A bushing or rubber bushing is a type of vibration isolator. It provides an interface between two parts. A common application is in vehicle suspension systems, where a bushing made of rubber separates the faces of two metal objects while allowing a certain amount of movement; this movement allows the suspension parts to move for example, when traveling over a large bump, while minimizing transmission of noise and small vibrations through to the chassis of the vehicle. A rubber bushing may be described as a flexible mounting or antivibration mounting; these bushings take the form of an annular cylinder of flexible material inside a metallic casing or outer tube. They might feature an internal crush tube which protects the bushing from being crushed by the fixings which hold it onto a threaded spigot. Many different types of bushing designs exist. An important difference compared with plain bearings is that the relative motion between the two connected parts is accommodated by strain in the rubber, rather than by shear or friction at the interface.
Some rubber bushings, such as the D block for a sway bar, do allow sliding at the interface between one part and the rubber. The main advantage of a bushing, as compared to a solid connection, is less noise and vibration are transmitted. Another advantage is. Disadvantages include: Rubber bushings can deteriorate in the presence of oils and extreme heat and cold; the flexibility of rubber introduces an element of play in the suspension system. This may result in camber, caster, or toe changes in the wheels of the vehicle during high-load conditions, adversely affecting the vehicle's handling. For this reason, a popular aftermarket performance upgrade is the replacement of rubber suspension bushings with bushings made of more rigid materials, such as polyurethane. Polyurethane bushings are available for many vehicles with the same characteristics as the manufacturers original bushings, but with increased durability; this is useful on vehicles that have a reputation for wearing out standard rubber bushings, but for which harder bushings with increased harshness of ride are not wanted.
As shock mounts In vehicles: Anti-roll bar links and mountings Shock absorber mountings Double wishbone suspension assemblies Gear stick for vehicles with a manual transmission Most high-speed inline internal combustion engines are prone to torsional vibration of their crankshafts. Although straight eight engines faded from the marketplace in the 1950s, many straight six engines have and still do feature crankshaft vibration damping utilizing rubber bushes; the 3,442 cc Jaguar XK 6-cylinder engine of 1948 and most subsequent versions of the ubiquitous Jaguar XK engine used a proprietary Metalastik vibration damper to protect their crankshafts from damaging torsional vibrations. To quote William Heynes, "The Metalastik damper consists of a steel plate to, bonded, through a thick rubber disk, a malleable iron floating weight. Variations of the weight, rubber volume and mix, give these dampers a wide field over which they can operate." In skateboards, bushings enable the tilting of the trucks, thus allowing the board to turn.
In fastening, bushings are used to transfer loads from a fastening to a much larger area in the underlying structure, the object being to reduce the strain on individual fibers within the underlying structure. Charles E. Sorensen credits Walter Chrysler as being a leader in encouraging the adoption of rubber vibration-isolating mounts. In his memoir, he says that, on March 10, 1932, Chrysler called at Ford headquarters to show off a new Plymouth model. "The most radical feature of his car was the novel suspension of its six-cylinder engine so as to cut down vibration. The engine rested on rubber mounts. Noise and vibration were much less. There was still a lot of movement of the engine when idling. Although it was a great success in the Plymouth, Henry Ford did not like it. For no given reason, he just didn't like it, and, that. I told Walter that I felt it was a step in the right direction, that it would smooth out all noises and would adapt itself to axles and springs and steering-gear mounts, which would stop the transfer of road noises into the body.
Today rubber mounts are used on all cars. They are found on electric-motor mounts, in refrigerators, television sets—wherever mechanical noises are apparent, rubber is used to eliminate them. We can thank Walter Chrysler for a quieter way of life. Mr. Ford could have installed this new mount at once in the V‑8. Edsel and I persuaded him. Rubber mounts are now found in doors, windshields, spring hangers and lamps—all with the idea of eliminating squeaks and rattles."Lee Iacocca credits Chrysler's chief of engineering during that era, Frederick Zeder, with leading the effort. Iacocca said, his solution? He mounted their engines on a rubber base."Chrysler's novel engine-mounting method was marketed as "Floating Power". Its basic idea soon became the conventional method throughout the automotive industry. AN-VI Shock mount Iacocca, Lido A.. Sorensen, Charles E.. My Forty Years with Ford
A coachbuilder or body-maker manufactures bodies for passenger-carrying vehicles. Coachwork is the body of an automobile, horse-drawn carriage, or railroad passenger car; the word "coach" was derived from the Hungarian town of Kocs. Custom or bespoke coachbuilt bodies were made and fitted to another manufacturer's rolling chassis by the craftsmen who had built bodies for horse-drawn carriages and coaches. Separate coachbuilt bodies became obsolete when vehicle manufacturers found they could no longer meet their customers' demands by relying on a simple separate chassis mounted on leaf springs on beam axles. Unibody or monocoque combined chassis and body structures became standardised during the middle years of the 20th century to provide the rigidity required by improved suspension systems without incurring the heavy weight, consequent fuel, penalty of a rigid separate chassis; the improved more supple suspension systems gave vehicles better roadholding and much improved the ride experienced by passengers.
