Music of Armenia
The music of Armenia has its origins in the Armenian Highlands, where people traditionally sang popular folk songs. Armenia has a long musical tradition, collected and developed by Komitas, a prominent priest and musicologist, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Armenian music has been presented internationally by composers Aram Khachaturian, Alexander Arutiunian, Arno Babadjanian, Karen Kavaleryan as well as by pop musicians and performers such as duduk player Djivan Gasparyan, composer/instrumentalist Ara Gevorgyan, singers Sirusho, Eva Rivas and many others. Traditional Armenian folk music as well as Armenian church music is not based on the European tonal system but on a system of Tetrachords; the last note of one tetrachord serves as the first note of the next tetrachord – which makes a lot of Armenian folk music more or less based on a theoretically endless scale. Armenians have had a long tradition of folk music from the antiquity. Under Soviet leadership, Armenian folk music was taught in state-sponsored conservatoires.
Instruments played include qamancha, dhol, duduk, blul, shvi and to a lesser degree saz. Other instruments are used such as violin and clarinet; the duduk is Armenia's national instrument, among its well-known performers are Margar Margarian, Levon Madoyan, Saro Danielian, Vatche Hovsepian, Gevorg Dabaghyan and Yeghish Manoukian, as well as Armenia's most famous duduk player, Djivan Gasparyan. Earlier in Armenian history, instruments like the kamancha were played by popular, travelling musicians called ashoughs. Sayat Nova, an 18th-century Ashough, is revered in Armenia. Performers such as Armenak Shahmuradian, Vagharshak Sahakian, Norayr Mnatsakanyan, Hovhannes Badalyan, Hayrik Muradyan, Raffi Hovhannisyan, Avak Petrosyan, Papin Poghosian, Hamlet Gevorgyan have been famous in Armenia and are still acclaimed; the most notable female vocalists in the Armenian folk genre have been Araksia Gyulzadyan, Ophelia Hambardzumyan, Varduhi Khachatrian, Valya Samvelyan, Rima Saribekyan, Susanna Safarian, Manik Grigoryan, Flora Martirosian.
Armenian emigrants from other parts of the Middle East settled in various countries in the California Central Valley, the second- and third-generation have kept their folk traditions alive, such as Richard Hagopian, a famous oud-player. Another oud player, John Berberian, is noted in particular for his fusions of traditional music with jazz and rock in the 1960s. From Lebanon and Syria, George Tutunjian, Karnig Sarkissian and others performed Armenian Revolutionary Songs which became popular among the Armenian Diaspora, notably ARF supporters. In Tehran Iran the folk music of the Armenian community is characterized by the work of Nikol Galanderian and the Goghtan choir. Other Armenian musicians include Ara Topouzian who performs on the kanun and VANArmenya, who sings both folk, children's and patriotic songs, performs on keyboards, promotes the music of "the other Gomidas," Grikor Mirzaian. There are several folk ensembles from Armenia, the Shoghaken Folk Ensemble, founded in 1995 in Yerevan, has worldwide popularity, others such as the Arev Armenian Folk Ensemble.
Arto Tunçboyacıyan is a well known Turkish musician of Armenian descent, famous in Turkey and worldwide, has his own jazz club in Yerevan, Armenia. He was the founder of the Armenian Navy Band. Ruben Hakobyan is a well recognized Armenian ethnographic and patriotic folk singer who has achieved widespread national recognition due to his devotion to Armenian folk music and exceptional talent. Armenian classical composers include Kemani Tatyos Ekserciyan, one of the best-remembered composers of Ottoman classical music. Alexander Spendiarov, Armen Tigranian, Haro Stepanian are best known for their Armenian operas. Sargis Barkhudaryan and Caro Zakarian are representative composers of the pre- and early Soviet Armenian era; the most famous, was Aram Khatchaturian, internationally well known for his music for various ballets and the immortal Sabre Dance from his composition for the ballet Gayane. Gevorg Armenian, Anahit Tsitsikian, Arno Babadjanyan, Barseg Kanatchian, Edward Mirzoyan, Boris Parsadanian, Ashot Zohrabyan, Aram Satian represent other Soviet era Armenian composers.
