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Parkerizing, phosphating, or phosphatizing is a method of protecting a steel surface from corrosion and increasing its resistance to wear through the application of a chemical phosphate conversion coating. Parkerizing is considered to be an improved zinc or manganese phosphating process, not to be an improved iron phosphating process, although some use the term parkerizing as a generic term for applying phosphating coatings that does include the iron phosphating process. Parkerizing is used on firearms as a more effective alternative to bluing, an earlier-developed chemical conversion coating, it is used extensively on automobiles to protect unfinished metal parts from corrosion. The Parkerizing process can not be used on non-ferrous metals such as brass, or copper, it cannot be applied to steels containing a large amount of nickel, or on stainless steel. Passivation can be used for protecting other metals; the process involves submerging the metal part into a phosphoric acid solution whose key ingredient is zinc or manganese, with varying additional amounts of nitrates and copper.

In one of the many processes that have been developed, the solution is heated to a temperature of 88–99 °C for a period ranging between 5 and 45 minutes. A stream of small hydrogen bubbles is emitted from the metal part. In addition to this particular processing temperature, there have been various similar Parkerizing processes developed and patented that permit using either lower temperatures or higher temperatures; the Parkerizing reaction equation in a metal-phosphate-solution is as follows: 2 Fe + Fe3+ + 3 H2PO4− → 3 FePO4 + 3 H2 Zinc phosphating results in a non-reflective, light- to medium-gray finish. Manganese phosphating produces a black finish. Iron phosphating produces a dark gray finish similar to manganese phosphating; the grain size of the zinc phosphating is the smallest among the three processes, providing a more appealing cosmetic appearance in many applications. Some Parkerized guns of WWII vintage, have olive drab green color; this was caused by contaminants in the acid solution and not cosmoline as is believed.

Manganese and iron phosphate coatings are the thickest chemical conversion coatings, being thicker than other chemical conversion coatings such as zinc phosphate and bluing. As for other chemical conversion coatings, the Parkerized surface must be covered with a light coating of oil to maximize corrosion and wear resistance through reducing wetting action and galvanic action. A heavy oil coating is unnecessary and undesirable for achieving a positive grip on Parkerized metal parts. Alternatively, the Parkerized surface may be painted over with an epoxy or molybdenum finish for added wear resistance and self-lubricating properties. Development of the process was started in England and continued by the Parker family in the United States; the terms Parkerizing and Parkerized are all technically registered U. S. trademarks of Henkel Adhesives Technologies, although the terminology has passed into generic use for many years. The process was first used on a large scale in the manufacture of firearms for the United States military during World War II.

The earliest work on phosphating processes was developed by British inventors William Alexander Ross, British patent 3119, in 1869, by Thomas Watts Coslett, British patent 8667, in 1906. Coslett, of Birmingham, subsequently filed a patent based on this same process in America in 1907, granted U. S. Patent 870,937 in 1907, it provided an iron phosphating process, using phosphoric acid. An improved patent application for manganese phosphating based in large part on this early British iron phosphating process was filed in the US in 1912, issued in 1913 to Frank Rupert Granville Richards as U. S. Patent 1,069,903. Clark W. Parker acquired the rights to Coslett's and Richards' U. S. patents, experimented in the family kitchen with these and other rust-resisting formulations. The ultimate result was that Clark W. Parker, along with his son Wyman C. Parker, working together, set up the Parker Rust-Proof Phosphating Company of America in 1915. R. D. Colquhoun of the Parker Rust-Proof Phosphating Company of America filed another improved phosphating patent application in 1919.

This patent was issued in 1919 as U. S. Patent 1,311,319, for an improved manganese phosphating technique. Baker and Dingman of the Parker Rust-Proof Company filed an improved manganese phosphating process patent in 1928 that reduced the processing time to ​1⁄3 of the original time, required through heating the solution to a temperature in the controlled range of 500 to 550 °F; this patent was issued as U. S. Patent 1,761,186 in 1930. Manganese phosphating with these process improvements, still required the use of expensive and difficult-to-obtain manganese compounds. Subsequently, an alternative technique was developed by the Parker Company to use easier-to-obtain compounds at less expense through using zinc phosphating in place of manganese phosphating; the patent for this zinc phosphating process was granted to inventor Romig of the American Chemical Paint Company in 1938 as U. S. Patent 2,132,883, just prior to the loss of easy access to manganese compounds that occurred during World War II. Somewhat analogous to the improved manganese phosphating process improvements discovered by Bak