As well as true bespoke bodies the same coachbuilders made short runs of more-or-less identical bodies to the order of dealers or the manufacturer of a chassis. The same body design might be adjusted to suit different brands of chassis. Examples include Salmons & Sons' Tickford bodies with a patent device to raise or lower a convertible's roof, first used on their 19th century carriages, or Wingham convertible bodies by Martin Walter. Coachbuilt body is the British English name for the coachbuilder's product. Custom body is the standard term in North American English. Coachbuilders are: carrossiers in French, carrozzeria in Italian, Karosseriebauer in German and carroceros in Spanish. Coachbuilt body is the British English name for mass produced vehicles built on assembly lines using the same but simplified techniques until more durable all-steel bodies replaced them in the early 1950s. Unless they were for mass produced vehicles justifying the cost of tooling up dies and presses coachbuilt bodies were made of hand-shaped sheet metal alluminium alloy.
Pressed or hand-shaped the metal panels were fastened to a wooden frame of light but strong timber. Many of the more important structural features of the bespoke or custom body such as A, B and C pillars were cast alloy components; some bodies such as those alloy bodies fitted to many Pierce-Arrow cars contained little or no timber though they were mounted on a conventional steel chassis. The coachbuilder craftsmen who might once have built bespoke or custom bodies continue to build bodies for short runs of specialised commercial vehicles such as luxury motor coaches or recreational vehicles or motorhome bodied upon a rolling chassis provided by an independent manufacturer. A conversion is built inside an existing vehicle body. A British trade association the Worshipful Company of Coachmakers and Coach Harness Makers, was incorporated in 1630; some British coachmaking firms operating in the 20th century were established earlier. Rippon was active in the time of Queen Elizabeth I, Barker founded in 1710 by an officer in Queen Anne's Guards.
Brewster, the oldest in the U. S. was formed in 1810. The maker would provide the coachworks with a chassis frame, brakes, steering system, lighting system, spare wheel and rear mudguards and bumpers and dashboard; the easily damaged honeycomb radiator enclosed and protected by a shell became the main visual element identifying the chassis' brand. To maintain some level of control over the final product, chassis manufacturers' warranties would be voided by mating them with unapproved bodies; when popular automobile manufacturers brought body building in-house, larger dealers or distributors of ultra-luxury cars would pre-order stock chassis and the bodies they thought most to sell, inventory them in suitable quantities for sale off their showroom floor. In time, the practice of commissioning bespoke coachwork dwindled to a prerogative of wealth. All ultra-luxury vehicles of automobiling's Golden Era before World War II sold as chassis only. For instance, when Duesenberg introduced their Model J, it was offered as chassis only, for $8,500.
Other examples include the Bugatti Type 57, Cadillac V-16, Ferrari 250, Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8, all Rolls-Royces produced before World War II. Delahaye had no in-house coachworks, so all its chassis were bodied by independents, who created some of their most attractive designs on the Type 135. Most of the Delahayes were bodied by Chapron, Franay, Figoni et Falaschi and many more carrossiers; the practice remained in limited force after World War II, with both luxury chassis and high-performance sports cars and gran turismos, waning by the late 1960s. Rolls-Royce acquiesced, debuting its first unibody model, the Silver Shadow, in 1965, before taking all R-R and Bentley bodying in-house. Independent coachbuilders survived for a time after the mid-20th century, making bodies for the chassis produced by low-production companies such as Rolls-Royce and Bentley. Producing body dies is expensive, only considered practical when large numbers are involved—though, the path taken by Rolls-Royce and Bentley after 1945 for their own in-house production.