Iosif Andriasov's music and ethics made him internationally recognized as one of the most important figures in contemporary culture. Alexander Arutiunian is best known for his Trumpet Concerto in A-flat major. Alexander Dolukhanian composed/arranged numerous Armenian songs including the well-known "Swallow". Alexander Adgemian, Ashot Satian and Vagarshak Kotoyan are known for their contributions to Armenian choral and vocal music. Eduard Abramian wrote songs on the poetry of Armenian poets Hovhannes Tumanyan and Avetik Isahakian which are now part of the standard repertoire. Artemi Ayvazyan wrote the first Soviet musical comedies, including the popular "Dentist from the Orient". In recent years, Avet Terterian, Tigran Mansurian, Vache Sharafyan and Aram Petrosyan have achieved global success. Another acclaimed, more recent, classical composer is Khachatur Avetissian, many of whose compositions are based on traditional folklore themes. Uruguayan-Armenian composer Coriún Aharonián, besides a notable body of avant-garde compositions has done extensive musicological and political work.
The Armenian nationalist composer Alexander Kaloian is known
The qanun, ganoun or kanoon is a string instrument played either solo, or more as part of an ensemble, in much of the Middle East, West Africa, Central Asia, southeastern regions of Europe. The name derives from the Arabic word qanun, meaning "rule, norm, principle", borrowed from the ancient Greek word and musical instrument κανών, which in Latin was called canon. Traditional and Classical musics executed on the qanun are based on Makamlar; as the historical relative of santur from the same geography, qanun is thought to trace its origins back to Assyria, where an ancestral homologue might have been used in Mesopotamian royal courts and religious ceremonies. The instrument today is a type of large zither with a thin trapezoidal soundboard, famous for its unique melodramatic sound. Arabic qanuns are constructed with five skin insets that support a single long bridge resting on five arching pillars, whereas the somewhat smaller Turkish qanuns are based on just four; this allows Arabic variants of the instrument to have more room for the installation of extreme bass and treble strings.
Kanuns manufactured in Turkey feature 26 courses of strings, with three strings per course in the case of all regional variants. Contemporary Levantine designs use Nylon or PVC strings that are stretched over the bridge poised on fish-skins as described on one end, attached to wooden tuning pegs at the other end. Ornamental sound holes called kafes are a critical component of what constitutes the accustomed timbre of qanun. However, they occupy different locations on the soundboard of Turkish kanuns compared to Arabic qanuns, may vary in shape and number depending on geography or personal taste; the dimensions of a Turkish kanun are 95 to 100 cm in length, 38 to 40 cm in width, 4 to 6 cm in height. In contrast, an Arabic qanun measures a bit larger. Qanun is played on the lap while sitting or squatting, or sometimes on trestle support, by plucking the strings with two tortoise-shell picks or with fingernails, has a standard range of three and a half octaves from A2 to E6 that can be extended down to F2 and up to G6 in the case of Arabic designs.
The instrument features special metallic levers or latches under each course called mandals. These small levers, which can be raised or lowered by the performer while the instrument is being played, serve to change the pitch of a particular course by altering effective string lengths. On the regular diatonically tuned qanun, mandal technology was first implemented, according to Turkish musicologist Rauf Yekta, some 30 years prior to his submission of his invited monograph on Turkish Music to the 1922 edition of Albert Lavignac's Encyclopédie de la Musique et Dictionnaire du Conservatoire. Levantine qanuns, prior to that time, remained rather inflexible and cumbersome to perform on, requiring the player to use the fingernail of the thumb to depress on the leftmost ends of the courses to achieve on-the-fly intervallic alterations. With the advent of electronic tuners some decades standardization of the placement of reference mandals on the qanun began. While Armenian kanuns now employ only equidistant half-tones and Arabic qanuns exact quarter-tones as a result, Turkish kanun-makers went so far as dividing the electroacoustically referenced equal-tempered semitone of 100 cents into 6 equal parts, yielding - for all intents and purposes - 72 equal divisions of the octave pitch resolution.
Not all pitches of 72-tone equal temperament are available on the Turkish kanun, since kanun-makers affix mandals that only accommodate modulations/transpositions popularly demanded by performers. This has subsequently lead to the familiar interrupted and irregular pattern of mandals on the Turkish kanun becoming a visual guide for players, in facilitating modal and intonational navigation on an instrument, ordinarily bereft of pitch markers; some kanun-makers may choose to divide the semitone distance from the nut of the lower registers into 7 parts instead for microtonal subtlety. Despite the mentioned discrepancies, hundreds of mandal configurations are at the player's disposal when performing on an ordinary Turkish kanun. On the other hand, the nowadays widespread application of equidistant 24-tones on Arabic and 72-tones on Turkish qanun models presents an ongoing source of controversy; this is in regards to how adequate such Eurocentric octave divisions are in faithfully reproducing the traditionally or classically understood fluid pitches and inflexions of Arabic music or Ottoman classical music scales.