Albert Dunstan

Sir Albert Arthur Dunstan, KCMG was an Australian politician. A member of the Country Party, Dunstan was the 33rd premier of Victoria, his term as premier was the second-longest in the state's history, behind Sir Henry Bolte. Dunstan, premier from 2 April 1935 to 14 September 1943, again from 18 September 1943 to 2 October 1945, was the first premier of Victoria to hold that office as a position in its own right, not just an additional duty taken up by the Treasurer, Attorney-General or Chief Secretary. Dunstan was born on 26 July 1882 at Donald East, the son of a Cornish gold rush immigrant. Dunstan was the first Deputy Premier of Victoria, serving from March 1932 until May 1932 under premier Edmond Hogan. Dunstan became premier when he unexpectedly withdrew his party's support for the government of Stanley Argyle. Argyle had fought the March 1935 election with an improving economy, a record of sound, if unimaginative, management. With the Labor Party opposition still divided and demoralised, he was rewarded with a second comfortable majority, his United Australia Party winning 25 seats and the Country Party 20, while Labor won only 17.

But at this point he was unexpectedly betrayed by his erstwhile Country Party allies. Dunstan was a close friend of the gambling boss John Wren, very close to the Labor leader Tom Tunnecliffe. Wren, aided by the Victorian Labor Party president, Arthur Calwell, persuaded Dunstan to break off the coalition with Argyle and form a minority Country Party government, which Labor would support in return for some policy concessions. Dunstan agreed to this deal, on 28 March 1935 he moved a successful no-confidence vote in the government from which he had just resigned; when the Attorney-General and Solicitor-General Lou Bussau resigned in 1938, Henry Bailey became Attorney-General while Dunstan added the portfolio of Solicitor-General to his offices of Premier and Treasurer. The UAP never forgave the Country Party for this treachery. Henry Bolte Victoria's longest-serving premier, was 27 in 1935, Dunstan's betrayal of Argyle lay behind his lifelong and intense dislike of the Country Party, whom he called "political prostitutes".

History of the Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Victoria. Accessed 24 March 2006. "Victoria's Longest-Serving Premiers Honoured", media release from the Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Victoria, 9 December 1999

Buttzville, New Jersey

Buttzville is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located within White Township in Warren County, New Jersey, United States, created as part of the 2010 United States Census. As of the 2010 Census, the CDP's population was 146. Buttzville was founded in 1839 by Michael Robert Buttz, named for him, it has been noted on lists of unusual place names. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP had a total area of 0.283 square miles, including 0.282 square miles of land and 0.001 square miles of water. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 146 people, 58 households, 36.018 families living in the CDP. The population density was 518.6 per square mile. There were 72 housing units at an average density of 255.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.58% White, 0.00% Black or African American, 0.00% Native American, 0.00% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 3.42% from other races, 0.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.16% of the population.

There were 58 households out of which 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.9% were non-families. 34.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.31. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 20.5% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 22.6% from 25 to 44, 33.6% from 45 to 64, 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.3 years. For every 100 females there were 102.8 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 103.5 males. Buttzville lies along U. S. Route 46 at the north end of Route 31

Monteverdi (horse)

Monteverdi was an Irish Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He was the leading European two-year-old of 1979, when he was unbeaten in four races including the National Stakes, Ashford Castle Stakes and Dewhurst Stakes, his three-year-old season was a disappointment as he failed to win in four races, finishing second in his first two races and running unplaced in the Irish 2000 Guineas and Derby. He was retired to stud where he had little success as a sire of winners. Monteverdi was a small, "neat, quite attractive" chestnut horse with a small white star and white socks on his hind legs bred in Ireland by Lawrence Kip McCreery at his Orchardstown Stud in County Tipperary, he was sired by Lyphard, an American-bred, French-trained stallion who won the Prix Jacques le Marois and Prix de la Foret in 1972. At stud in the United States, Lyphard sired many important winner including Three Troikas and Dancing Brave. Monteverdi's dam Janina, was a half-sister of the Coronation Cup winner Nagami and a great-granddaughter of the outstanding broodmare Athasi, whose other descendants include Trigo and Time Charter.