Because dies for pressing metal panels are so costly, from the mid 20th century, many vehicles, most notably the Chevrolet Corvette, were clothed with large panels of fiberglass reinforced resin, which only require inexpensive molds. Glass has since been re
Cricklewood is an area of north-west London, England, 5 miles northwest of Charing Cross, between Willesden Green and Dollis Hill to the west and Kilburn to the south, West Hampstead and Childs Hill to the south-east and east, Brent Cross to the north. The area is split between three London boroughs: Barnet to the north-east, Brent to the west and Camden to the south-east. Cricklewood was a small rural hamlet around Edgware Road the Roman road, called Watling Street, until the impetus for its urbanisation came with the surface and underground railways in nearby Willesden Green in the 1870s; the shops on Cricklewood Broadway, as Edgware Road is known here, contrast with quieter surrounding streets of late-Victorian, 1930s housing. The area has strong links with Ireland due to a sizeable Irish population and The Crown pub, now the Clayton Crown Hotel, is a local landmark; the 35-hectare Gladstone Park marks its north-western edge. Cricklewood has two conservation areas, the Mapesbury Estate and the Cricklewood Railway Terraces, in 2012 was awarded £1.65 million from the Mayor of London's office to improve the area.
The small settlement at the junction of Cricklewood Lane and the Edgware Road was established by 1294, which by 1321 was called Cricklewood. By the 1750s the Crown was providing for coach travellers, by the 1800s it had a handful of cottages and Cricklewood House as neighbours, was known for its "pleasure gardens". By the 1860s there were a number of substantial villas along the Edgware Road starting with Rockhall Lodge. Childs Hill and Cricklewood station renamed Cricklewood, opened in 1868. In the summer of 1881 the Midland Railway Company moved its locomotive works from Kentish Town to the new "Brent Sidings", in October of the same year it was announced that new accommodation for its workers would be built the now-listed Railway Cottages. Mr H. Finch laid out a handful of streets directly behind the Crown Inn, in 1880; the station had become the terminus for the Midland Railway suburban services by 1884. The census of 1881 showed that the population had grown enough for a new church, St. Peter's replaced a tin chapel in 1891.
A daughter church called Little St. Peter's was opened in 1958 on Claremont Way but closed in 1983; the parish church on Cricklewood Lane was rebuilt in the 1970s. This church building was closed in 2004. Services for Anglicans were held in the Carey Hall on Claremont Road but were discontinued there in December 2015; the London General Omnibus Company commenced services to Regent Street from the Crown in 1883, in 1899 opened a bus garage, still in use and was rebuilt in 2010. By the 1890s, houses and shops had been built along part of Cricklewood Lane. Cricklewood Broadway had become a retail area by 1900 replacing the Victorian villas; the Queens Hall Cinema the Gaumont, replaced Rock Hall House, was itself demolished in 1960. Thorverton and Dersingham Roads were laid out in 1907, the year of the opening of Golders Green Underground station. Cowhouse Farm, latterly Dicker's Farm and Avenue Farm, was closed in 1932. From 1908 to 1935, Westcroft Farm was owned by the Home of Rest for Horses; the Metropolitan Borough of Hampstead opened the Westcroft Estate in 1935.
Much of the land to the west of Edgware Road was part of the estate of All Souls Oxford. Much of the land was wooded and in 1662 there were 79 oaks in Cricklewood; the transformation of the area came with the opening of the underground station in Willesden Green in 1879, known as Willesden Green and Cricklewood station from 1894 to 1938. A number of developers built houses in the 1890s and 1900s. George Furness laid out what he called Cricklewood Park between 1900 on Clock Farm. Roads in the area are named after trees; the name Cricklewood Park is no longer used. To the south of this, Henry Corsellis built Rockhall and Howard Roads from 1894. All Souls' College built a group of roads named after fellows of the college. Further expansion westward was blocked by the Dollis Hill estate, which became a public park, Gladstone Park, in 1901. To the north of Furness's Cricklewood Park Estate, Earl Temple built Temple Road by 1906 and surrounding roads. To the south, the Mapesbury Estate was built between 1895 and 1905 and is a Conservation Area of semi-detached and detached houses.