Pitch measurement analyses of relevant audio recordings reveal that, equal temperaments based on bike-chained "multiples of twelve" are not compatible with authentic Middle Eastern performances. Alternative tuning approaches for the qanun thus exist. Turkish music theorist Ozan Yarman has proposed, for example, an academical 79-tone temperament for the expression within tolerable e
Tar (string instrument)
Tar is an Iranian long-necked, waisted instrument, shared by many cultures and countries including Iran, Armenia and others near the Caucasus region. The word tār means "string" in Persian, is related to the names of the sitar, setar and Guitar, it was invented in the 18th century and has since become one of the most important musical instruments in Iran and the Caucasus in Persian classical music, the favoured instrument for radifs. In 2012, the craftsmanship and performance art of the Azerbaijani tar was added to the UNESCO's List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity; the tar appeared in its present form in the middle of the eighteenth century in Persia. The body is a double-bowl shape carved from mulberry wood, with a thin membrane of stretched lamb-skin covering the top; the fingerboard has twenty-five to twenty-eight adjustable gut frets, there are three double courses of strings. Its range is about two and one-half octaves, it is played with a small brass plectrum; the long and narrow neck has a flat fingerboard running level to the membrane and ends in an elaborate pegbox with six wooden tuning pegs of different dimensions, adding to the decorative effect.
It has three courses of double "singing" strings, that are tuned in fourths plus one "flying" bass string that runs outside the fingerboard and passes over an extension of the nut. Every String are tuned independently; the Persian tar used to have five strings. The sixth string was added to the tar by Darvish Khan; this string is today's fifth string of the Iranian tar. The melodies performed on tar were considered useful for headache and melancholy, as well as for eliminating nervous and muscle spasms. Listening to this instrument was believed to induce a quiet and philosophical mood, compelling the listener to reflect upon life, its solemn melodies were thought to cause a person to fall asleep. The author of Qabusnameh recommends that when selecting musical tones, to take into account the temperament of the listener, he suggested that lower pitched tones were effective for persons of sanguine and phlegmatic temperaments, while higher pitched tones were helpful for those who were identified with a choleric temperament or melancholic temperament.
The tar features prominently in Jeff Wayne's Musical Version of The War of the Worlds, in the section "Horsell Common and the Heat Ray". George Fenton played it on the original album, Gaetan Schurrer can be seen playing one on the DVD of the 2006 production; the "Azerbaijani tar" or "11 string tar" is an instrument in a different shape from the Persian Tar and was developed from the Persian tar around 1870 by Sadigjan. It has a different build and has more strings; the Caucasus tar has further one extra bass-string on the side, on a raised nut, 2 double resonance strings via small metal nuts halfway the neck. All these strings are running next to the main strings over the bridge and are fixed to a string-holder and the edge of the body. Overall the Caucasus tar has 17 tones. A tar is depicted on the reverse of the Azerbaijani 1 qəpik coin minted since 2006 and on the obverse of the Azerbaijani 1 manat banknote issued since 2006. Music of Azerbaijan Music of Iran About Persian Tar Nay-Nava the Encyclopedia of Persian Music Instruments Dariush Talai Persian Tar Audio Samples Medieval music therapy Farabi School Abdollah Alijani Ardeshir
A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator, in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into a mouthpiece set at or near the end of the resonator. The pitch of the vibration is determined by the length of the tube and by manual modifications of the effective length of the vibrating column of air. In the case of some wind instruments, sound is produced by blowing through a reed. Using different air columns for different tones, such as in the pan flute. Changing the length of the vibrating air column by changing the length of the tube through engaging valves which route the air through additional tubing, thereby increasing overall tube length, lowering the fundamental pitch; this method is used on nearly all brass instruments. Changing the length of the vibrating air column by lengthening and/or shortening the tube using a sliding mechanism; this method is used on the slide whistle. Changing the frequency of vibration through opening or closing holes in the side of the tube.