As a yearling, Monteverdi was offered for sale at Saratoga where he was bought for $305,000 by representatives of the British businessman Robert Sangster. The colt was sent into training with Vincent O'Brien at Ballydoyle. Monteverdi began his racing career in a six furlong maiden race at Phoenix Park in August, he produced an impressive performance to win from Noble Shamus. Despite his win, he was not considered the Ballydoyle stable's principal contender for the National Stakes, Ireland's most prestigious race for juveniles over seven furlongs at the Curragh in September, his stable companion, Muscovite was made 2/7 favourite, while Monteverdi, ridden by John Oxx's stable jockey Ray Carroll, started a 16/1 outsider. Monteverdi overtook the English-trained filly Millingdale Lillie two furlongs from the finish and won comfortably by two and a half lengths from Cobbler's Cove and Noble Shamus. Two weeks after his win in the National Stakes, Monteverdi reappeared in the Ashford Castle Stakes over a mile at the Curragh.

Ridden again by Carroll, he started at odds of 2/5 despite conceding weight to his seven opponents. He recorded another easy win. In October, Monteverdi was sent to Newmarket in England to contest the seven furlong Dewhurst Stakes, the most important race for two-year-olds run in the United Kingdom. Ridden by Lester Piggott, he started the 15/8 favourite against a field which included Henbit, Romeo Romani, Marathon Gold, Final Straw and Tyrnavos. Monteverdi was restrained by Piggott in the early stages before accelerating past Henbit and Tyrnavos to take the lead two furlongs from the finish. Having taken the lead, Monteverdi veered to the left, Piggott resorted to striking the horse on the head with his whip before he resumed a straight course and won by two lengths from Tyrnavos, with Romeo Romani a length and a half back in third place. At the end of the season, Monteverdi was the ante-post favourite for the following year's 2000 Guineas and Epsom Derby. Monteverdi appeared to have made little physical progress and was less that fit when he reappeared as a three-year-old in the Group Three McCairns Trial Stakes at Phoenix Park in April, but started the 1/3 favourite.

He was restrained at the back of the field, although he finished he was beaten one and a half lengths into second place by the Paddy Prendergast-trained Nikoli. Two weeks the colt was sent to Newbury Racecourse in England for the Greenham Stakes, an important trial race for the 2000 Guineas. Starting the 8/13 favourite he was given a vigorous ride by Piggott, but was beaten half a length by Final Straw. After the race Monteverdi's connections were reported to be looking despondent, the task of restoring the colt's reputation was likened by one journalist to raising the Amoco Cadiz; the form of the race proved to be exceptionally strong as the third and fourth placed finishers and Known Fact went on to take second and first places in the 2000 Guineas. Monteverdi was equipped with blinkers for his next race, the Irish 2000 Guineas at the Curragh in May, he was made the 11/4 favourite but finished fifth behind Nikoli, Last Fandango, Final Straw and Posse. After the race, Piggott was heard to describe the colt as "useless" in the unsaddling enclosure.

The jockey's comments were seen as aggravating the strains in the relationship between Piggott and O'Brien which saw him replaced as Ballydoyle's retained jockey by Pat Eddery in 1981. Despite his unimpressive form, ridden by Piggott, started third favourite behind Nikoli and Henbit for the 201st Derby on 4 June but was never in contention at any stage and finished unplaced. Piggott stated that the colt failed to stay the one and a half mile distance, saying that he "didn't get the trip". In 1979, the independent Timeform organisation awarded Monteverdi a rating of 129, making him their top-rated two-year-old of the season. In the official International Classification he was rated the equal-best two-year-old in Europe, level with the Grand Criterium winner Dragon, he was rated 123 by Timeform in 1980. Monteverdi was retired from racing to become a breeding stallion at the Walmac Farm in Kentucky, he was exported to Venezuela in 1988. He was not successful in either country, with the best of his offspring being Great Normand who won the Meadowlands Cup in 1990


The Mahābhārata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa. It narrates the struggle between two groups of cousins in the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes and their successors. Along with the epic Rāmāyaṇa, it forms the Hindu Itihasa, it contains philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or puruṣārtha. Among the principal works and stories in the Mahābhārata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Rāmāyaṇa, the story of Ṛṣyasringa considered as works in their own right. Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahābhārata is attributed to Vyāsa. There have been many attempts to unravel compositional layers; the bulk of the Mahābhārata was compiled between the 3rd century BCE and the 3rd century CE, with the oldest preserved parts not much older than around 400 BCE. The original events related by the epic fall between the 9th and 8th centuries BCE.