With the introduction of the tram system in 1904, the motorisation of bus services by 1911, numerous important industries were established. The first of these was the Phoenix Telephone Company in 1911; the Handley Page Aircraft Company soon followed, from 1912 until 1917, at 110 Cricklewood Lane and subsequently occupying a large part of Claremont Road. The Cricklewood Aerodrome was adjacent to their factory; the former aircraft factory was converted into Cricklewood Studios in 1920, the largest film studio in the country at the time. It became the production base for Stoll Pictures during the silent era. After turning out a number of quota quickies, it closed down in 1938; some years the property was redeveloped and hosts a Wickes DIY store. A number of plans were drawn up around the turn of the 20th century to extend the developing London Underground network to Cricklewood. Several proposals were put forward to construct an und
Bird's Custard is the brand name for the original powdered, egg-free imitation custard powder, now owned by Premier Foods. Custard powder and instant custard powder are the generic product names for similar and competing products; the product is a cornflour-based powder which thickens to form a custard-like sauce when mixed with milk and heated. Bird's Custard was first formulated and first cooked by Alfred Bird in 1837 at his chemist shop in Birmingham, he developed the recipe because his wife was allergic to eggs, the key ingredient used to thicken traditional custard. The Birds continued to serve real custard to dinner guests, until one evening when the egg-free custard was served instead, either by accident or design; the dessert was so well received by the other diners that Alfred Bird put the recipe into wider production. In some regions, such as Australia and the United Kingdom, the popularity of this type of dessert is such that it is known as "custard". In such cases, general usage of the word may be more to refer to the "Bird's" custard rather than to the traditional egg-based variety.
Bird's Custard and other brands mimicking its composition are popular in India, where a large portion of the populace follows a vegetarian diet, although ovo-lacto variants are available. "Instant" versions and ready-made custard in tins, plastic pots and cartons have become popular. A food and drink survey carried out in 2000 found 99% of customers recognised the brand, which accounts for 45% of the custard consumed in the UK. Bird's Custard is exported to several countries, can be found in many popular grocery supermarkets. In addition to the Bird's brand, generic cornflour-based custards are available. After he discovered his custard was popular, Bird formed Sons Ltd. in Birmingham. By 1843, the company was making the newly invented baking powder and, by 1844, was promoting custard powder nationally. By 1895, the company was producing blancmange powder, jelly powder, egg substitute. In World War I, Bird's Custard was supplied to the British armed forces; the company was one of the early users of colourful advertising campaigns.
The famous'three bird' logo, was late in arriving, only introduced in 1929. World War II saw serious production limits. Shortly after the war, Bird's was purchased by the General Foods Corporation, itself taken over by Philip Morris in the 1980s and merged into Kraft Foods. Although the Bird's Custard product remains, the company itself is now just a brand. In late 2004, Kraft sold Bird's Custard and some other Kraft brands to Premier Foods, who are the current owners. In 1958, the company acquired a rival custard powder manufacturer based in London; the original custard factory has long ceased to exist, but the larger factory Bird's opened in Gibb Street remains, has been adapted as the Custard Factory arts centre. Though cooked custard is a weak gel and thixotropic, a suspension of uncooked custard powder in water, with the proper proportions, has the opposite rheological property: it is negative thixotropic, or dilatant, to say that it becomes more viscous when under pressure; this suspension is termed oobleck and used in science demonstrations of non-Newtonian fluids.
The popular-science programme Brainiac: Science Abuse demonstrated dilatancy by filling a swimming pool with this mixture and having presenter Jon Tickle walk across it. Until 2009 many Bird's products, such as its instant custard powder, contained hydrogenated vegetable oil, a product now banned in some countries due to health concerns relating to heart disease. Since all Bird's custards have moved to unhydrogenated vegetable oil. Instant pudding Official website
Willesden is an area in north west London which forms part of the London Borough of Brent. It is situated 5 miles northwest of Charing Cross, it was a parish in the county of Middlesex, incorporated as the Municipal Borough of Willesden in 1933, has formed part of the London Borough of Brent in Greater London since 1965. Dollis Hill is sometimes referred to as being part of Willesden. With its close proximity to affluent neighbourhoods Brondesbury Park, Queen's Park and Kensal Rise, the area surrounding Willesden Green station has seen increased gentrification in the past several years, with rising property prices; the Daily Telegraph called Willesden Green one of London's "new middle class" areas. The area has a population of 44,295 as of 2011 including the Willesden Green, Dollis Hill and Dudden Hill wards. Willesden Green has one of the city's highest Irish populations, is strongly associated with Latin Americans. Willesden is in the NW10 postcode district, but part of it is in the NW2 postcode district.