This can be done by covering the holes with fingers or pressing a key which closes the hole. This method is used in nearly all woodwind instruments. Making the column of air vibrate at different harmonics without changing the length of the column of air. All wind instruments use the last method in combination with one of the others, to extend their register. Wind instruments are grouped into two families: Brass instruments Woodwind instruments Although brass instruments were made of brass and woodwind instruments have traditionally been made of wood, the names refer to the method by which a player produces sound rather than the material of the instrument, which may vary. In brass instruments, the player's lips vibrate. In woodwind instruments the player either: causes a reed to vibrate, which agitates the column of air blows over a fipple, across an open hole against an edge, or blows across the edge of an open hole. For example, the saxophone is made of brass, but is classified as a woodwind instrument because it produces sound with a vibrating reed.
On the other hand, the didgeridoo, the wooden cornett and the serpent are all made of wood, the olifant made from ivory, but all of them belong to the family of brass instruments because the vibrating is done by the player's lips. In the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification, wind instruments are classed as aerophones. Sound production in all wind instruments depends on the entry of air into a flow-control valve attached to a resonant chamber; the resonator is a long cylindrical or conical tube, open at the far end. A pulse of high pressure from the valve will travel down the tube at the speed of sound, it will be reflected from the open end as a return pulse of low pressure. Under suitable conditions, the valve will reflect the pulse back, with increased energy, until a standing wave forms in the tube. Reed instruments such as the clarinet or oboe have a flexible reed or reeds at the mouthpiece, forming a pressure-controlled valve. An increase in pressure inside the chamber will decrease the pressure differential across the reed.
The increased flow of air will increase the internal pressure further, so a pulse of high pressure arriving at the mouthpiece will reflect as a higher-pressure pulse back down the tube. Standing waves inside the tube will be odd multiples of a quarter-wavelength, with a pressure anti-node at the mouthpiece, a pressure node at the open end; the reed vibrates at a rate determined by the resonator. For Lip Reed instruments, the players control the tension in their lips so that they vibrate under the influence of the air flow through them, they adjust the vibration so that the lips are most closed, the air flow is lowest, when a low-pressure pulse arrives at the mouthpiece, to reflect a low-pressure pulse back down the tube. Standing waves inside the tube will be odd multiples of a quarter-wavelength, with a pressure anti-node at the mouthpiece, a pressure node at the open end. For Air Reed instruments, the thin grazing air sheet flowing across an opening in the pipe interacts with a sharp edge to generate sound.
The jet is generated by the player. For recorders and flue organ pipes this slit is manufactured by the instrument maker and has a fixed geometry. In a transverse flute or a pan flute the slit is formed by the musicians between their lips. Due to acoustic oscillation of the pipe the air in the pipe is alternatively compressed and expanded; this results in an alternating flow of air out of the pipe through the pipe mouth. The interaction of this transversal acoustic flow with the planar air jet induces at the flue exit a localised perturbation of the velocity profile of the jet; this perturbation is amplified by the intrinsic instability of the jet as the fluid travels towards the labium. This results into a global transversal motion of the jet at the labium; the amplification of perturbations of a jet by its intrinsic instability can be observed when looking at a plume of cigarette smoke. Any small amplitude motion of the hand holding the cigarette results into an oscill
The bağlama is a stringed musical instrument. It is sometimes referred to as the saz, it is sometimes referred to as the "cura", although the term "saz" refers to a family of plucked string instruments, long-necked lutes used in Ottoman classical music, Turkish folk music, Iranian music, Azerbaijani music, Kurdish music, Assyrian music, Armenian music and in parts of Syria and the Balkan countries. According to The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, "the terms'bağlama' and'saz' are used somewhat interchangeably in Turkey." Like the Western lute and the Middle-Eastern oud, it has a much longer neck. It can be played with a fingerpicking style known as şelpe. In the music of Greece the name baglamas is given to a related instrument; the Turkish settlement of Anatolia from the late eleventh century onward saw the introduction of a two-string Turkmen dutar, played in some areas of Turkey until recent times. The most used string folk instrument in Turkey, the bağlama has seven strings divided into courses of two and three.
It can be tuned in various ways and takes different names according to region and size: Bağlama, Divan Sazı, Bozuk, Çöğür, Kopuz Irızva, Tambura, etc. The cura is the smallest member of the bağlama family: larger than the cura is the tambura, tuned an octave lower; the Divan sazı, the largest instrument in the family, is tuned one octave lower still. A bağlama has three main parts, the bowl, made from mulberry wood or juniper, spruce or walnut, the spruce sound board and a neck of beech or juniper; the tuning pegs are known as burgu. Frets are tied to the sap with fishing line; the bağlama is played with a mızrap or tezene made from cherrywood bark or plastic. In some regions, it is played with the fingers in a style known as Şerpe. There are electric bağlamas, which can be connected to an amplifier; these can have either double pickups. The Azerbaijani saz was used by Ashiqs; the art of Azerbaijani Ashiqs combines poetry, storytelling and vocal and instrumental music into a traditional performance art.