The text reached its final form by the early Gupta period. According to the Mahābhārata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses called Bhārata; the Mahābhārata is the longest epic poem known and has been described as "the longest poem written". Its longest version consists of over 100,000 śloka or over 200,000 individual verse lines, long prose passages. At about 1.8 million words in total, the Mahābhārata is ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odyssey combined, or about four times the length of the Rāmāyaṇa. W. J. Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahābhārata in the context of world civilization to that of the Bible, the works of William Shakespeare, the works of Homer, Greek drama, or the Quran. Within the Indian tradition it is sometimes called the fifth Veda; the epic is traditionally ascribed to the sage Vyāsa, a major character in the epic. Vyāsa described it as being itihāsa, he describes the Guru-shishya parampara, which traces all great teachers and their students of the Vedic times.

The first section of the Mahābhārata states that it was Ganesha who wrote down the text to Vyasa's dictation. The epic employs the story within a story structure, otherwise known as frametales, popular in many Indian religious and non-religious works, it is first recited at Takshashila by the sage Vaiśampāyana, a disciple of Vyāsa, to the King Janamejaya, the great-grandson of the Pāṇḍava prince Arjuna. The story is recited again by a professional storyteller named Ugraśrava Sauti, many years to an assemblage of sages performing the 12-year sacrifice for the king Saunaka Kulapati in the Naimiśa Forest; the text was described by some early 20th-century western Indologists as chaotic. Hermann Oldenberg supposed that the original poem must once have carried an immense "tragic force" but dismissed the full text as a "horrible chaos." Moritz Winternitz considered that "only unpoetical theologists and clumsy scribes" could have lumped the parts of disparate origin into an unordered whole. Research on the Mahābhārata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating layers within the text.

Some elements of the present Mahābhārata can be traced back to Vedic times. The background to the Mahābhārata suggests the origin of the epic occurs "after the early Vedic period" and before "the first Indian'empire' was to rise in the third century B. C." That this is "a date not too far removed from the 8th or 9th century B. C." is likely. Mahābhārata started as an orally-transmitted tale of the charioteer bards, it is agreed that "Unlike the Vedas, which have to be preserved letter-perfect, the epic was a popular work whose reciters would conform to changes in language and style," so the earliest'surviving' components of this dynamic text are believed to be no older than the earliest'external' references we have to the epic, which may include an allusion in Panini's 4th century BCE grammar Aṣṭādhyāyī 4:2:56. It is estimated that the Sanskrit text reached something of a "final form" by the early Gupta period. Vishnu Sukthankar, editor of the first great critical edition of the Mahābhārata, commented: "It is useless to think of reconstructing a fluid text in a original shape, on the basis of an archetype and a stemma codicum.

What is possible? Our objective can only be to reconstruct the oldest form of the text which it is possible to reach on the basis of the manuscript material available." That manuscript evidence is somewhat late, given its material composition and the climate of India, but it is extensive. The Mahābhārata itself distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses: the Bhārata proper, as opposed to additional secondary material, while the Aśvalāyana Gṛhyasūtra makes a similar distinction. At least three redactions of the text are recognized: Jaya with 8,800 verses attributed to Vyāsa, Bhārata with 24,000 verses as recited by Vaiśampāyana, the Mahābhārata as recited by Ugraśrava Sauti with over 100,000 verses. However, some scholars, such as John Brockington, argue that Jaya and Bharata refer to the same text, ascribe the theory of Jaya with 8,800 verses to a misreading of a verse in Ādiparvan; the redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18 and 12.