The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon Willesdune, meaning the Hill of the Spring, a settlement bearing this name dates back to 939 AD. The Domesday Book of 1086 records it as Wellesdone. However, on 19th century maps of the town such as those from the'Ordnance Survey First Series', the town is shown as Wilsdon; the motto of Willesden Borough Council was Laborare est orare. From the 14th to 16th centuries, the town was a place of pilgrimage due to the presence of two ancient statues of the Virgin Mary at the Church of St Mary. One of these statues is thought to have been a Black Madonna, venerated as Our Lady of Willesden, insulted by the Lollards, taken to Thomas Cromwell's house and burnt in 1538 on a large bonfire of "notable images" including those of Our Lady of Walsingham, Our Lady of Worcester, Our Lady of Ipswich. There was a "holy well", thought to possess miraculous qualities for blindness and other eye disorders; the Iris was a British car brand, manufactured from 1906 by Legros & Knowles Ltd in Willesden.
Lucien Alphonse Legros, son of the artist Alphonse Legros, Guy Knowles, scion of a wealthy and artistic family, founded Legros & Knowles Ltd in Cumberland Park, Willesden Junction, in 1904 to build and repair vehicles. The parish of Willesden remained predominantly rural up until 1875, when its population was 18,500, it included the villages and hamlets of Brondesbury, Dollis Hill, Dudden Hill, Kilburn, Mapesbury and Stonebridge. However, this changed with the opening of the Metropolitan Railway station of Willesden Green on 24 November 1879. By 1906 the population had grown to 140,000, a phenomenon of rapid growth, to be repeated in the 1920s in neighbouring areas such as Harrow; the Metropolitan line service was withdrawn in 1940, when the station was served by the Bakerloo line, the Jubilee line. The First World War caused Willesden to change from a predominantly middle class suburb to a working class part of London. After the war, Willesden grew as many factories opened up with numerous flats and houses.
The local council encouraged building to prevent large decline. To the present day, Willesden has been shaped by the patterns of migration which marks it out as one of the most diverse areas in the United Kingdom. City of London Corporation records show that the first black person recorded in Brent was Sarah Eco, christened in St. Mary’s Church in Willesden on 15 September 1723; the 1901 United Kingdom census recorded. In 1923, the specialist coach builder Freestone and Webb established their base in Willesden, producing bespoke cars on Rolls-Royce and Bentley chassis until 1956. Willesden became a municipal borough in 1933, it is at this time that the area became predominantly working class. A small Irish community had formed in Willesden by this time, which grew during the period of the Second World War. A small Jewish community of refugees from Europe formed during the war, with 3.5% of the population in 1951 born in Germany, Russia or Austria. During the war, Willesden suffered large damage due to the heavy concentration of industry, such as munition factories and railways in the area.
The period from 1960 saw migrants settling from the Indian Subcontinent. Additionally, from 1963 it was the site of the Kuo Yuan, the first Chinese restaurant to serve Pekinese dishes in Britain. Since the 1960s, Willesden has been popular with young working holidaymakers from Canada and New Zealand, although this popularity has declined somewhat in favour of other areas since about 2003. Willesden went into a period of decline during the 1970s and 1980s as much of the housing was inadequate due to overcrowding as industry was mixed with housing; the whole of central Willesden was earmarked for redevelopment. In the late 1980s, traders were given money to revamp the High Street to prevent shops closing; the area surrounding Willesden Green station has become more middle-class and gentrified with marked property price rises in 2014 and 2015. The Willesden Green ward is represented on Brent Council by three Labour councillors, Fleur Donnelly-Jackson, Elliot George Chappell and Tom Miller. Willesden forms part of the Brent Central parliamentary constituency and is home to the local Labour Party MP Dawn Butler.
According to the 2011 census in the Willesden Green ward, 22% of the population was Other White, followed by 20% White British. Willesden Green station Dollis Hill station Railways were instrumental in the develo
Bentley Mark VI
The Bentley Mark VI is an automobile from Bentley, produced from 1946 to 1952. The Mark VI 4-door standard steel sports saloon was the first post-war luxury car from Bentley. Announced in May 1946 and produced from 1946 to 1952 it was both the first car from Rolls-Royce with all-steel coachwork and the first complete car assembled and finished at their factory; these expensive cars were a genuine success. Chassis continued to be supplied to independent coachbuilders. Four-door Saloon, two-door saloon and drophead coupe models with bodies by external companies were listed by Bentley along with the Bentley-bodied saloon; this first Bentley factory finished car was given the name Bentley Mark VI standard steel sports saloon. This shorter wheelbase chassis and engine was a variant of the Rolls-Royce Silver Wraith of 1946 and, with the same standard steel body, became the cautiously introduced Silver Dawn of 1949. In 1952 both Rolls Royce Silver Dawn and Bentley Mk VI standard steel bodies were modified to incorporate a boot of about twice the size and the result became known as the R type Bentley based on the Chassis number at which the change took place.