This art is one of the symbols of Azerbaijani culture and considered an emblem of national identity and the guardian of Azerbaijani language and music. Characterized by the accompaniment of the kopuz, a stringed musical instrument, the classical repertoire of Azerbaijani Ashiqs includes 200 songs, 150 literary-musical compositions known as dastans, nearly 2,000 poems and numerous stories. Since 2009 the art of Azerbaijani Ashiqs has been inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity; the bağlama is a synthesis of historical musical instruments in Central Asia and pre-Turkish Anatolia. It is descended from the Turkic komuz; the kopuz, or komuz, differs from the bağlama in that it has a leather-covered body and two or three strings made of sheep gut, wolf gut, or horsehair. It has a fingerboard without frets. Bağlama translates as "something, tied up" a reference to the tied-on frets of the instrument; the word bağlama is first used in 18th-century texts. The French traveler Jean Benjamin de Laborde, who visited Turkey during that century, recorded that "the bağlama or tambura is in form like the cogur, but smaller."
He was referring to the smallest of the bağlama family, the cura. According to the historian Hammer, metal strings were first used on a type of komuz with a long fingerboard known as the kolca kopuz in 15th-century Anatolia; this was the first step in the emergence of the çöğür, a transitional instrument between the komuz and the bağlama. According to 17th-century writer Evliya Çelebi, the cogur was first made in the city of Kütahya in western Turkey. To take the strain of the metal strings the leather body was replaced with wood, the fingerboard was lengthened and frets were introduced. Instead of five hair strings there were now twelve metal strings arranged in four groups of three. Today, the cogur is smaller than a medium-size bağlama. There are three string groups, or courses, with strings double or tripled; these string groups can be tuned in a variety of ways, known as düzen. For the bağlama düzeni, the most common tuning, the courses are tuned from top downward, A-G-D; some other düzens are Kara Düzen, Misket Düzeni, Müstezat, Abdal Düzeni, Rast Düzeni.
Name Bağlama düzeni Bozuk düzen, kara düzen Misket düzeni Fa müstezat düzeni Abdal düzeni Zurna düzeni Do müstezat düzeni Aşık düzeni (La, Re, Mi The musical scale of the bağlama differs from that of many western instruments – such as the guitar – in that it features ratios that are close to quarter tones. The traditional ratios for bağlama frets are listed by Yalçın Tura: Fret 1: 18/17 Fret 2: 12/11 Fret 3: 9/8 Fret 4: 81/68 Fret 5: 27/22 Fret 6: 81/64 Fret 7: 4/3 Fret 8: 24/17 Fret 9: 16/11 Fret 10: 3/2 Fret 11: 27/17 Fret 12: 18/11 Fret 13: 27/16 Fret 14: 16/9 Fret 15: 32/17 Fret 16: 64/33 Fret 17: 2/1However, as confirmed by Okan Öztürk, instrument makers now set frets on the bağlama with the aid of fret calculators and tuners based on the 24-tone equal temperament. Asik Veysel Muharrem Ertaş Neşet Ertaş (1
The santur is a hammered dulcimer of Iranian or Mesopotamian origins. The santur was invented and developed in the area of Iran, Kuwait and Turkey, parts of Mesopotamia; this instrument was traveled to different parts of the Middle East. Each country designed its own versions to adapt to their musical scales and tunings; the original santur was made with tree bark and stones, stringed with goat intestines. The Mesopotamian santur has been claimed to be the father of the harp, the Chinese yangqin, the harpsichord, the qanun, the cimbalom, the American and European hammered dulcimers; the name'santur' has several possible derivations. It has been thought by some to be derived via Aramaic from the Greek psalterion, which became the generic term in the Greek world for a plucked instrument and, used across the Graeco-Roman world, including Syria and Northern Mesopotamia; the earliest Aramaic form is psantērīn in the late Biblical book of Daniel close to an alternative form of the Arabic, sanṭīr. Alternatively the word may be of Iranian origin, meaning "a quick accent" or "one hundred strings".