The addition of the latest parts may be dated by the absence of the Anuśāsana-parva and the Virāta parva from the "Spitzer manuscript". The oldest surviving San

Someone Named Eva

Someone Named Eva is a young adult novel by Joan M. Wolf, it concentrates on the life of Milada, an eleven-year-old Czech girl who lives during World War II, after Hitler annexes Czechoslovakia during the years 1942–1945. Milada, a young Czechoslovakian girl, lives in the village of Lidice; the book starts out with her and her friends hanging out on her 11th birthday and Milada receives a telescope. The next days, Nazis break into their home, she doesn't understand at first when Nazi soldiers come to her house, ordering them to pack belongings for three days and leave the house. Her father and her older brother, are separated from the rest of the family to be taken elsewhere. Milada is taken to a health examination where her facial features are measured and checked by doctors. With her "perfect" features, blue eyes and blonde hair, Milada fits the "Aryan ideal" and is separated from her family, is sent to a center outside of Puschkau, Poland. At the center, Milada is renamed Eva, a more "German" name, the other girls are renamed too.

The center employs harsh disciplinary methods and the girls are schooled in the German language, Nazi philosophies and home economics so they can join the German society. As hard as she works to remember, she forgets a little about herself in the process like her language Czech. Eva is adopted by a German family; the Werner family is composed of Vater, a high official at the Nazi government, Mutter and Peter, her new adoptive siblings and their dog, Kaiser. One day, as she is walking back to the house after a picnic with Elsbeth, Eva hears the Czech anthem being sung. Coming closer, she discovers a concentration camp with female prisoners; this brings back memories, enabling Milada to see who she is. Elsbeth explains to her that this is the Ravensbrück concentration camp, that her Vater is the head of the camp; the Nazis are losing on all fronts and Berlin is encircled by Russian troops. Vater decides to go into hiding and takes Peter with him, while Mutter and Eva move to the basement shelter to protect themselves.

In May, Soviet Red Army troops come and ask for the documents left by Vater in his office, but Mutter tells them that she is not aware of anything. They leave without causing any harm to the family, but tore the house apart, taking everything in Vater's office. A few days Hitler is declared dead and the war is over; some time after, representatives from the Red Cross Association comes to the house and announces that Milada's mother is alive and she has launched a search for her daughter. Milada recognizes. At that moment Eva is Milada again, she is taken back to Czechoslovakia. She meets her mother in Prague, discovering that she was indeed detained in Ravensbrück, a few steps away from the Werner household. Milada learns sadly that her father and Jaro, along with all the other adult and teenage males in the village were killed by the Nazis on the same day they were separated, her grandmother died in the Ravensbrück concentration camp because of her old age. Her best friend was shot in Poland after she left to the center.

Her sister Anechka was adopted into a German family and the Red Cross is looking for her, although it is never revealed whether or not she was returned. Milada's mother was ravaged from harsh conditions of the camp, after her recovery, move to live with a cousin in Prague, they return to visit Lidice, but discover that their house, pretty much the rest of the village, had been razed by the Germans. Milada relearns the Czech language, nearly from scratch. Milada and her mother get closer again as they tell each other what happened during the horrific times of their separation. Milada manages to recover her true identity and pride. Texas Bluebonnet Book Award Candidate Maryland Black Susan Award Candidate Illinois Rebecca Caudill Award Candidate and 2010 2nd place Honor Book Sunshine State Young Readers Award Candidate Lidice massacre Associated Press. "Secret Nazi "Lebensborn Children Go Public." Msn online posting. Europe on Msnbc, 4 Nov. 2006. Web. 22 Feb. 2011. <>.

"The'Lebensborn' Program." Jewish Virtual Library. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <>. "Lidice-memorial." Lidice-memorial. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <>. "Rebecca Caudill Young Reader's Book Award." Rebecca Caudill Young Reader's Book Award. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <>. "Revealed: Nazi Scheme to Kidnap'Aryan' Children from Occupied Countries." Mail Online. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <>. "Someone Named Eva." CCBC Recommended Books. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <>. "Stolen Children." Jewish Virtual Library. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <>. Author's website Lidice memorial website Jewish Virtual Library "Stolen Children" article Jewish Virtual Library "The “Lebensborn” Program."

Article Europe on MSNBC article "Nazi Lebensborn Children Go Public" "Revealed: Nazi Scheme to Kidnap'Aryan' Children from Occupied Countries." Mail Online article