The name of the Rolls Royce Silver Dawn was not changed after the modification that started with the "E" series in these cars. Mark VI engines and chassis were modified to provide higher performance and sold to be bodied by selected coachbuilders as the first Bentley Continentals; the Mark VI 4 1⁄4-litre used an F-head straight-6 engine 4.3 L in size. The manufacturer refused to disclose a horse power value for the car but an Autocar Magazine road test reproduced in 1950 reported that top gear provided "flexibility down to 6 mph" and the ability to "climb a hill of 1 in 9 maximum gradient, complicated by bends", all of which supported the manufacturer's contention that power, along with low speed torque, were adequate.. In 1951, a 4 1⁄2-litre, 4.6 L version of the engine was introduced. The increase in displacement was accomplished by increasing the bore from 3 1/2 inch to 3 5/8 inch; the version is sometimes casually referred to as the "big bore" engine, the earlier version as the "small bore" version.
The 4 1/2 L version of the engine is as well equipped with a Vokes 30 full flow oil filter. Carburation in RHD cars were two horizontal constant-vacuum SU carburetors. LHD cars had a single dual downdraught Stromberg carburetor type AAV26M and a different inlet manifold as fitted in the Rolls Royce Silver Dawn and Silver Wraith. A four-speed syncromesh manual transmission was fitted in all Bentley MK VI with the change lever to the right of the driver on RHD cars and on the column on LHD versions. 4 1⁄4-litre cars had chassis numbers from B 1 AJ through B 400 LJ, with the final two letters indicating the series in which it was built. The "big bore" cars serial numbers begin with B 1 MB and ended with B 300 PV; each alphabetic series only contained either or odd numbers, 13 was always skipped for the odd-numbered sequences. The 4.3 L was referred to as the 4 1⁄4 L and can be identified from its single exhaust in RHD cars. The 4.6 L features a twin exhaust in RHD cars. In LHD cars the twin exhaust system was only fitted with the introduction of the R-type.
In addition for "standard steel" Mark VI saloons the single hinged ventilation flap centrally mounted on the top of the bonnet, directly ahead of the windscreen was replaced, on cars, with two hinged ventilation flaps, mounted at or below knee height, one on each side of the bonnet, ahead of the front doors. The oil filler cap is another way to identify engine type; the chassis used leaf springs at the rear and independent coil springing at the front. A control on the steering wheel centre adjusts the hardness of the rear springing by hydraulically adjusting the rear dampers; this is done via opening a check valve that provides pressure by diverting transmission oil to the dampers. A pedal-operated central lubrication system type Bijur-Girling allows oil to be applied to moving parts of the suspension from a central reservoir by using a foot pedal; the 12.25 in drum brakes were assisted by the traditional Rolls-Royce mechanical servo at the transmission. Employing its experience with the steel bodies made in short runs since 1936 by partly-owned subsidiary Park Ward the Car Division of Rolls-Royce offered their lowest priced chassis with a factory-supplied body all-steel so it could be exported all over the world.
The factory bodies with a Gurney-Nutting-Blatchley refined shape were made by Pressed Steel Ltd of Cowley and sent to the Bentley works at Crewe for painting and fitting out with traditional wood and leather. They featured rear hinged "suicide" doors at the front with concealed hinges, a sliding sunroof, a permanently closed windscreen with a electric defrosting and demisting unit hidden in the scuttle and a second heater that made use of the coolant and was fitted with an electric fan beneath the left front seat. Twin screenwipers were fitted and provision was made for the fitting of a radio with a short and flexibly mounted aerial that could be swung up above the centre of the screen. A 4.6-litre, factory bodied car tested by
Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer and marketer of luxury cars and SUVs—and a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group since 1998. Headquartered in Crewe, the company was founded as Bentley Motors Limited by W. O. Bentley in 1919 in Cricklewood, North London—and became known for winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 2003. Prominent models extend from the historic sports-racing Bentley 4 1/2 Bentley Speed Six. Today most Bentleys are assembled at the company's Crewe factory, with a small number assembled at Volkswagen's Dresden factory and with bodies for the Continental manufactured in Zwickau and for the Bentayga manufactured at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant; the joining and eventual separation of Bentley and Rolls-Royce followed a series of mergers and acquisitions, beginning with the 1931 purchase by Rolls-Royce of Bentley in receivership. In 1971, Rolls-Royce itself was forced into receivership and the UK government nationalised the company—splitting into two companies the aerospace division and automotive divisions—the latter retaining the Bentley subdivision.