A further suggestion is that the name is derived from Sumerian "sant" and "Ur", meaning sound of Ur in Sumerian. The oval-shaped Mezrabs are feather-weight and are held between the thumb and middle fingers. A typical Persian santur has two sets of nine bridges, providing a range of three octaves; the right-hand strings are made of copper, while the left-hand strings are made of steel. A total of 18 bridges divide the santur into three positions. Over each bridge cross four strings tuned in unison, spanning horizontally across the right and left side of the instrument. There are three sections of nine pitches: each for the bass and higher octave called behind the left bridges comprising 27 notes altogether; the top "F" note is repeated twice. The Persian santur is tuned to a variety of different diatonic scales utilizing 1/4 tones which are designated into 12 modes of Persian classical music; these 12 Dastgahs are the repertory of Persian classical music known as the Radif. They had 16 inch botos.
Similar musical instruments have been present since medieval times all over the world, including Armenia, Greece, etc. The Indian santoor has more strings, its corresponding mallets are held differently played with a different technique. The eastern European version of the santur called the cimbalom, much larger and chromatic, is used to accompany Romani music; the Iraqi santur is a hammered dulcimer of Mesopotamian origin. It is a trapezoid box zither with 92 steel strings; the strings, tuned to the same pitch in groups of four, are struck with two wooden mallets called "midhrab". The tuning of these 23 sets of strings extends from the lower yakah up to jawab jawab husayni; the bridges are called dama. It is native to Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and Azerbaijan, it is the main instrument used in the classical Maqam al-iraqi tradition along with the Iraqi spike fiddle joza.. The instrument was brought to Europe by the Arabs through North Africa and Spain during the Middle Ages and to China where it was referred to as the "foreign qin".
The Iraqi santur has, since its inception, been chromatic allowing for full maqam modulations. It uses 12 bridges of steel strings on both sides. Three of these bridges are movable: B half flat qaraar, E half flat, B half flat jawaab; the non-standard version of the Iraqi santur includes extra bridges so that there's no need to move those three bridges. However, playing it is a bit harder than playing the standard 12-bridge santur. For a video demonstration, see Wesam al-Azzawy's video links in the sections below. Abol Hassan Saba Mohammad Heydari Manoochehr Sadeghi Faramarz Payvar Ahad Behjat Nasser Rastegar-Nejad Farzaneh Mohammadian Parviz Meshkatian Amirhossein Vahdati Majid Kiani Mohammad Sadeq Khan Ali Akbar Shahi Hassan Khan Hussein Malek Habib Soma’i Reza Varzandeh Reza Shafieian Mansur Sarami Masoud Shaari Siamak Aghayi Mohammad Santour Khan Daryoush Safvat Jalal Akhbari Pouya Saraei Ardavan Kamkar Pejman Azarmina Pashang Kamkar Peyman Heydarian Kourosh Zolani Arfa Atrai Azar Hashemi Susan Aslani Manijeh Ali Pour Hayaf Yassine Masoud Malek- Ostad Masoud Malek- Solo Santour Chahargah Maryam Saffarian Yasser Ghazikhani Notable players of the Iraqi santur include: Abdallah Ali Akram Al Iraqi Amir ElSaffar Azhar Kubba Bahir Hashem Al Rajab Basil al-Jarrah Ghazi Mahsub al-Azzawi Hugi Salih Rahmain Pataw Hashim Al Rajab Hala Bassam Hammudi Ali al-Wardi Haj Hashim Muhammad Rajab al-Ubaydi Hendrin Hikmat Heskel Shmuli Ezra Mohamed Abbas Muhammad Salih al-Santurchi Muhammad Zaki Darwish al-Samarra'i Mustafa Abd al-Qadir Tawfiq Qasim Muhammad Abd Rahmatallah Safa'i Sa'ad Abd al-Latif al-Ubaydi Sabah Hashim Saif Walid al-Ubaydi Salman Enwiya Salman Sha'ul Dawud Bassun Sha'ul Dawud Bassun Shummel Salih Shmuli Wesam al-Azzawy Yusuf Badros Aslan Yusuf Hugi Pataw Players of the Greek Santouri include: Aristidis Moschos Areti Ketime Players on the Indian santoor include: Rahul Sharma Shivkumar Sharma Dr. Masato Tani disciple of Pt. Shivkumar Sharma Versions of the santur or hammered dulcimer are used throu
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc