well received by the City of Los Angeles or by its neighbors and the plan was shelved. Two years A. F. Gilmore and CBS hired Urban Investment & Development Co. of Chicago to create another development plan. In 1989, A. F. Gilmore announced that it was going to build a US$300 million mall adjacent to the existing Farmers Market and that the new project would be managed by JMB/Urban Development of Chicago; the proposed mall was going to be anchored by May Company California, J. W. Robinson's along with over 100 other stores; the project was scaled down to 2 anchors. During the next decade, A. F. Gilmore announced in 1998 a further scaled down plan with Caruso Affiliated as the new development partner for a new proposal that became The Grove at Farmers Market, a $100-million project on 25 acres. Nordstrom signed on in 2001 to build a 122,000 sq ft store. By early 2001, toy retailer FAO Schwarz sign on for 25,000 sq ft. along with Banana Republic, Barnes & Noble, J. Crew, Maggiano's Italian restaurant and a 14-screen movie complex to be the initial stores in the new project.
After many delays, the retail center opened in March 2002. FAO Schwarz was one of the first retail casualties at the Grove when FAO Schwarz's parent company had to declare bankruptcy the following year; the Grove was able to replace the store with American Girl Place, which opened in April 2006. Abercrombie & Fitch closed their flagship store in 2013, it was replaced with a Nike flagship store, which opened in 2015. In 2013, Banana Republic moved into a new space at the mall, the old space was replaced with the first Topshop/Topman store in Los Angeles. In the original plan, the 14-screen movie complex was going to be built by Pacific Theatres to be its first Arc Light multiplex. At the last minute, Pacific Theatres pulled out of the project and opted to build the multiplex in Hollywood, ArcLight Hollywood, instead. Caruso decided to fund the construction of the multiplex out of the company's own pockets. After 10 months of successful operations, Caruso decided to sell the multiplex outright. Pacific gave the highest bid at US$30 million.
The 575,000-square-foot outdoor marketplace is located in Los Angeles' Fairfax District. Initial architectural design was performed in-house by David Williams of Caruso Affiliated Holdings and by KMD Architects of San Francisco. Caruso Affiliated claims to have modeled its architectural designs on indigenous Los Angeles buildings, influenced by classic historic districts, with shopping alleys, broad plazas, intimate courtyards; the design features a series of Art Deco-style false fronts, with boxy interiors similar to those found in other contemporary stores. The Grove features a large central park with an animated fountain designed by WET, its music-fountain show plays every hour, though the feature has a non-musical program in between shows. The water's choreography is reminiscent of the Fountains of Bellagio in Las Vegas—also designed by WET—but on a much smaller scale; the property has a statue, The Spirit of Los Angeles. Live shows are performed there—on the grassy area by the fountains. An internal transit system uses electric-powered trolley cars to link The Grove and the adjacent Farmers Market.
The Grove is anchored by Nordstrom and has flagship stores for British fashion chain Topshop/Topman, Barnes & Noble, Apple. Abercrombie & Fitch had its West Coast flagship at the mall, which closed in 2015, has since been replaced by Nike. Other stores in the center include Michael Kors, two-story Gap and J. Crew locations, Crate & Barrel, Nike, MAC Cosmetics, Anthropologie, Barneys New York, Kiehl's, American Girl Place; the Grove's many restaurants include chains like Maggiano's Little Italy and The Cheesecake Factory as well as smaller, local restaurants like Wood Ranch BBQ and Grill, 189 by Dominique Ansel, The Whisper Lounge, La Piazza. The Original Farmers Market, located adjacent to The Grove and owned by the A. F. Gilmore Company, features numerous non-chain restaurants that have existed there for sometimes decades; the main entertainment venue is a 14-screen movie theater complex owned by Pacific Theatres. In mid-November, the Grove Christmas Tree is displayed, lit every evening, beginning with the annual tree lighting ceremony.
The tree remains. Up to 100 feet or more, it is one o
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, painter, urban planner and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930, his career spanned five decades, he designed buildings in Europe, Japan and North and South America. Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities, Le Corbusier was influential in urban planning, was a founding member of the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne. Le Corbusier prepared the master plan for the city of Chandigarh in India, contributed specific designs for several buildings there. On 17 July 2016, seventeen projects by Le Corbusier in seven countries were inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites as The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement. Charles-Édouard Jeanneret was born on 6 October 1887 in La Chaux-de-Fonds, a small city in the French-speaking Neuchâtel canton in north-western Switzerland, in the Jura mountains, just 5 kilometres across the border from France.
It was an industrial town, devoted to the manufacture of watches. His father was an artisan who enameled watches, while his mother gave piano lessons, his elder brother Albert was an amateur violinist. He attended a kindergarten. Like his contemporaries Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier did not have formal academic training as an architect, he was attracted to the visual arts and at the age of fifteen he entered the municipal art school in La-Chaux-de-Fonds which taught the applied arts connected with watchmaking. Three years he attended the higher course of decoration, founded by the painter Charles L'Eplattenier, who had studied in Budapest and Paris. Le Corbusier wrote that L'Eplattenier had made him "a man of the woods" and taught him painting from nature, his father took him into the mountains around the town. He wrote "we were on mountaintops, his architecture teacher in the Art School was the architect René Chapallaz, who had a large influence on Le Corbusier's earliest house designs.
However, he reported that it was the art teacher L'Eplattenier who made him choose architecture. "I had a horror of architecture and architects," he wrote. "... I was sixteen, I accepted the verdict and I obeyed. I moved into architecture." Le Corbusier began teaching himself by going to the library to read about architecture and philosophy, by visiting museums, by sketching buildings, by constructing them. In 1905, he and two other students, under the supervision of their teacher, René Chapallaz and built his first house, the Villa Fallet, for the engraver Louis Fallet, a friend of his teacher Charles L'Eplattenier. Located on the forested hillside near Chaux-de-fonds, it was a large chalet with a steep roof in the local alpine style and crafted colored geometric patterns on the façade. The success of this house led to his construction of two similar houses, the Villas Jacquemet and Stotzer, in the same area. In September 1907, he made his first trip outside of Switzerland. In Florence, he visited the Florence Charterhouse in Galluzzo, which made a lifelong impression on him.
"I would have liked to live in one of what they called their cells," he wrote later. "It was the solution for a unique kind of worker's housing, or rather for a terrestrial paradise." He traveled to Paris, during fourteen months between 1908 until 1910 he worked as a draftsman in the office of the architect Auguste Perret, the pioneer of the use of reinforced concrete in residential construction and the architect of the Art Deco landmark Théâtre des Champs-Élysées. Two years between October 1910 and March 1911, he traveled to Germany and worked four months in the office Peter Behrens, where Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius were working and learning. In 1911, he traveled again for five months, he spoke of what he saw during this trip in many of his books, it was the subject of his last book, Le Voyage d'Orient. In 1912, he began his most ambitious project. Located on the forested hillside near La-Chaux-de-Fonds; the Jeanneret-Perret house was larger than the others, in a more innovative style.
The interior spaces were organized around the four pillars of the salon in the center, foretelling the open interiors he would create in his buildings. The project was more expensive to build. However, it led to a commission to build an more imposing villa in the nearby village of Le Locle for a wealthy watch manufacturer. Georges Favre-Jacot. Le Corbusier designed the new house in less than a month; the building was designed to fit its hillside site, interior plan was spacious and designed around a courtyard for maximum light, significant de