Rolls-Royce Motors was subsequently sold to engineering conglomerate, Vickers and in 1998, Vickers sold Rolls-Royce to Volkswagen AG. Intellectual property rights to both the name Rolls-Royce as well as the company's logo had been retained not by Rolls-Royce Motors, but by aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc, which had continued to license both to the automotive division, thus the sale of "Rolls-Royce" to VW included the Bentley name and logos, vehicle designs, model nameplates and administrative facilities, the Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grille shape trademarks —but not the rights to the Rolls-Royce name or logo. The aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc sold both to BMW AG. Before World War I, Walter Owen Bentley and his brother, Horace Millner Bentley, sold French DFP cars in Cricklewood, North London, but W. O, as Walter was known, always wanted to build his own cars. At the DFP factory, in 1913, he noticed an aluminium paperweight and thought that aluminium might be a suitable replacement for cast iron to fabricate lighter pistons.
The first Bentley aluminium pistons were fitted to Sopwith Camel aero engines during World War I. In August 1919, W. O. registered Bentley Motors Ltd. and in October he exhibited a car chassis, with dummy engine, at the London Motor Show. Ex–Royal Flying Corps officer Clive Gallop designed an innovative four valves per cylinder engine for the chassis. By December the engine was running. Delivery of the first cars was scheduled for June 1920, but development took longer than estimated so the date was extended to September 1921; the durability of the first Bentley cars earned widespread acclaim and they competed in hill climbs and raced at Brooklands. Bentley's first major event was the 1922 Indianapolis 500, a race dominated by specialized cars with Duesenberg racing chassis, they entered a modified road car driven by works driver, Douglas Hawkes, accompanied by riding mechanic, H. S. "Bertie" Browning. Hawkes completed the full 500 miles and finished 13th with an average speed of 74.95 miles per hour after starting in 19th position.
The team was rushed back to England to compete in the 1922 RAC Tourist Trophy. In an ironic reference to his heavyweight boxer's stature, Captain Woolf Barnato was nicknamed "Babe". In 1925, he acquired a 3-litre. With this car he won numerous Brooklands races. Just a year he acquired the Bentley business itself; the Bentley enterprise was always underfunded, but inspired by the 1924 Le Mans win by John Duff and Frank Clement, Barnato agreed to finance Bentley's business. Barnato had incorporated Baromans Ltd in 1922, which existed as his investment vehicle. Via Baromans, Barnato invested in excess of £100,000, saving the business and its workforce. A financial reorganisation of the original Bentley company was carried out and all existing creditors paid off for £75,000. Existing shares were devalued from £ 1 each to 5 % or their original value. Barnato held 149,500 of the new shares giving him control of the company and he became chairman. Barnato injected further cash into the business: £35,000 secured by debenture in July 1927.
With renewed financial input, W. O. Bentley was able to design another generation of cars; the Bentley Boys were a group of British motoring enthusiasts that included Barnato, Sir Henry "Tim" Birkin, steeple chaser George Duller, aviator Glen Kidston, automotive journalist S. C. H. "Sammy" Davis, Dudley Benjafield. The Bentley Boys favoured Bentley cars. Many were independently wealthy and many had a military background, they kept the marque's reputation for high performance alive. In 1929, Birkin developed the 4½-litre, lightweight Blower Bentley at Welwyn Garden City and produced five racing specials, starting with Bentley Blower No.1, optimised for the Brooklands racing circuit. Birkin overruled Bentley and put the model on the market before it was developed; as a result, it was unreliable. In March 1930, during the Blue Train Races, Barnato raised the stakes on Rover and its Rover Light Six, having raced and beaten Le Train Bleu for the first time, to better that record with his 6½-litre Bentley Speed Six on a bet o